London: tarix

London: tarix


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London - Angliya va Buyuk Britaniyaning poytaxti va dunyodagi eng yirik va eng muhim shaharlaridan biri. Bu hudud dastlab miloddan avvalgi 6000 yillarga yaqin ovchilarni yig'ish bilan shug'ullangan va tadqiqotchilar Temza daryosi yaqinidagi bronza davri ko'priklari va temir davri qal'alarini topdilar.

Qadimgi rimliklar milodiy 43 yilda Londinium deb nomlangan port va savdo aholi punktiga asos solishgan va bir necha yil o'tgach Temza bo'ylab tijorat va qo'shinlar harakatini osonlashtirish uchun ko'prik qurilgan. Ammo milodiy 60 -yilda, kelt malikasi Boudikka, Londonni yo'q qilish uchun ko'plab yong'inlarning birida yoqib yuborilgan shaharni ishdan bo'shatish uchun armiyani boshqargan.

Shahar tez orada qayta tiklandi, lekin milodiy 125 -yillarda yana yoqib yuborildi. Qayta qurish ishlari olib borildi va bir necha avlodlar ichida aholi soni 40 mingdan oshdi. Milodiy 476 yilda Rim imperiyasi qulaganidan keyin, vikinglar va boshqa bosqinchilar shaharga ko'p marotaba hujum qilishdi va ko'p o'tmay London deyarli tashlab ketildi.

KO'PROQ O'QING: Rim qulashining 8 sababi

Shahar boyligi 1065 yilda, Vestminster abbatligi tashkil etilgach, o'zgara boshladi. Bir yil o'tgach, Xastings jangida g'alaba qozonganidan so'ng, Uilyam Fatih Angliya qiroli bo'ldi. Uning hukmronligi davrida London minorasi qurilgan va 1176 yilda bir necha bor yonib ketgan yog'och London ko'prigi o'rnini tosh ko'prik egallagan.

Tudor va Styuart sulolalarining kuchi oshgani sayin, London hajmi va ahamiyatini kengaytirdi. Genrix VIII podshoh bo'lgan paytga kelib, London aholisi kamida 100000 edi.

KO'PROQ O'QING: Yelizaveta I va Shotlandiya qirolichasi Maryamning turli xil bolaliklari

Biroq, protestantlar va katoliklar o'rtasidagi ziddiyat Genrixning qizi Yelizaveta I ning boshqacha gullab -yashnagan hukmronligini qorong'ilashtirdi, 1605 yilda katolik tarafdori Gay Fokkes Buyuk Britaniya parlamenti uyini portlash qurolida portlatishga urinib ko'rdi va muvaffaqiyatsizlikka uchradi.

Haqiqiy falokat 1665 yilda Londonda Buyuk vabo yuz berib, 100 mingga yaqin odamning hayotiga zomin bo'ldi. Bir yil o'tgach, aholisi yarim millionga yaqin, asosan yog'och konstruktsiyalardan iborat bo'lgan shahar, Londonning Buyuk olovida yana kulga aylandi. Bu jahannamdan so'ng, ko'plab ko'zga ko'ringan binolar, jumladan, Bukingem saroyi va Avliyo Pol sobori qurildi.

KO'PROQ O'QING: London yonib ketganida: 1666 yildagi buyuk olov

Angliya banki 1694 yilda tashkil topgan va uni birinchi bo'lib Gugenot Jon Xublon boshqargan, u Londonni xalqaro moliyaviy markazga aylantirishga yordam bergan. 1840 yilga kelib, shahar vabo va boshqa kasalliklarning epidemiyasini yaratishga yordam bergan, 2 millionga yaqin odamni shishirgan, ular ko'pincha antisanitar hovlilarga to'lib -toshgan.

Qirolicha Viktoriya davrida London keng Britaniya imperiyasining obro'li qarorgohi sifatida yaxshi o'rnashgan va 1859 yilda Big Ben shahardan yuqoriga ko'tarilgan bo'lsa, London metrosi 1863 yilda dunyodagi birinchi er osti temir yo'li sifatida ochilgan. Ammo buyuk poytaxt soyasida, Jek Ripper 1888 yilda shahar ayollarini ta'qib qilib, tarixdagi eng mashhur qotilliklardan birida kamida beshtasini o'ldirdi.

Havo hujumlari Londonda Birinchi jahon urushida 2300 ga yaqin odamning o'limiga olib keldi va Ikkinchi jahon urushidagi Britaniya jangi paytida shahar nemis Luftwaffe tomonidan tinimsiz bombardimon qilindi - London Blitsi oxirida 30 mingga yaqin aholini o'ldirdi.

1952 yildagi Buyuk Smog paytida londonliklar cheksiz azoblarni boshdan kechirishdi va ifloslanish paytida va undan keyin minglab odamlar halok bo'lishdi. Yaqinda, 2005 yilda London tranzit tizimiga qilingan terror hujumi 56 kishining hayotiga zomin bo'ldi. Ammo shahar o'sishda davom etdi va 2012 yilgi Olimpiadaga mezbonlik qildi, shu bilan birga o'zini Evropaning madaniy va moliyaviy markaziga aylantirdi.

Manbalar:

London xronologiyasi, London shahri
London, tarix, Britannica
London tarixi, Civitatus London sayohatlari uchun qo'llanma


London ko'zining tarixi 1 daqiqada

Londonning ko'zi, Millenium g'ildiragi sifatida ham tanilgan, Londonning janubiy qirg'og'ida joylashgan, dunyodagi eng katta kuzatuv g'ildiragi va Buyuk Britaniyadagi eng mashhur pullik sayyohlik joyidir. Butun dunyodan tashrif buyuruvchilarni jalb qiladigan g'ildirak London landshaftini o'zgartirib yubordi va bugungi kunda Buyuk Britaniyaning 21 -asrdagi innovatsion va texnologik yutuqlarini nishonlaydigan milliy ramz bo'lib turibdi.

