Argentina xalqi - tarix

Argentina xalqi - tarix


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Argentina

Argentina - immigrantlar mamlakati. Aholining aksariyati erta ispan va italiyalik muhojirlardan kelib chiqqan. 19 -asr oxiri - 20 -asr boshlarida mamlakatga Evropaning ko'p joylaridan muhojirlar kelgan. Argentina aholisining 3% ini hindu yoki meztizo, qolgan aholisini oq tanli.

1990200020102016
Aholisi, jami (million)32.7337.0641.2243.85
Aholi sonining o'sishi (yillik %)1.41.111
Daromad ulushi eng past 20%4.83.24.65
Tug'ilganda umr ko'rish davomiyligi, jami (yillar)72747677
Homiladorlik darajasi, jami (har bir ayol uchun tug'ilish)32.62.42.3
O'smirlarning tug'ilish darajasi (15-19 yoshdagi 1000 ayolga tug'ilish)73676463
Kontratseptsiya tarqalishining har qanday usullari (15-49 yoshli ayollarning%)..655581
Tug'ilganlar malakali tibbiyot xodimlari (jami foiz)979995100
O'lim darajasi, 5 yoshgacha (har 1000 tirik tug'ilganga)29191511
Kam vaznning tarqalishi, yoshiga qarab vazn (5 yoshgacha bo'lgan bolalarning%)........
Emlash, qizamiq (12-23 oylik bolalarning%)93919590
Birlamchi tugatish darajasi, jami (tegishli yosh guruhining%)..98105101
Maktabga qabul, boshlang'ich (% yalpi)106.6117.4116.7109.9
Maktabga qabul, o'rta (% yalpi)7197102107
Maktabga qabul, boshlang'ich va o'rta (yalpi), gender tenglik indeksi (GPI)1111
OIVning tarqalishi, jami (15-49 yoshli aholining%)0.30.30.40.4
Atrof -muhit
O'rmon maydoni (kv. Km) (minglab)347.9318.6286271.1
Quruq va dengiz muhofaza etiladigan tabiiy hududlar (umumiy hududiy hududning%)3.34.3..7.5
Har yili chuchuk suv olish, jami (ichki resurslarning%)..9.812.912.9
Shahar aholisining o'sishi (yillik %)1.91.31.21.1
Energiya iste'moli (kishi boshiga neft ekvivalenti kg)1,4071,6611,9082,015
CO2 chiqindilari (kishi boshiga metrik tonna)3.433.844.564.75
Elektr energiyasi iste'moli (kishi boshiga kVt soat)1,3002,0782,8473,052

Argentina xalqi - tarix

Qorong'ilikka qarshi kurash global hodisa ekanligi hammaga ma'lum, lekin afsuski, ma'lum tarixni maqsadli oqartirish bunga to'sqinlik qildi. Tarix shunchalik oqlanganki, ko'pincha irqchilikning miqyosi butun dunyoda yashiringan. Aholisi, tarixi va madaniyatini oq yuvishda eng "muvaffaqiyatli" bo'lgan mamlakat-Argentina.

Argentina Janubiy Amerikadagi eng oq mamlakat hisoblanadi, lekin Braziliya singari ular ham mustamlaka qilingan va Afrika qit'asining G'arbiy sohilidan afrikalik qullarga yuborilgan ispan mustamlakachilariga bo'ysundirilgani ajablanarli emas. Hozirgi vaqtda Argentinaning evropalik etnik aholisi aholining 97 foizini tashkil etdi - bu 1700 -yillarning oxirida mamlakat ichki aholisining qariyb 50 foizi qora tanli, 30 yoshdan 30 yoshgacha Buenos -Ayres aholisining 40 foizi qora tanli yoki mulat edi ”, - deb yozadi The Root. Afro-argentinaliklar haqida so'ralganda, ko'pchilik argentinaliklar Argentina hech qachon qul savdosida qatnashmaganligiga yoki afro-argentinaliklar Argentinani "tabiiy ravishda" tark etishganiga ishonishgan. Bu ikkala nazariya ham noto'g'ri.

"Bir paytlar Argentinaning sobiq prezidenti Karlos Menem:" Argentinada qora tanlilar yo'q, bu Braziliya muammosi "deb e'lon qilgan." Ildiz

Qora argentinaliklar bilan sodir bo'lgan voqea shunchalik bezovta va g'ayriinsoniyki, agar dunyo tabiatan irqchi bo'lmaganida, darslarda o'qitilmasligi ajablanarli bo'lardi. 1868 yildan 1874 yilgacha Argentina prezidenti Domingo Faustino Sarmiento "yashirin genotsid" uyushtirgani, afro-argentinalik aholini 1875 yilga kelib Argentinada shunchalik oz qora tanlilar qolgani sababli, hukumat hukumat tomonidan keng tarqalgan. milliy ro'yxatga olishda afrikalik avlodlarni ro'yxatga olishni ham bezovta qilmagan.

"Kengroq miqyosda, mamlakat tarixi va ongidan qora tanlilarni" yo'q qilish "ketma-ket Argentina hukumatlarining mamlakatni Lotin Amerikasidagi G'arbiy Evropaning" oq-oq "kengaytmasi sifatida tasavvur qilish istagini aks ettirdi." - Ildiz

Sarmiento o'z davrida qora tanlilarni yo'q qilish uchun o'ta zulmkor va o'lik siyosat olib bordi. U qora tanlilar jamoasini yevropalik avlodlardan ajratib, ularni infratuzilmasi va sog'liqni saqlash xizmati bo'lmagan holda dovdirab qo'ydi. Kasalliklarning oldini olish yoki davolash uchun tegishli choralar ko'rilmaganda, vabo va sariq isitma tarqalishi bu jamoani vayron qilganida, bu o'lim jazosiga aylandi. Sarmientoning genotsidi, shuningdek, "afro-argentinaliklarni harbiy xizmatga majburan jalb qilish, mayda yoki uydirma jinoyatlar uchun ommaviy qamoq jazosi va ommaviy qatl qilish" ni tashkil etdi. Sarmiento 1864 yildagi Paragvay urushiga qo'shilish uchun afro-argentinalik erkaklarni ham qo'shdi. Aytishlaricha, Sarmiento Argentinaning urushda yaxshi chiqmasligini bilgan va minglab afro-argentinalik erkaklarni o'limga jo'natgan. Urush gender muvozanatiga shunchalik jiddiy ta'sir ko'rsatdiki, afro-argentinalik ayollar oq yoki aralash argentinalik erkaklar farzand ko'rishga majbur bo'lishdi.

Aytgancha, Sarmiento 1848 yildagi kundaligida shunday yozgan edi: "Qo'shma Shtatlarda ... 4 millioni qora tanli, 20 yil ichida esa 8 [million] bo'ladi. Oq irq nafratlanadigan bunday qora tanlilar bilan nima qilish kerak? Qullik - ingliz kolonizatsiyasining o'simliklari bargli ozodlik daraxtiga yopishib qolgan parazit ", - International Business Times

Bu harakatni Argentina hayoti, shu jumladan madaniyatidan afro-argentinalik mavjudotni olib tashlamoqchi bo'lgan Argentina rahbarlari va ziyolilari turtki berishdi. Tango - Argentinaning eng qimmatbaho madaniy eksporti, lekin raqsga oid dastlabki san'atga ko'ra, u qora tanli argentinaliklarning ta'siri natijasida kelib chiqqan. Tangoning chuqur ildizlari Afrikaning sobiq Kongo qirolligida joylashgan va hozirda u dunyodagi eng chiroyli raqs turlaridan biri hisoblanadi. Tangoning afsonaviy raqqosi Karlos Gardel aslida qora tanli bastakor va shoir Gabino Ezizani o'qituvchisi bo'lgan, bu argentinalikning tangoni hech qanday qorong'ulik bilan bog'lamaslik fidoyiligini ko'rsatadi.