1993 yilda me'morlar Devid Marks va Yuliya Barfild ochiq g'oyalar tanloviga o'z arizalarini topshirdilar Sunday Times Gazeta va Arxitektura jamg'armasi - London uchun ming yillik tarixiy joyni loyihalash. Afsuski, Londonning markazidagi dunyodagi eng katta kuzatuv g'ildiragining dizayni, boshqa barcha takliflar rad etildi. Tanlov bekor qilinganidan so'ng, Marks Barfield Architects o'z g'oyasini amalga oshirishga qaror qilib, loyihani hayotga tatbiq etishga bag'ishlangan o'z kompaniyasini tuzdi. Qachon Kechki standart British Airways o'z hikoyalari haqida o'z o'quvchilari haqida xabar berdi, ular bilan bog'lanishdi va 16 oy o'tgach, ular o'z orzularini ro'yobga chiqarishga yordam berishdi.

G'ildirakni 1999 yil Yangi yil arafasida tugatishni maqsad qilib qo'ygan 1700 ta professional mutaxassislar, o'ziga xos dizaynni amalga oshirish va etkazib berish uchun tinimsiz ishlashdi, shu jumladan Ko'zni Temza daryosigacha, tanlangan manzilga etkazib berish. suv ustida qurilgan dunyodagi yagona g'ildirak. Norvegiyada po'latdan yasalgan pudratchilar tomonidan ishlab chiqilgan va qurilgan, g'ildirak ulkan panjarali velosiped g'ildiragini taqlid qilishga xizmat qiladi va o'z turidagi yagona konsolli konstruktsiya hisoblanadi. 1999 yil 9 oktabr, shanba kuni g'ildirakni ko'tarish muvaffaqiyatsiz birinchi urinishidan so'ng, xavfsizlik tekshiruvi muvaffaqiyatsiz tugagandan so'ng, qurilish keyingi kuni oxirgi holatiga ko'tarildi, bu gorizontaldan vertikalga ko'tarilgan eng katta tuzilma bo'ldi.

Ko'zning 32 ta kapsulasi Londonning 32 tumanini ramziy ma'noga ega va 1dan 33gacha raqamlangan bo'lib, omad uchun o'n uchinchi aravani yo'q qiladi. Balandligi 443 fut (135 metr) bo'lgan g'ildirak 25 kungacha cho'zilgan yaxshi kunda shaharning eng ajoyib panoramik manzaralarini taqdim etadi. London Ko'zi kuniga 15 000 ga yaqin tashrif buyuruvchilarni jalb qilishni davom ettirmoqda va Londonning sayyohlik va me'moriy landshaftiga qo'shgan hissasi uchun 40 dan ortiq mukofotlarni qo'lga kiritdi.


Shahar atrofidagi echimlar

Sanoatlashtirish London aholisining o'sishini va uning dafn etish muammolarini keltirib chiqarar ekan, ikkita tadbirkor, Richard Broun va Richard Spray, yangi sanoat ixtirosida - temir yo'lda qabriston maydonining etishmasligiga javob topganiga ishonishdi. Ular transportning bu yangi shakli nafaqat boylar uchun, balki ko'pchilik uchun ham yechim bo'lishi mumkinligiga ishonishdi.

A ga ko'ra Milliy biografiya lug'ati O'limidan ko'p o'tmay nashr etilgan maqolada, Broun "ko'p sxemalarni loyihalashtirish bilan band" bo'lgan, ularning aksariyati fantastik xarakterga ega bo'lgan va ularni broshyuralar va xatlar bilan vahshiyona targ'ib qilgan. Qarzdorlar qamoqxonasida bir muncha vaqt o'tkazganga o'xshagan advokat Sprye bilan birgalikda ular qabristonning rejalarini tuzdilar, shuning uchun ular butun Londonliklarning qoldiqlarini abadiy saqlashi mumkin edi. (O'rta asrlarning g'ayrioddiy qabrlari o'liklarning qo'rquvini ochib beradi.)

Ular qabristonni shaharning tashqarisida qurib, uning atrofini tezlik bilan bezovta qilayotgan metropolni bosib olishgan. Uzoq qabristonga sayohat qilish uchun tez va arzon temir yo'l Londondan motam va tobutlarni olib keladi.

London nekropoli va milliy maqbarasi kompaniyasi 1852 yilda tashkil etilgan va Londonning janubi-g'arbidan 23 milya uzoqlikda Surreyda 500 gektarga yaqin qabriston qurishni boshlagan. Noto'g'ri hujjatlashtirilgan bir qator kelishuvlar va ichki nizolar Broun va Sprayni yopib qo'ydi va ularni bir tiyinsiz qoldirdi.


O'rta asr London (1066 - 1485)


Ko'p o'tmay, Normanlar Frantsiyadan bostirib kirishdi va Uilyam I (Fatih Uilyam) nazoratni qo'lga oldi. U tezda Londonni qo'riqlash uchun qal'a qurishni boshladi - London minorasi. Minora qal'a va saroy, hayvonot bog'i va qurol do'koni, zarbxona (tangalar yasalgan) va qamoqxona sifatida ishlatilgan. Bizda bu erda London minorasining rang -barang sahifalari bor (2 versiya, katta va kichik bolalar uchun):
London rang berish sahifalari


London minorasini chizishni o'rganing

Gavjum va hidli shahar!

Shahar asl Rim devorlari ichida o'sgan, ular ta'mirlangan va qurilgan. Uylar yog'ochdan va gipsdan yasalgan edi va ular bir -biriga juda qattiq yig'ilgan edi, yuqori qavatlar toshli yoki tuproqli ko'chalarga egilgan edi. Quyidagi ko'chalarga axlat derazadan tashlandi!

London meri lord

13 -asrning boshlarida qirol Jon Londonga har yili lord -merni saylash huquqini berish orqali qanchalik muhimligini ko'rsatdi. Birinchi hokimlarning eng mashhuri Dik Uittington, 1397 va 1420 yillar oralig'ida to'rt marta Lord Mayor bo'lgan. Siz Dik Uittington haqidagi mashhur va mashhur hikoyani bilishingiz mumkin (uning haqiqiy hayotiga asoslanmagan).

Agar siz bugun Square Mile -ga boradigan bo'lsangiz, ko'cha nomlaridan O'rta asr Londonining ko'plab dalillarini topasiz, ular o'sha paytlarda tashkil etilgan savdo va do'konlar haqida. Puding Leyn, Non ko'chasi va Sut ko'chasi - aniq misollar! Tikuvchilik do'konlari Threadneedle ko'chasida joylashgan bo'lib, siz Ropemakerlar maydoni, Ipak ko'chasi va parrandachilikni topishingiz mumkin.

O'z nomida "darvozasi" bo'lgan bir qator ko'chalar bor, masalan, Bishopsgate, Moorgate va boshqalar. Bu shaharga odamlar kirishi yoki chiqib ketishi mumkin bo'lgan mudofaa devorining asl eshiklari edi.


London evolyutsiyasi: shahar va 2000 yillarga yaqin#27-yillar xaritasi

London 43 -yilda Rim shahri sifatida yaratilishidan bugun biz ko'rgan gavjum, tartibsiz megapolisga aylandi. London Evolyutsiya Animatsiyasi turli tarixiy davrlarda poytaxtda nima qurilganini - nimani yo'qotdi, nimani saqladi va nimani himoya qildi, yaxlit ko'rinishga ega.

Buyuk London 600 kvadrat milni egallaydi, lekin 17 -asrga qadar poytaxt asosan moliyaviy shahar osmono'par binolari tomonidan belgilangan bir kvadrat milga cho'zilgan edi.

Bartlett ilg'or fazoviy tahlil markazi (Casa) tomonidan deyarli yo'qolganlar ko'rgazmasi uchun yaratilgan vizualizatsiya yo'l tarmoqlari va saqlanib qolgan binolar evolyutsiyasi orqali shaharning rivojlanishini o'rganadi.

Afina yoki Rim kabi boshqa tarixiy shaharlardan farqli o'laroq, bu erda har xil davrlarning aniq yamog'i bor, Londonning rejalashtirilgan joylari va ro'yxatga olingan binolari individual tuzilmalar bo'lib, ko'p hollarda ular turli davrlarning qismlari bilan asta -sekin yig'iladi. Turli xil tarixiy inshootlarni topishga urinayotganlar, bu xususiyatlar zamonaviy shahar bo'ylab tarqalgan turli xil jumboqlarning bo'laklari ko'rinishida bo'lishini bilishadi.

Animatsiya turli usullar va bir nechta manbalardan olingan ma'lumotlar yordamida to'qqiz oy davom etdi. London Arxeologiya muzeyi Rim va O'rta asrlar, shuningdek 17 va 18 -asr boshlari uchun ma'lumotlar to'plamini taqdim etdi. Kembrij universitetining muhandislik bo'limi 18 -asr oxiridan to hozirgi kungacha yo'llar tarmog'ining ma'lumotlar to'plamini yaratdi. Qo'shimcha Tudor qatlami 1520 yildagi London xaritasiga asoslanib, shaharning 19000 ro'yxatga olingan binolari haqidagi Historic Towns Trust ma'lumotlaridan va 156 ta rejalashtirilgan yodgorliklar Ingliz merosidan olingan va binolar to'g'risidagi ma'lumotlar Ordnance Surveydan olingan.

Vizualizatsiyalashganida, asta -sekin so'nib borayotgan zamonaviy London tasviri ustida yangi yo'l qismlari paydo bo'ladi. Har bir davr uchun asta -sekin kattalashtiriladigan sariq nuqtalar qonun bilan himoyalangan bino va inshootlarni ajratib ko'rsatadi.

Animatsiya, shuningdek, Londonning tarixiy to'qimalariga rivojlanishning kengroq ta'sirini yaxshiroq tushunish va taxmin qilish imkonini beradigan virtual modelni ishlab chiqish uchun boshlang'ich nuqtani taqdim etdi. Hozirda 3D versiyasi ustida ishlayapmiz.

Erta Viktoriya davri London. Yorqin oq chiziqlar o'sha davrda qurilgan yangi yo'llarni ko'rsatadi Fotosurat: Casa

Shaharning eng katta saqlanib qolgan xususiyati - bu o'zining shahar matosi. London o'zining evolyutsiyasini Rimning Londinium yaratishi bilan boshladi va zamonaviy shaharning asosiy o'qlari, masalan, Oksford ko'chasi, hali ham biz bilan.

Miloddan avvalgi 410 yilda London tashlab ketilgan va Saksonlar davrida uning atrofidagi qishloqlarda alohida xo'jaliklar qurilgan. Ulardan ba'zilari, masalan, Enfild, Xempton va Chelsi - zamonaviy Londonning markazlari bo'lib xizmat qiladigan qishloqlarning yuragiga aylandi.

9 -asrdan boshlab, London yana asl Rim chegarasida o'sdi va Norman davrida Strand tomonidan Vestminsterdagi yangi siyosiy markaz bilan bog'landi. Bu vaqtga kelib, Londonning ko'p qismi yo'qoldi, ko'p yog'ochli binolar eskirgan va tosh binolari qayta ishlatilgan. Bugungi kunda, er yuzida Rim davridan deyarli hech narsa yo'q, garchi ko'cha sathidan ko'plab muhim arxeologik qoldiqlar saqlanib qolgan.

O'rta asrlar davrida vabo va ocharchilik aholi o'sishini sezilarli darajada cheklab qo'ydi, ammo Tudors davrida London aholisi 200 mingga yaqinlashdi. Genrix VIII Londonning diniy uylarini buzib tashlagandan so'ng, muhim yangi rivojlanish yuz berdi va markazdan uzoqroqda bir qancha qirollik chekinish joylari qurildi: Xempton korti va Elxam saroyi omon qoldi.

1666 yildagi Katta yong'in shaharning beshdan to'rt qismini vayron qildi va 13000 dan ortiq o'rta asr, Tudor va XVII asr boshlarida binolar yo'qoldi. Natijada, 1700 yilgacha London binolari va inshootlarining faqat kichik bir qismi saqlanib qolgan va saqlanib qolganlari himoyalangan va ularning joylashuvi animatsiyada ko'rsatilgan.

1714-1840 yillar oralig'ida London aholisi 630 mingdan 2 millionga yaqinlashib, uni dunyodagi eng katta va eng qudratli shaharga aylantirdi.