"Quyoshning kikongo so'zi - bu ntangu", deb yozadi Tompson va ntangu ning osmon bo'ylab harakatlari Yerdagi raqs shakllarini ilhomlantirdi, ular oxir -oqibat Buenos -Ayresda ispan va italyancha ta'sirlar bilan tango bo'lib yaratildi, ya'ni "harakatlanuvchi" degan ma'noni anglatadi. o'z vaqtida. "" Ildiz

Butun dunyoda qora tanli insoniyatning tizimli ravishda yo'q qilinishiga qarshi kurashish uchun harakatlar boshlandi, shuning uchun mamlakatni qoralikni o'z shaxsiyatidan olib tashlashda muvaffaqiyat qozonganini ko'rish qo'rqinchli. Ko'rinib turibdiki, har kuni qora tanlilar bizni qanchalik o'zimizdan nafratlanishimizni topishadi va buning ustiga, biz shunday dunyoda yashashimiz kerakki, bu kabi voqealarga hech qanday xalqaro g'azab bo'lmasa ham. Argentinaliklar yoqtirmaydigan amneziya "Argentinada qora tanli odamlar yo'q, shuning uchun biz irqchi bo'la olmaymiz" kabi fikrlarni keltirib chiqardi, lekin menimcha, biz qora tanalar uchun dushmanlik joyi sifatida Amerikaga raqib bo'lishi mumkin bo'lgan boshqa mamlakat bilan kurashishimiz kerak.


Argentina tarixi

Argentina tarixiga Evropa san'ati, arxitekturasi, adabiyoti va turmush tarzi katta ta'sir ko'rsatdi, lekin ayni paytda o'ziga xos qiyofasini saqlab qoldi. Xorxe Luis Borxes va Manuel Puig kabi mashhur yozuvchilar o'z obrazlarini yaratdilar, ularning yozuvlari Argentinani xaritaga kiritdi. Argentina madaniyati tangoda mujassamlashgan. Argentina tangoni kashf qilgan va hozirgi raqsga aylantirgan joy. Mashhur tango qo'shiqchisi Karlos Gardelning haykali, uning benuqson badiiy tango qobiliyatiga hurmat bajo keltirishga moyil bo'lishingiz mumkin. Mashhur nasrining hayotiyligi ularning musiqiy, raqs va romantik tili bilan birlashib, tajriba va kashfiyot uchun noyob joyga aylanadi.

Bu erda Argentina haqida ba'zi faktlar. Taxminlarga ko'ra, Argentinada 13 ming yil oldin odamlar yashagan. Siz ishonishingiz mumkinki, arxeologlar hali ham dalillarni o'rganmoqdalar va o'rganmoqdalar. Ferdinand de Magellan 1520 yilda Atlantika va Tinch okeanlarini bog'laydigan bo'g'ozni kashf etishdan oldin Patagoniya sohillariga tegdi. Va 1536 yilda Pedro de Mendoza bugun Argentinaning poytaxti Buenos -Ayrest bo'lgan Santa -Mariya del Buen -Aire turar joyini topdi. Qizig'i shundaki, Buenos -Ayres 1776 yilga qadar poytaxtga aylanmagan, bu ularning Ispaniyadan mustaqilligini bildirgan.

1800 -yillarda ko'plab mamlakatlar singari Argentina ham qul savdosi bilan shug'ullangan. Aytishlaricha, 1810 yilda Buenos -Ayres va uning atrofidagi shaharlardagi afroamerikaliklar aholining 30 foizini tashkil qilgan. Biroq, asrning oxiriga kelib, bu demografik ko'rsatkich 2%ga keskin kamaygan.

Argentina xaritasi

Yigirmanchi asrda Argentina dunyoning eng boy davlatlaridan biriga aylanib, o'sishda davom etdi. Argentinada asosan evropaliklar hukmron edi. Ammo 1930 yilda, birinchi harbiy to'ntarish boshlanganda, Argentina yomon tomonga burildi. Va 1943 yilda Xuan Domingo Peron Argentina lideri sifatida paydo bo'ldi, lekin u ham to'ntarishning boshida edi. U va uning xarizmatik rafiqasi Evita Peron, ijtimoiy ta'minot dasturlarining g'olibi, ularning mashhurligini ta'kidlashdi, bu ularning iqtisodiy qudratini yo'qotishiga olib keldi. 1955 yildan keyin u prezident sifatida ag'darildi. Harbiy to'ntarishdan keyingi yillar, iflos urush yillari deb ataladi, bu esa Argentinada 30 mingga yaqin odamning yo'qolishiga olib keldi. Eng mashhur qurbonlar Plaza de Mayoning onalari edi. Yaxshiyamki, Argentina tarixi va Argentina madaniyati mustahkam va kuchli edi. Va endi ularning iqtisodiyoti yana ko'tariladi, kambag'allik esa 2004 yildan beri kamayib bormoqda.

Argentina bugungi kunda ham gullab -yashnayotgan mamlakatdir va garchi ular muvaffaqiyatsizlikka uchragan bo'lsa -da, ular ko'p yutuqlarga erishgan. Argentina xalqi o'z merosi bilan faxrlanadi va kim so'rasa, o'z izlari va yutuqlari bilan bo'lishishni xush ko'radi. Shuni ham aytmaslik kerakki, agar siz qiziqayotgan bo'lsangiz va oyoqlaringizni ushlab tursangiz, ular ham futbol o'ynashdan xursand bo'lishadi. Bu tashrif buyuradigan, jonli va unutilmas xotiralarni qoldiradigan mamlakat.


Argentina xalqi - tarix

Ako'p sonli ko'chmanchi qabilalar bilan, Evropaga kelishidan oldin Argentinada ikkita asosiy mahalliy guruh mavjud edi. Shimoli -g'arbda, Boliviya va And yaqinida, Diaguita deb nomlanuvchi xalq bor edi, janubda va sharqda esa Guarani bo'lgan. Diaguita va Guarani birgalikda Argentinada doimiy qishloq xo'jaligi tsivilizatsiyasining asosini tashkil etadi, ikkalasi ham makkajo'xori etishtirishni rivojlantiradi. Diaguita, shuningdek, qudratli Inka imperiyasini hozirgi Boliviyadan Argentinaga kengayishiga muvaffaqiyatli to'sqinlik qilgani bilan ham yodda qoladi.

Balki bu muvaffaqiyatli qarshilikning merosi Argentinaning tub xalqlariga mustamlakachilikka va ispanlarning hukmronligiga qarshi uzoq davom etgan kampaniyani davom ettirishga imkon bergan. 1516 yilda Argentinaga qo'ngan birinchi ispan Xuan de Solis o'ldirildi va Buenos -Ayresni topishga bir necha urinishlar mahalliy aholi tomonidan to'xtatildi. Ichki shaharlar muvaffaqiyat qozondi va XVI asrning oxirigacha Buenos -Ayres xavfsiz tarzda o'rnatildi.