1850 yildan boshlab Somers shahrining ko'pburchagi chizilgan. U 1890 -yillarda buzib tashlangan va zamonaviy uy -joy massivi joylashgan. Fotosurat: Alamy Fotosurat: Alan King o'yma / Alamy / Alamy

20 -asrning birinchi yarmida tijorat rivojlanishi ko'pchilikni vayron qilgan bo'lsa -da, Gruziya tuzilmalarining katta qismi bugungi kunda saqlanib qolgan.

Viktoriya davri Londonni yana bir bor kengaytirdi, chunki aholi soni 2 milliondan 6,5 milliongacha oshdi. 1863 yilda London metrosining ochilishi masofani samarali qisqartirdi va aholiga gavjum markazdan chiqib, shahar atrofini yanada kengroq rivojlantirishga imkon berdi. 1940-70 -yillar orasida Viktoriya davridagi binolar vayron bo'lganiga qaramay, rivojlanishning aniq ko'lami omon qolish darajasini ancha oshirdi.

Aholi 1940 yilda eng yuqori cho'qqisiga 8,5 million atrofida etib, kamayishidan oldin, keyin esa 8 milliondan oshib ketdi. Ikkinchi jahon urushi oqibatida vayronagarchilik va vayronagarchiliklarga qaramay, XX asr London tarixidagi eng yirik shahar kengayishlarini ko'rdi.


O'rta asr London

Qaysidir ma'noda, Londonning o'rta asrlar tarixi 1066 yil Rojdestvo kunidan boshlangan, deyish mumkinki, G'olib Uilyam Xastings jangida g'alaba qozonganidan atigi uch oy o'tib, Westminster Abbeyida tugatilgan marosimda Angliya qiroli bo'ldi. .

Uilyam London fuqarolariga alohida imtiyozlar berdi, lekin ularni nazorat ostida ushlab turish uchun shaharning janubi -sharqiy burchagida ham qasr qurdi. Bu qal'a keyinchalik podshohlar tomonidan kengaytirilib, hozircha biz uni London minorasi deb ataymiz.

Minora qirol qarorgohi sifatida ishlagan va keyinchalik u qamoqxona sifatida mashhur bo'lgan. O'rta asrlar davomida u qirollik yalpiz, xazina vazifasini ham bajargan va hayvonot bog'ining boshlanish joylari bo'lgan.

1097 yilda Uilyam II xuddi shu nomdagi abbeyga yaqin Vestminster Xoll binosini qurishni boshladi. Zal O'rta asrlar davomida qirollarning asosiy qarorgohi bo'lgan Vestminster yangi saroyining asosini isbotlashi kerak edi. Uilyam vafot etgach, uning ukasi Genri taxtdagi shubhali qo'lini ushlab turish uchun London savdogarlarining yordamiga muhtoj edi. Buning evaziga Genrix I shahar savdogarlariga soliq yig'ish va sherif tanlash huquqini berdi.

12 -asrning boshlariga kelib, London aholisi taxminan 18000 kishini tashkil qilgan (buni Rim Britaniyasi balandligida hisoblangan 45000 bilan solishtiring). 1123 yilda shaharda Avliyo Bartolomey Priori tashkil topdi va boshqa monastir uylari tezda unga ergashdi.

O'rta asrlar davrida shaharda 13 ta monastir bo'lgan. Bugungi kunda bu uylar faqat Greyfriars, Whitefriars va Blackfriars kabi o'z hududlariga bergan ismlari bilan esda qoladi.

Bu shahar XII asrda Stiven va Maudning toj uchun kurashi natijasida muhim rol o'ynadi. Garchi ular dastlab Modni qo'llab -quvvatlagan bo'lsalar -da, Vestminsterni egallab olganida uning takabbur xatti -harakatlari fuqarolarni shunchalik g'azablantirdiki, ular qo'zg'olon ko'tarishdi va Maud Londonni tark etishga majbur bo'ldi.

1176 yilda birinchi tosh London ko'prigi Temza bo'ylab Rim ko'prigidan bir necha metr narida qurilgan. Bu ko'prik 1739 yilgacha Londonda yagona bo'lib qolishi kerak edi. Chunki bu ko'prik orqali o'tish tor va tiqilib qolganligi sababli, sayohatchilar ularni daryo bo'ylab suzish uchun qayiqchilarni ijaraga olishlari yoki ularni yuqoriga ko'tarish osonroq edi. daryo bo'yida.

1191 yilda Richard I Londonning o'zini o'zi boshqarish huquqini tan oldi va keyingi yili birinchi meri saylandi. Bu huquq keyingi monarxlar tomonidan tasdiqlangan.

1245 yilda Genrix III umr bo'yi 1269 yilda qayta qurilgan Vestminster Abbeyini qayta qurish ishlarini boshladi. O'rta asrlar davrining boshqa yirik qurilish loyihasi Eski Sent -Pol davridir. Sobor 1280 yilda qurib bitkazilgan.

1381 yilda Uot Tayler dehqonlari qo'zg'oloni paytida shahar dehqonlar tomonidan bosib olindi. Dehqonlarning asosiy shikoyatlari Richard II maslahatchilariga qaratilgan bo'lsa -da, ular Londonni bosib olganlaridan foydalanib, shahar ichidagi uylarni talon -taroj qilishdi. Lord -mayor Uilyam Uolvort Smitfilddagi to'qnashuvda Uot Taylerni pichoqlab o'ldirdi.

London savdogarlari 1461 yilda taxtga o'tirishda Edvard IVni qo'llab -quvvatladilar. Edvard minnatdorchilik bilan ko'plab savdogarlarga ritsarlik qildi. Bir necha yil o'tgach, 1477 yilda Uilyam Kaxton Vestminster yaqinidagi yangi bosmaxonasida birinchi kitobini bosib chiqarganida tarixga kirdi.

Kundalik hayot
O'rta asr London ko'chalar va chiziqlar burilgan labirint edi. Ko'pchilik uylar ohak bilan oqlangan, yarim yog'ochli, yoki qoraqo'tir edi. Yong'in xavfi doimiy edi va barcha uy xo'jaliklarining qo'lida yong'inga qarshi uskunalar bo'lishi uchun qonunlar qabul qilindi. XIII asr qonuniga ko'ra, yangi uylar tom yopish uchun yanada xavfli somondan emas, balki shiferdan foydalanishi kerak edi, lekin bunga e'tibor berilmagan ko'rinadi.

Shahar hukumati lord -mer va savdogarlar gildiyalaridan saylangan kengash edi. Bu gildiyalar shaharni samarali boshqargan va tijoratni boshqargan. Har bir gildiyaning o'z zali va o'z gerbi bor edi, lekin Gildxoll ham bor edi (1411-40), u erda turli gildiyalar vakillari uchrashishardi.

Shahardagi ko'p ko'chalarga u erda o'tkazilgan savdo -sotiq nomi berilgan. Masalan, Threadneedle ko'chasi tikuvchilik tumani edi, Non ko'chasida novvoyxonalar bor edi va Milk ko'chasida sigirlar sog'ish uchun boqilar edi. Smitfildda chorvachilik bozori ham juda faol edi.

Vabo doimiy tahdid edi, ayniqsa sanitariya juda oddiy edi. Londonda 1348 yildan 1665 yilgi Buyuk vabo o'rtasida kamida 16 ta vabo tarqaldi.

Londonning asosiy ko'chmas mulki Strand bo'lib, u erda ko'plab boy er egalari uy qurgan. Advokatlar Ma'badda va Fleet ko'chasida joylashdilar. Filo daryosi (Xolborn deb atalgan) qayiqlarda harakatlanar edi va hozirgi Farringdon ko'chasida doklar o'rnatildi. Filo daryosi 18 -asrda qoplangan.

O'rta asrlardagi Londonning diqqatga sazovor joylari - bizning Heritage Traveler blogidan

Ingliz tarixi
Shuningdek, & quotIngliz tarixi & quot; va mukofotga sazovor bo'lgan & quot; Ingliz madaniyati & quot; bo'limiga qarang.


London minorasi qirol qal'asi sifatida

Keyingi bir necha asrlar mobaynida monarxlar London minorasi deb ataladigan tobora murakkab tuzilishga devorlar, zallar va boshqa minoralarni o'z ichiga olgan mustahkam istehkomlarni qo'shdilar. Oq minoradan keyin markaziy minora "Oq minora" nomi bilan tanilgan. Bir tomondan, har bir navbatdagi monarx o'z boyligi va shuhratparastligini namoyish etish uchun bu yerni qurishi kerak edi. Boshqa tomondan, bir nechta monarxlar raqiblari (ba'zan o'z aka -ukalari) bilan to'qnashuvlar tufayli bu haybatli devorlar orqasida boshpana topishi kerak edi, shuning uchun qal'a milliy ahamiyatga ega bo'lib, Angliyani boshqarishda harbiy kalit bo'lib qoldi.


Roman London, Pt. Men – Tarix va ijtimoiy tarix

Xarita 1 va#8211 Roman London. 1-Blackfriars 2-Ludgeyt 3 va#8211 Markaziy Jinoyat sudi binosi, Old Beyli (devor qismi) 4-Bank of America-Merrill Lynch binosi, Giltspur ko'chasi (devor qismi) 5-Uotling ko'chasi 6-Nyugeyt 7-Sent-Vedast -alias-Foster, Foster-Leyn (to'qilgan qoplamali bo'lak) 8-Cripplegate Fort qoldiqlari, Noble ko'chasi 9-Sent-Alphage bog'lari/Salters Hall bog'lari, London devori (devor qismi) 10-Amfiteatr qoldiqlari, Guildhall san'at galereyasi, Gildxoll hovli 11 - Gresham ko'chasi 12 - Murat va Prins ko'chasi (Uolbruk oqimi chizig'i) 13 - Parrandachilik va Uolbruk ("Shimoliy Pompey") 14 - Mitras ibodatxonasi qoldiqlari, Bloomberg binosi, Uolbruk 15 - "Gubernatorlar sayti" Saroy ", Kannon ko'chasi bekati 16 - Old London ko'prigi (va London porti) 17 - Sent -Magnus shahid, Temza ko'chasi 18 - Ermine ko'chasi 19 - Bazilika va forum qoldiqlari, Gracechurch ko'chasi 20 - Bury ko'chasi 21 - Fort, plantatsiya joyi , Fenchurch ko'chasi 22 - Billingsgeyt Rim uyining qoldiqlari, 101 Tema s ko'chasi 23-All Hallows Barking, Byward Street 24-Bazilika yoki "Palaeo-xristian" cherkovi, Novotel binosi, Pepys ko'chasi 25-Kuper qatori va Tower tepaligi (devor qismlari).

Miloddan avvalgi 43 -yilda Klavdiy boshchiligidagi Rim Buyuk Britaniyaga bostirib kirgan va v. 47-8, 1-sonli parrandachilikda arxeologik qazishmalar paytida topilgan Rim drenajidagi yog'ochlarning dendrokronologik yoki daraxt halqali taqqoslashidan dalolat beradi (1-xarita). Shahar strategik mavqega ega edi, Temzaga qaragan baland joyda, daryoning eng past o'tish joyida va hali ham to'lqin bo'lgan joyda, ochiq dengizga va undan tashqaridagi imperiyaga oson kirishga imkon berdi. Dengiz (esda tutingki, keyingi Rim davrida to'lqin boshi quyi oqimga ko'chib o'tgani va uning orqasidan ba'zi port ob'ektlari, shahardan sharqqa Shadvell va Ratkliff tomon yo'nalgan). Agar Rim ettita asosiy tepalikda qurilgan bo'lsa, Rim London ikkita, g'arbda Ludgeyt tepaligida va sharqda Kornxillda, "yo'qolgan" Temza irmoqlaridan birining vodiysi o'rtasida qurilgan. .