Harbiy muvaffaqiyatiga qaramay, mahalliy qarshilik Evropadan kasalliklarning kirib kelishi bilan keskin ravishda zaiflashdi. Hatto mahalliy tahdid minimal darajaga tushganidan keyin ham, Argentinani, asosan, Lima va Peru boyliklarini rivojlantirishga qiziqqan Ispaniya e'tiborsiz qoldirdi. Buenos -Ayresga xorijiy davlatlar bilan savdo qilish taqiqlandi va shahar kontrabandachilarning uyiga aylandi. Cheklovli savdo siyosat, ehtimol, Ispaniyani mustamlakachilarga yoqtirmagan. Inglizlar Buenos -Ayresga 1806 va 1807 yillarda hujum qilishdi, chunki Ispaniya Napoleon Fransiyasi nazoratiga o'tdi. Koloniya o'z vatanidan hech qanday yordamisiz Buyuk Britaniyaning hujumlarini qaytarishga muvaffaq bo'ldi, bu kuch, shubhasiz, mintaqaning o'sib borayotgan mustaqillik tuyg'usini rivojlantirishga yordam berdi.

Frantsuzlar Ispaniya qiroli Ferdinand VIIni qo'lga kiritganlarida, Argentina butunlay mahalliy noiblik hukmronligi ostiga tushib ketdi, bu esa unchalik yoqmadi. Mahalliy aholi noiblikka qarshi isyon ko'tarib, asir podshohga sodiqligini e'lon qildi. 1816 yilga kelib, Argentina va uning vatani o'rtasidagi chuqur bo'linish yaqqol ko'rinib qoldi va bo'lginchilar partiyasi mamlakat mustaqilligini e'lon qilishga qaror qilishdi. Yangi vatanparvarlardan biri Xose de San Martin And tog'larini kesib o'tib, Limani qo'lga kiritdi. Martin Simon Bolivar bilan bir qatorda Janubiy Amerikadagi ispan hukmronligining kishanini sindirdi.

Argentinaning erta mustaqilligi ikki siyosiy guruh: unitaristlar va federalistlar o'rtasida tez -tez qattiq kurash bilan o'tdi. Unitaristlar kuchli markaziy hukumatni, federalistlar esa mahalliy nazoratni xohlashdi.

Argentina madaniyatiga, asosan, evropalik immigrantlar katta ta'sir ko'rsatdi. Ularning ta'siri Kolumbiyadan oldingi madaniyatlarning yo'q bo'lib ketishiga olib keldi, natijada dominant mahalliy aholi yo'q edi. Evropalik muhojirlar guruhlari har biri o'z vazifalarini bajargan. Basklar va irlandlar qo'ylarni boqishni nazorat qilishdi, nemislar va italiyaliklar fermer xo'jaliklarini tashkil etishdi va inglizlar mamlakat infratuzilmasini rivojlantirishga sarmoya kiritishdi.

Mamlakatning 32 million aholisining uchdan biridan ko'prog'i poytaxt Buenos-Ayresda istiqomat qiladi, bu shahar boshqa shaharlar qatorida umumiy aholining qariyb 90 foizini tashkil qiladi. Asosiy mahalliy xalqlar - shimoli -g'arbdagi kechua va Patagoniyadagi Mapuche. Boshqa chekka guruhlarga Chakodagi Matakos va Tobalar va boshqa shimoli -sharqiy shaharlar kiradi. Butun mamlakat bo'ylab yahudiy va ingliz-argentinalik kuchli jamoalar bor, ular yapon, chililik va boliviyaliklarning kichik jamoalari, Paragvay va Uragvay aholisi anklavlari.

Argentinaning universal tili ispan tili, lekin ko'plab mahalliy va muhojirlar ona tillarini faxrlanish uchun saqlaydilar.


To'g'ri yoki noto'g'ri: Argentinada qora tanli odamlar yo'q

Tahririyatdan eslatma: "Qora tarix" seriyasining retro nomi haqida hayron bo'lganlar uchun, iltimos, tarixchi haqida bilib oling Joel A. Rojers , 1934 yil kitobining muallifi To'liq isbotga ega bo'lgan negr haqida 100 ta ajoyib fakt , bu "ajoyib faktlar" kimga hurmat.

Negro haqida 87 -sonli ajoyib fakt: Argentinaning qora tanli aholisiga nima bo'ldi?

Bu yilgi jahon chempionatini tomosha qilayotganda, Argentina terma jamoasida qora tanli futbolchilar yo'qligi g'alati tuyulganmi? alye, Pele)? Oxir oqibat, ikkala davlat ham bir -birining ustidan Janubiy Amerikada joylashgan va ikkalasi ham evropalik kuchlar tomonidan mustamlaka qilingan, ular daromad olish uchun afrikalik qullarga katta ishonishgan: Portugaliya, Braziliya misolida va Ispaniya. Argentina Shunga qaramay, bugun Buenos -Ayres va Rio -de -Janeyro ko'chalarida piyoda yuring, shunda siz futbol maydonidan ko'ra aniqroq bo'lgan irqiy bo'shliqni ko'rasiz. Bu tasodifmi, ehtimol tarix tasodifimi yoki tarixmi? o'zi o'yinda?

Argentinaning qul savdosi o'tmishi

Erika Edvardsning so'zlariga ko'ra, "Argentinada qullik" yozuvi muallifi Oksford bibliografiyasi:

1587 yilda Braziliyadan Buenos -Ayresga birinchi qullar keldi. 1580 yildan 1640 yilgacha Buenos -Ayresning asosiy savdo faoliyati qul savdosi edi. Buenosga keladigan barcha import qiymatining 70 foizdan ko'prog'i qul bo'lgan afrikaliklar edi. Qullar asosan Braziliyadan Angoladan va Afrikaning boshqa G'arbiy shtatlaridan Portugal qul savdosi orqali kelgan. Buenos -Ayresga etib kelganidan so'ng, ular Limagacha yuborilishi mumkin edi, Peru qullari Mendoza, Tucuman, Salta Jujuy, Chili, Paragvay va hozirgi Boliviya va Peru janubiga berildi. Kordova 1610 yilgacha bu qullarni uzatish uchun qayta tarqatish markazi sifatida ishlagan.

Argentinadan o'tgan afrikalik qullarning aniq sonini aniqlab olish qiyin, chunki savdoning ko'p qismi noqonuniy kontrabanda bilan bog'liq edi (qonunlar qullar va savdogarlar importiga qarshi va soliq to'lamaslik istagi tufayli). Lekin tushunib etish uchun men Trans-Atlantik qul savdosi ma'lumotlar bazasini qidirdim, bu shuni ko'rsatadiki, 1601 yildan 1866 yilgacha Rio-de-la-Plata vitse-podshohligiga 63845 qul tushgan (Braziliyadagi 3 milliondan ortiq qullar bilan solishtirganda). La Plata, 1776 yildan keyin Ispaniya hukmronligi ostida, bosh qarorgohi Argentinaning hozirgi poytaxti Buenos-Ayresda joylashgan va hozirgi Urugvay, Paragvay va Boliviyaning bir qismini qamrab olgan. Ilgari evropalik ko'chmanchilar mintaqadagi mahalliy aholini bo'ysundirishga urinishgan va muvaffaqiyatsizlikka uchraganlaridan so'ng, afrikalik qullar bilan qonuniy yoki noqonuniy savdo qilish, o'tib ketish uchun juda foydali bo'lgan. Turli nuqtalarda frantsuzlar, portugallar va inglizlar harakat qilishdi, ikkinchisi eng katta ta'sirga ega edi. Hattoki Kordovadagi ruhiy ruhoniylar ham qullikka "yo'q" deyish qiyin kechgan.