Vestminsterdagi Viktoriya davridagi Boaditseya haykali

Erta Rim shahri 60 yoki 61-yillarda Iceni malikasi, Boudica yoki Boudicca (Viktoriya davridagi Boadicea) ostida qadimgi inglizlarni qo'zg'olon ko'tarish natijasida vayron qilingan. rimliklar haqida. U vafot etgach, u o'z qabilaviy shohligini qizlariga va Rim imperatoriga vasiyat qildi. Biroq, rimliklar uning xohish -istaklarini e'tiborsiz qoldirib, uning erlari va mol -mulkini faqat ulardan foydalanish uchun qo'shib olishni tanladilar. Bundan tashqari, ular Boudikkani kaltaklashdi va qizlari zo'rlashdi. Bu Iceni o'z qabilaviy qo'shnilari Trinovantlar bilan birga qo'zg'olon ko'tarishga undadi. Qo'zg'olon paytida, gubernator Gaius Suetonius Paulinus boshchiligidagi bir nechta rim legionlari Anglesi druid qal'asiga hujum qilishdi. Kolchester yoki Camulodunumni vayron qilgan inglizlar bilan uchrashish uchun ularni tezda Londonga chaqirish kerak edi. U ancha katta armiya bilan to'qnash kelganini anglab, Suetonius shaharni o'z taqdiriga tashlab qo'ydi, shuning uchun uni qayta yig'ish uchun (Sent -Albans yoki Verulamium ham vayron bo'ladi). Tacitus shunday deb yozgan edi: "Ayol, keksa yoki shu erga bog'langani uchun qolganlar" so'yildi ". … Britaniyaliklar tomoqlarni kesish, osib qo'yish, yondirish va xochga mixlashni sabrsizlik bilan kutishdi - go'yoki ketayotgan qasos oldidan qasos olgandek edilar ". Qo'zg'olon, rimliklar inglizlarni Uotling ko'chasidagi jangda, Epping o'rmonida yuqorida aytilgan Ambresberi banklari joylashgan joylardan biri bilan tugatishi bilan tugadi. Jang oxirida, qo'lga olish paytida, Boudicca zahar ichib o'z hayotini tugatishni tanladi (bitta ma'lumotga ko'ra).

Yuliy Alpinus Classicianus xotirasiga bag'ishlangan planshet nusxasi, Tower Hill

Boudiccan qo'zg'olonidan so'ng, shahar dastlab imperator Neron boshchiligidagi prokuror Yuliy Alpinus Classicianus tomonidan, keyinchalik Flavian, Trajan va Hadrian imperatorliklari ostida, birinchi asrning oxiri - ikkinchi asr boshlarida qayta qurildi, faqat qisman vayron qilindi. v. "Hadrianik olovi" deb nomlangan. 125. Devor devori dastlab ikkinchi va uchinchi asrlar oxirida qurilgan.

Uchinchi asrning "inqirozi" davrida shahar pasayib ketdi va to'rtinchi davrga qadar, umuman olganda, Rim imperiyasi ichkaridan ham, hujumsiz ham hujumga uchradi va Buyuk Britaniyani o'z raqibi imperator Klodius boshqargan. Ikkinchi asrning oxirida Albin va uchinchi "Karauz qo'zg'oloni" da Carausius va Allectus, keyin uni 296 yilda imperator Konstantius Xlor qaytadan qo'lga kiritdi. Ko'rinib turibdiki, Rim Londonning ko'plab jamoat binolari, shu jumladan "Gubernator Saroy "va Bazilika va Forum, uchinchi va to'rtinchi asrlarning boshlarida vayron qilingan –, ehtimol "Karas qo'zg'oloni" ni qo'llab -quvvatlagani uchun jazo sifatida. "Barbar" bosqinlari - piktlar va gallar, saksonlar va boshqa german qabilalari tomonidan - IV asrda boshlangan. Nihoyat, shahar qulab tushdi va deyarli tark etildi, taxminan 510 yil boshlarida, taxminan 410 yilda, bosqinchi armiya va fuqarolik ma'muriyati, imperiya asboblari, Rimga qaytarib yuborilgan barbarlardan himoya qilishda yordam berish uchun chaqirilgandan keyin. Imperator Honorius).

Ijtimoiy tarix

Rim davridagi Londonning kundalik hayoti tan va ruh uchun rizq qidirish bilan bog'liq bo'lar edi.

Rim istilosining dastlabki davrida asosiy din panteistik butparastlik bo'lib, u xudolarni hamma narsada ham, mavhum, ham moddiy, ham keyingi qismida xristianlikni qabul qilgan. Dafn marosimining asosiy marosimi krematsiya edi, ammo keyinchalik bu inhalatsiyaga yo'l qo'ydi. Qoldiqlar odatda shahar chegaralaridan tashqarida dafn qilindi, masalan, Aldgeyt, Bishopsgeyt yoki Nyugeyt tashqarisida yoki Moorfilddagi Uolbruk yonida yoki Temvarning janubiy tomonida, Southwarkda.

Rim ayolining Spitalfildlarini rekonstruksiya qilish, London muzeyi

To'rtinchi asrning bir butparast Rim ayolini Spitalfildsda, Bishopsgeyt tashqarisida, dafna yaprog'i bilan qoplangan, oltin ip bilan o'ralgan, dafna yaprog'i to'shagida, bezatilgan qo'rg'oshinli tobutda, dafn qilindi, imperator binafsha rang bilan qoplangan. xalat U bilan birga yuqori martabali qabr buyumlari ham bor edi, ular orasida ilgari yog ', atir va ehtimol sharob bo'lgan nozik ishlangan shisha flakonlar, o'yilgan reaktiv quti va soch turmalari bor edi. Tishidan olingan izotopik dalillar, u aslida Rim imperator poytaxtidan kelgan bo'lishi mumkinligini ko'rsatadi. Uning yuz qiyofasini London muzeyidagi Rim galereyasida ko'rish mumkin. Qizig'i shundaki, Southwarkdagi janubiy qabristonga dafn qilingan kamida bitta ayol qora afrikalik morfometrik va izotopik dalillar asosida aniqlangan. Yana Southwarkda dafn etilgan yana ikki kishi Osiyodan, ehtimol Hindistondan yoki hozirgi Xitoy hududidagi Xan imperiyasidan kelganligi aniqlandi. Sent -Meri boltining 30 -binosida topilgan yosh qizning dafn qilingan joyi "" yozuvli plakat bilan belgilangan.Dis Manibus Puella Incognita Londiniensis hijobli sanoati"(Bu erda dafn qilingan, Londonning noma'lum qizi ruhiga).

Mitras ibodatxonasi, London muzeyidan topilgan Tauroktoniyaning yaqin ko'rinishi

Mitraizm, xudo Mitrasga ibodat qilishning sirli va sirli ibodati, butparastlikning ko'p turlaridan biri edi, ehtimol Rim Londonida, Mitras ibodatxonasi yoki Mitraum bor edi. U Forsda paydo bo'lgan, u erda Mitras zardushtiylik panteonida ko'plab xudolardan biri bo'lgan, miloddan avvalgi I asrda miloddan avvalgi Rimga etib kelgan va miloddan avvalgi I asrga qadar Rim imperiyasining ko'p qismiga tarqalgan va uchinchi asrda eng keng tarqalgan. . Mitra yaratilish-afsonasining Rim versiyasiga ko'ra, Mitrasga Quyosh xudosi Apollon buyruq berib, Oyning buqasini so'yib, hayotiy kuchini bo'shatib, Yerga hayot olib kelish uchun (o'yilgan relyeflar) buyurgan. buqalarni so'yish – yoki "tauroktoniya" –-mitra ikonografiyasining o'ziga xos xususiyatlari). Oxir -oqibat, u kim bilan aniqlandi Sol Invictusyoki "Fath qilinmagan Quyosh" va sodiqlik, sodiqlik va itoatkorlikning axloqiy fazilatlarini aks ettirish uchun (ehtimol, uning rim askarlari orasida mashhurligi). Yuqorida aytib o'tilganidek, mitraizm Mitraea deb nomlangan joylarda qo'llanilgan bo'lib, ularning har biri osmonni ifodalaydi, shiftlarda yulduzlar va burjlar tasvirlangan. Ko'p Mithraea, shu jumladan Londonda ham, qisman er ostida bo'lgan, chunki Mitras buqani er ostida (g'orda) o'ldirgan.

Xristianlik to'rtinchi asrda, Rim imperiyasi bo'ylab tarqaldi, 312 yilda imperator Konstantin konvertatsiya qilinganidan keyin va 313 yilda nasroniylikka bag'rikenglikni ta'minlagan Milan farmoni qabul qilingandan so'ng, Londiniyning Restitut ismli kamida bitta vakili qatnashdi. 314 yildagi Arles Xristian Kengashi. Eslatib o'tamiz, xristianlik Rim imperiyasining rasmiy diniga aylanmagan, faqat 380 yilda Teodosiy I hukmronligi ostida Salonikada farmon qabul qilingandan keyin. Rim Londonda va xristian ibodat joylari mavjud emas (quyida "Qurilish ishlari" ga qarang). Biroq, xristiancha "Chi-Rho" belgisi yozilgan metall piyola shahardagi Copthall Close-da, Uolbruk daryosidan yana bir qismi va "Chi-Rho" belgisi bilan yozilgan bir qancha ingot topilgan. so'zlar "Deo -dagi tezliklar"(Xudoga umid), Temza daryosida, Battersi ko'prigi yaqinida. Shuni yodda tutingki, hech bo'lmaganda xristian ibodatlari Rim Londonda, xususiy uylardagi ziyoratgohlar atrofida, Kentdagi Darent vodiysidagi Lullingston villasida bo'lgani kabi, bo'lishi mumkin.

Oziq -ovqat va ichimlik

Rim Londonning o'rtacha fuqarosining ratsioni hayratlanarli darajada sog'lom bo'lib tuyulardi. Ko'rinib turibdiki, ikkalasida ham ko'plab do'konlar bor edi Forum va unga olib boradigan yo'llarni qoplash, bu erda har xil turdagi import qilinadigan va mahalliy oziq -ovqat mahsulotlarini, shu jumladan zaytun, zaytun moyi, sharob, uzum sharbati, xurmo, anjir, tuzlangan baliq va baliq sosini sotib olish mumkin edi. Imperiya. Parrandachilikda Pudding Leyn va Fenchurch ko'chasidagi boshqa nonvoyxonalar va Prins ko'chasidagi tegirmon qoldiqlari non va issiq ovqat do'konining qoldiqlari topildi. Biri 63, ikkinchisi 110 bo'lgan ikkita "suv ko'tarish mashinasi" qoldiqlari Gresham ko'chasida va Parrandachilikda suv quvurlari tizimining qoldiqlari topilgan.

Sanitariya -gigiyena sharoitlari ham aholi salomatligini mustahkamlashga xizmat qilardi. Kundalik foydalanish uchun mo'ljallangan ko'p sonli hammomlar bor edi, masalan, Cheapside va Huggin Hilldagi hammomlar, ular birinchi asrning oxiri yoki ikkinchi asrning boshlariga to'g'ri keladi va Billingsgeytda xususiy bo'lib, ikkinchi uchdan uchgacha. Hatto oddiy drenaj va kanalizatsiya tizimi ham bor edi.

Hisob -kitoblarga ko'ra, Londonning Rim shahri aholisi bir necha o'n ming kishidan iborat bo'lib, ular asosan Italiyaning provinsiya shahri Pompey bilan bir xil bo'lgan. Bundan farqli o'laroq, bir vaqtning o'zida imperiya poytaxti bo'lgan Rimning o'zi bir millionga teng edi.

Boshqaruv va boshqaruv

Britannia provinsiyasi markaziy ravishda Rimdan boshqarilgan va na uning, na uning provintsiya poytaxtlari, shu jumladan Londonda ham mahalliy hokimiyatni boshqarishga ko'p to'sqinlik qilmagan. Shunga qaramay, birinchi va ikkinchi asrlarning boshlarida Londiniy nisbatan muhim ma'muriy markazga aylandi. Uning asosiy jamoat binosi, ehtimol Alp tog'ining shimolidagi eng katta binosi edi Bazilika. Bu erda "Gubernatorlar saroyi" ham bor edi.