1789 yildan keyin amerikalik sub'ektlar uchun savdodagi ko'plab cheklovlar olib tashlandi, deb yozadi Joy Elizando o'z profilida. Afrikan, Afrika va Afro -Amerika tajribasining entsiklopediyasi, Ikkinchi nashr . "Keyin qullar Angoladagi portugal fabrikalaridan ([odamlar] Kongo, Angola, Benguelas va Luandas deb atalgan) va Mozambikdan kelgan. 1750-1810 yillar oralig'ida 45 mingga yaqin qul qonuniy va noqonuniy yo'llar bilan olib kirilgan. Ularning mavjudligi Buenos -Ayresning iqtisodiy va siyosiy qudrat sifatida yuksalishida muhim rol o'ynadi, deya qo'shimcha qiladi Elizando, tarixchilar Serxio Villalobos, Rassell Edvard Chace va Jorj Rid Endryusning ishlariga tayanib. Ajablanarlisi shundaki, natijada Elizando shunday yozadi: "1700 -yillarning oxirlarida mamlakatning ichki aholisining qariyb 50 foizi qora tanli edi, Buenos -Ayres aholisining 30-40 foizi qora yoki mulat edi".

Ammo bugun buni hech qachon bilmaysiz. Darhaqiqat, ko'plab argentinaliklarning o'zlari buni bilishmaydi. Ba'zilar hatto o'z mamlakati qul savdosidan butunlay qochib qutulgan deb o'ylashadi, Argentinada qora tanlilar borligini noqulay deb hisoblaydigan madaniy amneziya qurbonlari.

Xo'sh, ular qayerga ketishdi?

Argentina 1810 yildan 1816 yilgacha Ispaniyadan mustaqillik uchun kurash olib borayotganda-shuni ta'kidlashim kerakki, afro-argentinalik qullar general San Martinning ozodlik armiyasiga chaqirilgan-Birlashgan provinsiyalar assambleyasi qullarni olib kirishni rasman taqiqlagan. . Yil 1813 yil edi, lekin Elizandoning ta'kidlashicha, "qul savdosi 1840 yilda Buyuk Britaniya bilan tuzilgan shartnoma uni tugatmaguncha davom etdi".

2013 yil iyun oyida International Business Times gazetasida chop etilgan "Qorong'ilik: Argentina afrikaliklarni o'z tarixi va vijdonidan qanday yo'q qildi" sarlavhali maqolasida, Palash Gosh 1853 yilgacha bu mamlakatda qullar bo'lganini yozadi. " boshlangan.

"Lotin Amerikasining bir qator davlatlari irqiy oqartirish siyosatini olib borganlarida, - deb yozadi Elizando, - Argentina bu sohadagi" muvaffaqiyati ”bilan ajralib turadi. Ba'zilar buni 19-asrdagi o'sha mamlakat urushlarida, qora tanlilar frontga qo'yilgandan keyin katta talafot ko'rganlarida ayblashgan. Boshqalar buni nikoh orqali assimilyatsiya qilish bilan bog'lashgan. Yana boshqalar vabo va sariq isitma kabi qora tanlilarga, shuningdek, mamlakatdan boshqa Janubiy Amerikaning boshqa joylariga emigratsiyaning halokatli va nomutanosib ta'sirini ko'rsatdilar. Jorj Vashington universiteti huquqshunoslik fakultetidan Robert Kottrol: "Bu an'anaviy qarash", deb tushuntiradi Lotin Amerikasi tadqiqotlari sharhi"Bir paytlar Argentinaning sobiq prezidenti Karlos Menemning" Argentinada qora tanlilar yo'q, bu Braziliya muammosi "deb e'lon qilgan bayonotida tasvirlangan.

Endi, ammo, so'nggi tarixchilarning, jumladan, Chace, Endryus, Marta Goldberg va boshqalarning ajoyib ishlari tufayli, biz bilamizki, ko'proq qasddan kuchlar o'ynagan.

Oqartirish va oqartirish - Argentina

Aytilishicha, 1868 yildan 1874 yilgacha Argentina prezidenti Domingo Faustino Sarmiento o'ta repressiv siyosat (jumladan, afrikaliklarni armiyaga majburan jalb qilish va majburlash orqali) yashirin genotsid siyosatida mamlakatdan qora tanlilarni yo'q qilishga uringan. Qora tanlilar sog'lig'i etarli darajada parvarish qilinmasa, kasallik ularni yo'q qiladigan mahallalarda qolishi kerak). ... 1848 yilda Sarmiento o'z kundaligida shunday yozgan edi: "Qo'shma Shtatlarda ... 4 millioni qora, 20 yil ichida esa 8 million bo'ladi. … Oq irq nafratlanadigan bunday qora tanlilar bilan nima qilish kerak? Qullik - ingliz kolonizatsiyasi o'simliklari bargli ozodlik daraxtiga yopishib qolgan parazit.

Binobarin, Gosh qo'shib qo'yadi: "[1895 yil] Argentinada qora tanlilar shunchalik kam qolganki, hukumat Afrikadan chiqqan odamlarni milliy ro'yxatga olishda hatto bezovta qilmagan". Buning o'rniga, Elizando tushuntirganidek, asosiy e'tibor Evropaning immigratsiyasi orqali, ayniqsa Italiya va Ispaniyadan kelgan Argentina aholisini "oqartirish" ga qaratildi.

Buni tasdiqlash uchun Elizando davom etadi: "Domingo Faustino Sarmiento, Karlos Oktavio Bunge va Xose Injeneros kabi ziyolilar ilmiy irqchilik nazariyasini ilgari surdilar". U qo'shimcha qiladi: "Kreol elitalari ko'p yillar davomida evropalik muhojirlarni Argentinaning qora tanli va so'nib borayotgan tub aholisining" buzilgan "fazilatlarini yumshatish uchun jalb qilish rejalari haqida yozishgan. Yigirmanchi asrning ikkinchi o'n yilligiga kelib, mamlakat aholisining qariyb uchdan bir qismi chet elda tug'ilgan. " Va bugun, 42 million aholida, Argentinaliklarning hayratlanarli 97 foizi oq (yoki hech bo'lmaganda da'vogar)!

O'nlab yillar mobaynida, qora tanli Argentinaning bir qismi Kabo -Verdadan kelgan yangi muhojir to'lqinlari orqali yoki ichki tomondan to'ldirildi, deb yozadi Elizando, "cabecitas negras (so'zma -so'z, kichkina qora boshlar") chetidan poytaxtga ko'chib. Ammo hech qachon mamlakatning umumiy aholisi uning tarixini aks ettirmagan. Elizandoning ta'kidlashicha, vaqt o'tishi bilan "pardos (mulatto) va morenos (qora tanlilar) o'rtasidagi chegara" yo'qolgan ". Boshqacha qilib aytadigan bo'lsak, oq va oq bo'lmaganlar orasidagi g'ovakli rang chizig'i vaqt o'tishi bilan ko'proq argentinaliklarni qora va oqdan ko'ra tasniflashni osonlashtirdi.

"Kengroq miqyosda,-deya xulosa qiladi Gosh,-mamlakat tarixi va ongidan qora tanlilarning" yo'q qilinishi ”ketma-ket Argentina hukumatlarining mamlakatni G'arbiy Evropaning lotin tilidagi" oq-oq "kengaytmasi sifatida tasavvur qilish istagini aks ettiradi. Amerika. "

Bu degani, qora tanli argentinaliklar madaniyatda hech qanday iz qoldirmagan degani emas. Undan uzoq, aslida!

Tangoning qora ildizlari

Tarixchi Jorj Rid Endryusning tadqiqotiga ishora qilib, Elizando bizga "mashhur o'yin-kulgining ba'zi shakllarida afro-argentinalik mavzular tasvirlangan, bu ikkita dramatik spektakl-1940 yilgi musiqiy asar". San -Baltasar shahri va 1947 yil spektakli, Kuando Xabia reyes ("Qachon podshohlar bor edi"), [19-asr Argentina lideri Xuan Manuel de Rosas] davridagi qora tanli jamoaning hayoti haqida hikoya qiladi. Ba'zi kandombalar ham tirik qolgan va ularni oq va qora argentinaliklar festivallarda ijro etishadi.

Ichida qandil, kelib chiqishi qo'shni Urugvay bilan bo'lishadigan bo'lsa, tangoning kelib chiqishini ko'rish mumkin. Gosh Elizandodan ham nariga o'tib, shunday yozadi: "Afsuski, Argentinaning dunyodagi eng mashhur madaniy sovg'asi - tango - Afrika ta'siridan kelib chiqqan", buni san'at hayotga taqlid qilgan, rasmlardan dalolat beradi. dunyodagi eng mashhur raqs turlari.

Tangoning qora ildizlari haqidagi eng ajoyib hikoya san'atshunos Robert Farris Tompsonning 2005 yilgi kitobida keltirilgan. Tango: Sevgi san'ati tarixi , 2010 yildagi Amerika hindularining Smitson milliy muzeyida qilgan nutqida ko'p qirrali tasavvurga ega bo'lishingiz mumkin. Tompsonning ta'kidlashicha, afsonaviy oq tango ijrochisi Karlos Gardel o'qituvchi va qora tanli bastakor-shoir Gabino Ezeizaga ilhom bergan, balki tangoning o'zi Afrikaning sobiq Kongo qirolligida chuqur ildizlarga ega bo'lgan.

Kikongo so'zining ma'nosi quyosh ntangu, Tompson yozadi va uning harakatlari ntangu osmon orqali buenos -Ayresda ispan va italyancha ta`sirlar natijasida tango sifatida yaratilgan, er yuzidagi ilhomlantiruvchi raqs shakllari, ya'ni tom ma'noda "bir zumda harakat qilmoq" degan ma'noni anglatadi, shunday tushuntiradi, “[t] u quyosh yo'li tangoning yo'liga aylandi.

Bugungi kunda Argentina tangosi - Buenos -Ayresning o'zidan farq qilmaydigan, dunyodagi eng chiroyli raqs turlaridan biri. Bob Tompsonni o'qing va men sizga kafolat beramanki, siz hech qachon tangoni bir xil ko'rmaysiz va eshitmaysiz. Tango orqali Buenos -Ayres janubidagi qullar va ozod qilingan qora tanli odamlar yashab kelmoqdalar, chunki biz 1995 yildagi rasmda Tompson Robert Koleskottning so'zlariga ishora qilib, "jonli" eslatganmiz. El Tango , unda King Kong figurasi qizil rangdagi ayolga shunday deydi:Siz tango? ”

"Afrika jonli"

Shunday bo'lsa -da, qaerda tarixiy amneziya paydo bo'lsa, muqarrar ravishda haqiqat sifatida yashirilgan repressiv fikrlar uchraydi. Masalan, Elizando aytganidek, “[a] n maqola paydo bo'ladi Monreal gazetasi 1998 yilda [d] Buenos-Ayres muzeyi direktorining afro-argentinalik eksponat bo'lishi mumkinligi haqidagi javobidan iqtibos keltiradi: "Bizda ko'rsatiladigan juda muhim voqealar va shaxslar bor. Biz o'z tariximizga hech qanday aloqasi bo'lmagan narsalarni qo'yib, bo'sh joyni behuda sarflay olmaymiz. Xuddi shu maqolada, Argentina futbol jamoasi Olimpiada finalida Braziliya yoki Nigeriya terma jamoalari bilan o'ynashi kerak bo'lganida, sport gazetasi "Maymunlarni olib keling" sarlavhasi ostida chop etilganini tushuntiradi.

Bunga mening javobim: xohlagan narsangizga ehtiyot bo'ling. 1930 yilda Jahon chempionati musobaqasi boshlanganidan buyon Braziliya boshqa mamlakatlarga qaraganda ko'proq sovrinlarni qo'lga kiritdi - beshta! - bu fakt o'zgarmadi va Germaniyaga shafqatsiz mag'lub bo'ldi. Yakshanba kuni Argentina chempionatni Germaniyaga 1: 0 hisobida boy berdi. Kim biladi, DNK tadqiqotining mo''jizalari bilan, ehtimol, bir kun kelib, biz ko'k -oq libosda qora futbolchilar borligini bilib olamiz.

Bu orada men 1996 yilda tashkil etilgan "Afrika Vive" kabi Argentina guruhlari bilan faxrlanaman, Elizandoning ta'kidlashicha, "Afro-Argentina tarixi va madaniyati to'g'risida xabardorlikni oshirish uchun". Guruh yutuqlari orasida 2001 yilda hukumatni "mamlakatning qora tanli harbiy qahramonlarini taqdirlash marosimini o'tkazishga ko'ndirish" bor edi. ... Bunday voqealar afro-argentinalik rahbarlarga milliy madaniyat oxir-oqibat Afrikadagi ildizlarini yo'q qilishga urinishdan ko'ra, to'liq o'z ichiga oladi degan umidni beradi »,-deb yozadi Elizando.

Barchamiz to'g'ri yo'nalishda ketayotganimizning aniq bir belgisi: FIFA ko'k bayrog'i Argentina terma jamoasi va boshqa futbolchilar Braziliyada bo'lib o'tgan Jahon chempionatida dunyoni #SayNoToRacismga undashdi. Men aytaman: "G-O-A-L!"

Har doimgidek, siz ko'proq narsani topishingiz mumkin " Negro haqida ajoyib faktlar "Ustida Ildizva har hafta tekshirib ko'ring, chunki biz 100 ga hisoblaymiz.

Kichik Genri Lui Geyts - Alfons Fletcher universiteti professori va Garvard universitetining Xatchins Afrika va Afrika amerikaliklari tadqiqotlari markazining asoschisi. U, shuningdek, bosh muharrir Ildiz. Unga ergashing Twitter va Facebook .


Argentina faktlari Argentina xalqi

Argentina aholisining uchdan bir qismi poytaxt Buenos -Ayresda istiqomat qiladi. Aholining 92% shahar markazlarida yashaydi, bu shahar va qishloqlarni anglatadi.

Argentinaning eng yirik shaharlari - Buenos -Ayres, Kordova, Rosario va Mendoza. Patagoniya aholisi kam.

Argentinada "gauchos" deb nomlangan otliq chorvadorlar katta qoramol yoki qo'ylarga qarashadi.

Gaucho - chorvadorlar

Argentinada bolalar bepul davlat maktablariga boradilar yoki xususiy maktablarga boradilar, bu juda qimmatga tushadi. Xususiy maktablarda o'quvchilar forma kiyadilar, ular ko'pincha galstuk va blazer bilan to'ldiriladi, umumta'lim maktablarida esa o'quvchilar bir -biriga o'xshab turishi uchun kiyimlariga oq laboratoriya paltosini kiyishlari kerak. Bolalar maktabga ertalabki smenada ertalabki soat 8 dan 13 gacha, tushdan keyin 13 dan 18 gacha borishadi yoki ba'zilari hatto maktabda tungi smenada o'tirishlari mumkin.

Argentinada eng mashhur sport turlari - bu futbol (  deb nomlanadi) f u tbol), basketbol, ​​regbi va tennis. Biroq, milliy sport "deb nomlanadi.pato'va pologa o'xshaydi.  

Argentinada Pato o'yini

Pato chavandoz qo'lida to'r ushlab, otda o'ynaladi. Biroq, milliy sport bilan shug'ullanadiganlar kam, chunki bu qimmat sport. Futbol - eng ommabop sport turi va Argentina ikki marta jahon chempionligini qo'lga kiritgan. Maradona, Messi va boshqalar kabi mashhur futbol yulduzlari bor.

Argentina dunyodagi eng yirik soya unining eksportchisi va makkajo'xori va xom soya eksporti bo'yicha uchinchi o'rinda turadi.


Argentina: odamlar

Argentinada, Lotin Amerikasining aksariyat davlatlaridan farqli o'laroq, aholisi asosan evropalik, ayniqsa italyan va ispan. Argentina aholisining metizo qismi juda kichik, faqat shimoli -g'arbdan tashqari, chunki Evropa va mahalliy xalqlar o'rtasida ozgina aralashma bo'lgan. Evropaliklar kelganidan buyon tobora kamayib borayotgan mahalliy aholi hali ham Gran -Chako va And tog'lari qismlarida kuchli. Italiya, ispan (shu jumladan basklar), frantsuz, nemis, ingliz, shveytsariya va sharqiy yevropalik muhojirlar Argentinaga 1880-yillarda kelgan, boshqa evropaliklarning katta migratsiyasi 1930-yillarda va Ikkinchi jahon urushidan keyin sodir bo'lgan. Shuningdek, chililiklar, boliviyaliklar va paragvayliklarning migratsiyasi kuzatilgan.

Gucho yoki argentinalik kovboy, Pampaning ko'chmanchi chorvachisi tasvirlangan Martin Fierro, Xose Ernandes tomonidan yozilgan buyuk argentinalik xalq dostoni - haligacha afsonaviy milliy ramz. Ko'pgina gaucholar qullikdan qochish uchun Braziliyadan chegarani kesib o'tgan ispan va afrikalik aralash millatli odamlar edi. 90 -yillarga kelib, Argentinada asosan shahar aholisi bor edi, uning aholisining beshdan to'rt qismi shahar va shaharlarda istiqomat qilar edi, buenos -Ayres va uning atrofida yashovchi aholining uchdan biridan ko'prog'i.

Aholining qariyb 90 foizi hech bo'lmaganda nominal katolik. Yahudiy aholisi, aholining atigi 2 foizini tashkil etsa -da, Lotin Amerikasida eng katta va dunyoda beshinchi o'rinda turadi. Ispan tili mamlakatning rasmiy tili hisoblanadi, lekin ingliz, italyan, nemis va frantsuz tillarida ham gaplashadi. Argentina Janubiy Amerikadagi aholi sonining eng past o'sish sur'atlaridan biriga ega (1%gacha).

Kolumbiya elektron entsiklopediyasi, 6 -nashr. Mualliflik huquqi © 2012, Kolumbiya universiteti matbuoti. Barcha huquqlar himoyalangan.

Boshqa ensiklopediya maqolalarini ko'ring: Janubiy Amerika siyosiy geografiyasi


Argentina Afrika ildizlarini qayta kashf etdi

Chascomus ko'l bo'yidagi kichik kurortlar jamoat cherkovi eng yaxshi holatda. Uning oqartirilgan g'ishtli tashqi ko'rinishiga qisman tok va butalar to'siq qo'ygan, uning xira, bir xonali ichki qismi o'zining fasadidan ko'ra ulug'vor emas. Yog'och dastgohlar va notekis axloqsiz zamin bir derazadan quyosh nuri bilan deyarli yoritilmaydi. Kulrang, yoriq, changli devorlar xochlar, fotosuratlar, piktogrammalar bilan bezatilgan - odamlar ziyorat qilish uchun qoldiradigan narsalar. Pastki old qurbongoh qalin sham mumi, gullar va qora azizlarning panteoni, Madonnalar va Yoruba dinining dengiz ma'budasi Yemanja kabi Afrika xudolari bilan qoplangan.

Nopok holatiga qaramay, Kapilla de los Negros ibodatxonasi har yili 11000 dan ziyod sayyohlarni o'ziga jalb qiladi, ular 1861 yilda qurilgan ozod qilingan qullar nomidagi cherkovni ko'rish uchun keladi.

Chapel-bu "biz qaerda ekanligimizni aniqlab, bu erda ekanligimizni ko'rsatishimiz mumkin",-dedi meni sayyohlik idorasidan afro-argentinalik Soledad Luis. U buni yaxshi biladi. Bu erda uning katta bobosi yordam bergan uchastkada o'tirishadi va uning oilasi hali ham har hafta ovqatlanish uchun o'sha erga yig'iladi.

Capilla de los Negros o'zini yengil yo'lda his qilmoqda, lekin bu 2009 yilda Unesco tomonidan Argentinada tuzilgan qullar saytlari ro'yxatining bir qismi. Uning kiritilishi Janubiy Amerikadagi eng evropalangan mamlakat bo'lgan Argentinada Afrika merosi haqidagi ongning oshib borayotganidan dalolat beradi.

Bir vaqtlar Argentinada u erga olib kelingan qullar tufayli Afrikaning kuchli ishtiroki bo'lgan, ammo uning qora tanli aholisi son -sanoqsiz omillar hisobiga yo'q bo'lib ketgan, shu jumladan 1860 -yillarda Paragvayga qarshi uchlik ittifoqining urushida frontdagi halok bo'lganlar. that rich, white Argentines largely escaped and interracial offspring who, after successive generations, shed their African culture along with their features. And European immigration swelled the white population — 2.27 million Italians came between 1861 and 1914.

The demographic shift has been sharp. In 1800, on the eve of revolution with Spain, blacks made up more than a third of the country, 69,000 of a total population of 187,000, according to George Reid Andrews’s 2004 book “Afro-Latin America.” In 2010, 150,000 identified themselves as Afro-Argentine, or a mere 0.365 percent of a population of 41 million people, according to the census, the first in the country’s history that counted race.

Rasm

But the culture the slaves brought with them remained. And in recent years, Argentina has gone from underselling its African roots to rediscovering them, as academics, archaeologists, immigrants and a nascent civil rights movement have challenged the idea that African and Argentine are mutually exclusive terms.

Some see creating tourist trails, with plaques and brochures, as a way to educate locals and tourists alike about this long-suppressed history. In my several visits the last few years and during my time living in the country, the trail led me to the other Argentina, one that is just starting to be woven into the country’s narrative about itself.

MY FIRST STOP required some dancing shoes. I dropped in on a tango lesson at the Movimiento Afrocultural on Buenos Aires’s Calle Defensa in San Telmo. The cultural institution was started in 2009 to promote African and African-Argentine heritage. As I scanned its events calendar, there were many activities that had an obvious African bent, but tango?

“There are no doubts that tango has an African origin,” the teacher, Veronica Rueco, told me. Together, we watched locals and tourists practice their dance moves in the center, a converted warehouse whose walls were lined with candombe drums carved with images of slave ship hulls filled with chained human cargo. “The only doubt is the exact story of how it came about.”

The dance form, she went on to note, was created in the late 1800s, the result of a fusion of African and European immigrant culture. (The term tango is thought to originate from a Niger-Congo term that survived the trans-Atlantic passage along with the slaves, according to Dr. Erika Edwards of the University of North Carolina at Charlotte.)

The center’s director, an Afro-Uruguayan named Diego Bonga, leads a drum circle that draws a diverse crowd. The night I attended there were Porteños (from Buenos Aires), Chileans, Uruguayans and even a woman from Iran. The curious peered through the gates at us. Those onlookers are part of the party on Sundays, the neighborhood’s busiest day, when antiques vendors line Defensa, and Plaza Dorrego becomes an open-air milonga, or tango salon, with performers, locals and tourists dancing past midnight. That day, Movimiento Afrocultural holds a candombe parade. Spectators become participants, dancing on the cobblestones in the jittery shake of a murga comparsa, an Argentine dance popular during Carnival season, also rooted in African culture.

I followed the musicians down Defensa as they reached Plaza Dorrego, yellow lights casting a 1920s postcard sepia dream tone over dancers moving two by two. I watched as bystanders searched for the source of the loud, boisterous music. They began stepping in sync with the candombe, bringing to life again their abandoned African forebears.

My next visit was a little less lively. It was underground. It’s no secret that underneath Old Buenos Aires lies a latticework of tunnels, used by colonial smugglers to avoid Spanish tariffs and by priests to travel between Jesuit churches like San Francisco and San Ignacio at the Manzana de las Luces historical site.

Lesser known are the tunnels that run under residential buildings like the one at Defensa 1464 in San Telmo. The complexity of that structure, which is the subject of a 2009 documentary directed by David Rubio, was uncovered by Freda Montaño, an Afro-Ecuadorean who runs the restaurant Rincón Ecuatoriano and once lived there. The colonial-era building’s history has partly been obscured by a new belle epoque facade that it got at the turn of the last century, a period when Buenos Aires consciously mimicked Paris. Shunga qaramay,

Ms. Montaño said she found tunnels in the basement and a small door meant “for someone who services the house, so as not to interfere with what is being done by the white people.” She said that neighbors told her the tunnels lead to Parque Lezama, where slaves were sold and then transported underground to the households purchasing them.

Plaza San Martín, home to the statue of Argentina’s liberator, José de San Martín, was the city’s other main slave auction site. These sites, along with entire districts within Buenos Aires’s colonial core, are part of Unesco’s slave route heritage listing but remain largely unmarked by historical plaques.

Ms. Montaño opened a short-lived cultural center at Defensa 1464 but was forced to close when the landlord wanted to sell the house. She says she hopes the city buys it and creates a museum, and believes that demonstrating the tunnels’ relationship to slavery will benefit tourists and locals alike, “where the world knows nothing of this because people say in this country there are no Afro-descendants.”

Slavery’s connection to the tunnels under this building is unclear, though academics like Pablo Cirio, director of Afro-Argentine studies at the National University, said they were used “to transport goods and live workers — read human slaves — but no serious studies prove it.”

Another network of tunnels lies underneath El Zanjón de Granados museum in San Telmo. They lead through a dried-out, brick-covered creek used as a sewer system. The city’s smallest house, Casa Mínima, is part of the museum complex, and tours explain that it was owned by a freed slave, among Buenos Aires’s few open recognitions of its slave past.

There have been other attempts to examine Argentina’s African roots in Buenos Aires, including a now-closed maritime museum discussing the slave trade in the La Boca neighborhood. And during Argentina’s 2010 bicentennial, cultural institutions sought to mark the country’s diverse past. The National Historical Museum grouped paintings from the museum’s permanent collection of the five-decade-long Emancipation era. The exhibition center Casa Nacional del Bicentenario occasionally surveys African influences in Argentine music. Outside the capital, in San Antonio de Areco, there are exhibits on Argentina’s black gauchos, or cowboys, in the Museo Ricardo Güiraldes and Museo Las Lilas de Areco. Near Cordoba, the Museo de la Estancia Jesuítica de Alta Gracia, part of Unesco’s slave trail list, also contains exhibitions on the relationship among Jesuits, natives and African slaves.

But those attractions all look backward. As part of the shift toward embracing Afro-Argentine culture, the country is beginning to welcome contemporary African influence. El Buen Sabor restaurant in the Villa Crespo neighborhood, for example, was started by a Cameroonian in 2008. The small, yellow space seats perhaps two dozen, but its reputation is outsize. I caught up with its owner, Maxime Tankouo, during one of my visits. “I was seen as a little weird here when I arrived” in 2001, he said. “It was eight days before I saw someone of my race.” He said, “I mix many things, Moroccan, African, Cameroon, all in the same plate.” At first Mr. Tankouo was supported largely by French and other tourists. Now locals are the majority of clients.

These new immigrant arrivals are unintentionally bridging a gap that has already been partly overcome. Even traditional restaurants have an Afro-Argentine touch, albeit unintentional. “Our gastronomic symbol has an African character,” Nicolás Fernández Bravo, a University of Buenos Aires social anthropologist, said of the asado, the Argentine grill consumed by nearly all visiting tourists. He told me of the 19th-century Argentine literary classic “El Matadero” by Esteban Echeverría, with descriptions of cows being butchered and the dividing out of the mollejas, or glands. “Sweetbread parts were given to the slaves,” he said. “This is now part of the general meal, and thought of as a special delicacy, but at one time this would never have been eaten among the elites.”

Argentina still wrestles with its complicated identity. Back at the chapel, Ms. Luis told me she is often the first Afro-Argentine local tourists have met, some arguing she is from elsewhere. Because of this, she said, “the history of blacks must be told to you by blacks.”

Her boss, José Fares, head of Chascomús tourism, explained that the chapel is one way Argentina can overcome its own myths, recounting the Argentine axiom, “ ‘the Mexicans descended from the Mayans, the Peruvians from the Incas, and us, from the boats.’ We Argentines think we are the Europeans of South America.”

Ms. Luis reminds us that her ancestors came by boat, too, saying: “They immigrated. We were brought here.”


General History

The general history of slavery in Argentina is dominated by the black experience in Buenos Aires during the 18th and 19th centuries. Andrews has written two books that detail their experiences. The first, Andrews 1980, is the first social history of slavery written in English. He later followed up with a general comparative history of blacks throughout Latin America (Andrews 2004). This book is highly recommended for undergraduates. Andrews has since expanded this book to include the 17th and 18th centuries in his most recent publication Andrews 2016. Within the province of Buenos Aires, Mayo 2004 provides an economic history about labor conditions at the end of the 18th century. Pineau 2011 is an anthology that captures the black experience from the slave trade to today. Outside of Buenos Aires, three works, Becerra 2008, Borucki 2015, and Pistone 1996, explore the black experiences in the provinces of Córdoba, Banda Oriental (modern-day Uruguay) and Santa Fe, respectively. Becerra 2008 provides a historiography of texts produced since the 1960s about Córdoba. Borucki 2015 delves into the social networks created among African descendants from the late colonial to early republican periods. Pistone 1996 provides a general history about slavery in the province of Santa Fe. Most recently, Siegrist and Rosal 2012 and Guzman, et al. 2016 are anthologies that fill a crucial gap in the historiography as they trace the black experience in Argentina and the Rio de la Plata from the 18th through the 21st centuries. In particular Guzman, et al. 2016 goes beyond Buenos Aires and discusses other cities, such as La Rioja, Córdoba, and Santa Fe.

Andrews, George Reid. The Afro-Argentines of Buenos Aires, 1800–1900. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1980.

This book is a social, cultural, and military history of the black experience in Buenos Aires during the 19th century. The book tests the myths of black disappearance in Buenos Aires, Argentina. These myths include disease, genocide, and wars. Andrews argues that though they are partly true, the real reason stems from an ideological erasure known as the whitening period and a statistical transfer in the censuses.

Andrews, George Reid. Afro-Latin America, 1800–2000. New York: Oxford, 2004.

This is a general book on the black experiences from the beginning of the republics to today. It is divided into periods, including the wars of independence, the modernization/whitening process, the mestizaje period, and today’s black movements. It compares the black experience throughout Latin America.

Andrews, George Reid. Afro-Latin America: Black Lives, 1600–2000. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2016.

This is a general history of the black experience from the 17th century to 2000. It expands on his 2004 book. This book provides additional information on the colonial period.

Becerra, María José. “Estudios sobre esclavitud en Córdoba: Análisis y perspectivas.” Yilda Los estudios Afroamericanos y Africanos en América Latina: Herencia, presencia y visiones del otro. Edited by Gladys Lechini, 145–163. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Consejo Latinoamericano de Ciencias Sociales, 2008.

Becerra provides a historiographical overview of slavery in Córdoba, focusing primarily on Argentine scholars from the 1960s to today. The scholars are framed within various methodologies and schools of thought.

Borucki, Alex. From Shipmates to Soldiers: Emerging Black Identities in the Río de la Plata. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2015.

Borucki focuses on the creation of various social networks—slave ship experiences, religious brotherhoods, soldiers—among African descendants. He sheds light on their experiences in Montevideo, an important slave port in the 18th century and part of the Rio de la Plata until the independence of Uruguay in 1825.

de la Cerda Donoso de Moreschi, Jeanette C., and Luis J. Villarroel. Los negros esclavos de Alta Gracia: Caso testigo de población de origen africano en la Argentina y América. Córdoba, Argentina: Ediciones del Copista, Biblioteca de la Historia, 1999.

The city of Alta Gracia, Argentina, is a small town in which extensive African slavery existed. The authors note that the stories of the slaves in this town have almost been erased from history thus, they attempt to rescue the memory of this group of human beings that carried the stigma of being black and being slaves.

Guzman, Florencia, Lea Geler, and Alejandro Frigerio. Cartografías afro latinoamericanos: Perspectivas situadas desde Argentina. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Editorial Biblos, 2016.

Guzman, Geler and Friegerio’s anthology provides a diverse array of essays that examine the black experience in various regions of Argentina from the colonial period through the 20th century themes include racial labeling, urban slavery, black artisans, abolition, entertainment, and memory.

Mayo, Carlos. “Gauchos negros: Los esclavos de la estancia colonial.” Yilda Estancia y sociedad en la pampa, 1740–1820. By Carlos Mayo, 135–150. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Editorial Biblos, 2004.

Mayo investigates the economic progression of Argentina’s rural areas in the late colonial era. He acknowledges these rural areas as slave-occupied territories with progressive transformation to agricultural commercialization and economic prosperity. Mayo also addresses how the rural areas were culturally and socially modified.

Pineau, Marisa. La ruta del esclavo en el Río de la Plata: Aportes para el diálogo intercultural. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Editorial de la Universidad Nacional de Tres de Febrero, 2011.

This book is a compilation of several chapters stemming from an international seminar organized by the Catedra Unesco de Turismo Cultural, held in Buenos Aires in 2009. The purpose of this book is to promote cultural and artistic dialogue between Latin America and African countries.

Pistone, J. Catalina. La esclavatura negra en Santa Fe. Santa Fe, Argentina: Junta Provincial de Estudios Históricos de Santa Fe, 1996.

Pistone examines the origin and presence of black slavery in the city of Santa Fe, particularly in relation to religion. Pistone thoroughly examines primary municipal and clerical documents to show the development of slave culture in the region and how blacks were incorporated into society through mestizaje, or military service.

Rosal, Miguel. Africanos y afrodescendientes en el Río de la Plata: Siglos XVIII–XIX. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Editorial Dunken, 2009.

Rosal examines black property owners, including both freed people and slaves. He provides a general history of the black experience in Buenos Aires during the late 18th and early 19th centuries. This book’s appendix provides a listing of all blacks, pardos, and mulattos who left wills and their location in the Archivo General Nación.

Siegrist, Nora, and Miguel Rosal, eds. Cuestiones interétnicas: Fuentes, y aportes sobre el componente afromestizo en Hispanoamérica, siglos XVII–XIX. Saarbrucken, Germany: Editorial Académica Española, 2012.

This anthology focuses on various new methodologies surrounding the black experience primarily in Buenos Aires. It focuses on criminal proceedings, racial identity, and social relationships.

Obunasiz foydalanuvchilar ushbu sahifadagi to'liq tarkibni ko'ra olmaydi. Iltimos, obuna bo'ling yoki tizimga kiring.


Argentina Flag

Argentina&rsquos flag dates back to 1812. It has three horizontal bands the top and bottom ones are light blue, and the middle is white. The meaning behind the flag's colors is disputed, but some say the white represents silver.

Early Spanish conquistadors named the country Argentina after the Latin word Argentinum, meaning silver, thinking that the region contained vast amounts of the precious metal. The blue bands may represent the sky, the waters of Argentina&rsquos Rio de la Plata, or the blue used by the Spanish royal house of Bourbon on their coat of arms. Observing the flag, our gaze is immediately attracted to its center, where we find its most striking feature: a human face wearing a neutral expression inside a gold disc with straight and wavy rays emitting from its center, representing a sun. The sun, known as el sol de mayo (The Sun of May) after Argentina&rsquos May revolution (which eventually led to the nation&rsquos independence from Spain), is a national emblem.

Argentine coinage dating back to 1813 has an image of the same sun, as does the Uruguayan flag (differing only in the number of rays), and early versions of the Peruvian flag. Juan de Dios Tupac Amaru (1760-1843), a Peruvian descendant of Incan nobility, designed The Sun of May, which pays tribute to the Incan sun god Inti. The Incas worshipped the sun and its life-giving power. They believed that their ruler was a direct descendant of the sun, and they built sun temples throughout their empire. The original 1813 national anthem of Argentina also makes dramatic, a lyrical reference to the Incas, assuring that their dead &ldquoare shaken, and in their bones, the ardor revives, for the sons of the homeland, ancient splendor.&rdquo

Argentinian politician and revolutionary military leader Manuel Belgrano (1770-1820) designed the flag itself. He based the design on the cockade of Argentina that he created in 1812, a circular logo similar to the Argentine flag with a light blue circular band following its perimeter, a white inner band of the same width, and a light blue dot in the middle creating a bulls-eye effect. The cockade is also a national emblem and National Cockade Day is celebrated May 18th. The cockade and the flag were designed shortly after the 1810 May Revolution, which eventually helped lead to Argentina&rsquos independence from Spain, as a source of identity for the nation as it fought for its freedom. Argentinian revolutionary soldiers wore the cockade and swore allegiance to the flag to show loyalty. Their blue colors also differentiated them from the red used by Spanish royalist forces.

National Flag Day is celebrated on June 20th, the day of Belgrano&rsquos death. Besides designing the flag and cockade, Belgrano is remembered for his involvement in extensive freedom fighting campaigns, particularly in the upper Peru region. Flag Day celebrations are most vibrant in Rosario, the place where Argentina&rsquos flag was first raised in 1812. Here, every year on Flag Day, public officials make speeches and police, armed forces, war veterans, and others participate in a parade to honor the flag. Recently, the people of Rosario created what some call the longest flag in the world. This flag, carried by people from Rosario, also makes an appearance in the parade. National Flag Day celebrations honor Argentina&rsquos flag, a flag which reminds us of the nation&rsquos forefathers who fought for the independence modern Argentinians enjoy and celebrate today.


Videoni tomosha qiling: 1-MAVZU: DASHTI QIPCHOQDAGI SIYOSIY VAZIYAT.


Izohlar:

  1. Dewitt

    bu juda qimmatli fikr

  2. Dall

    Instead of criticizing, write your options.

  3. Wartun

    Ha, albatta. Shunday qilib, shunday bo'ladi.

  4. Zuluk

    I'm sorry I can't help you. I hope you find the right solution. Umidsizlikka tushmang.



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