Savdo va tijorat

Roman London savdo va savdo markazi sifatida muhimroq edi, uning yuragi port edi. Plitkalar muhrlangan CLBR Londonda topilgan, bu hech bo'lmaganda port va port o'rtasidagi bog'liqlikni ko'rsatadi Britannica sinflari yoki "Britaniya floti", bu Britaniya provinsiyasini kadrlar va materiallar bilan ta'minlash uchun mas'ul bo'lgan Rim imperiya flotining bir qismi edi. Oziq-ovqatlar qayiqda, kulolchilikda, imperiyaning hamma burchaklaridan port shaharga olib kelingan.amforalar”. Pottery, notably “Samian Ware” was also brought in from what is now France (and was then Gaul) brooches from Belgium amber from the Baltic millstones from the Rhineland decorative marble, bronze table-ware and lamps from Italy marble also from Greece and Turkey glassware from Syria and emeralds from Egypt. Slaves were also brought into London, to be sold at markets like those known to have existed on the water-front, and then put to work (in the worst cases, either effectively as draught-animals, for example, turning water-wheels or else as concubines or prostitutes). A recently-discovered writing tablet of c. 80 records the sale of a Gaulish slave-girl called Fortunata – “warranted healthy and not liable too run away” – to a senior imperial slave called Vegetus for 600 denari. This was a substantial sum, approximately equivalent to two year’s wages for a skilled labourer.

There is abundant archaeological and other evidence of a wide range of industrial and commercial activity, including metal-working, wood-working, pottery manufacture, glass manufacture, coin-minting, gem-cutting, butchery (and presumably also tannery and chandlery), garum production, milling and baking, in Roman London, both within and without the walls. Some of the more anti-social industrial activities appear to have been deliberately re-located from within to without the walls over the course of the Roman occupation. An early form of “zoning” may have been present.


Tarix

Since being formally established in 1877 the London Metal Exchange has sought to innovate whilst maintaining its traditional strengths and relationships. A member of HKEX Group, the LME remains close to its core users by ensuring its contracts continue to be relevant to the physical metals industry.

International trade in metals could be said to have commenced in Britain when the Romans invaded in AD43 and extracted the large deposits of copper and tin ore in Cornwall and Wales to satisfy their increasing domestic need for the production of bronze and alloys.

However, the origins of the London Metal Exchange can only be traced back as far as the opening of the Royal Exchange in London in 1571 during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I. It was there that traders in metal and a range of other commodities began to meet on a regular basis. At first the traders merely dealt in physical metal for the domestic market but because Britain soon became a major exporter of metals, European merchants began to arrive to join in these activities.

In the early 19th century there were so many commodity traders, ship charterers and financiers using the Royal Exchange that it became impossible to do business. As a result, individual groups of traders set up shop in the nearby city coffee houses. The Jerusalem Coffee House, off Cornhill, became the favourite of the metal trading community and it was there that the tradition of the Ring was born. A merchant with metal to sell would draw a circle in the sawdust on the floor and call out 'Change', at which point all those wishing to trade would assemble around the circle and make their bids and offers.

In the early part of the 19th century the U.K. was self sufficient in copper and tin and quoted prices that remained fixed for long periods. Everything changed with the Industrial Revolution when the UK became the most technologically advanced country in the world, importing large tonnages from abroad.

The metal traders were now faced with a real problem because, having bought ores and concentrates from as far away as Chile and Malaya, they had no way of knowing what the price would be at the time of the ship's arrival some months later. Importing large tonnages from overseas at irregular intervals put merchants and consumers seriously at risk.

Technology came to their aid with the invention of the telegraph. Lines of communication were established between continents and the change from sail to steam ships made arrival dates more predictable. Now merchants were able to anticipate the time of arrival of a cargo of metal and were able to sell it for forward delivery on a fixed date, thus protecting themselves against a fall in price during the voyage.

In 1869 the opening of the Suez Canal reduced the delivery time of tin from Malaya to match the three months delivery time for copper from Chile. This gave rise to the LME's unique system of daily prompt dates for up to three months forward, which still exists to this day.

As the trade in metal futures grew to meet the increasing demands of British industry, more and more merchants were participating in trading and it became necessary to find premises where they could convene each day. They first moved to the Lombard Exchange and Newsroom but once again the intrusion of other traders drove them to find new premises.

In 1877 the traders formed the London Metals and Mining Company and moved into their first premises over a hat shop in Lombard Court. Telegraphic links were set up and a company secretary was appointed to handle the administration. Membership increased rapidly and, after surpassing the three hundred mark, the decision was taken to move to a purpose built Exchange in Whittington Avenue, where it remained for 98 years. Then, after a period of 14 years at Plantation House in Fenchurch Street, the Exchange moved in 1994 to Leadenhall Street. In 2016, the LME moved to its current home in Finsbury Square signifying the next step of its modernisation and housing its custom-built clearing house, LME Clear.

The world of metals and base metal trading has changed dramatically over the last century, and the LME has continually adapted to these changes. New metals have been introduced to the Exchange as and when demand dictated.

  • Copper and tin have traded on the LME since the Exchange was established.
  • The copper contract was upgraded to high grade copper in November 1981 and again to today's Grade-A contract in June 1986.
  • Tin's present contract began trading in June 1989, following a brief cessation in 1985 due to the collapse of the International Tin Council.
  • Lead and zinc were officially introduced in 1920, but were traded unofficially before that.
  • The lead contract has remained virtually unchanged, certainly since its reintroduction in October 1952 following the closure of the Exchange brought about by the Second World War.
  • Zinc has undergone a number of upgrades, most recently with the introduction of the special high grade contract in June 1986.
  • Primary aluminium was introduced in December 1978 and today's high grade contract began trading in August 1987.
  • Nickel commenced trading on the Exchange the year after primary aluminium, in April 1979 and aluminium alloy in October 1992.

An index contract - LMEX - based on the six primary metals traded on the Exchange was introduced in 2000. This base metals index is specifically designed to provide investors access to futures and traded options contracts based on non-ferrous metals without the physical delivery, storage and transaction costs associated with the underlying commodity contracts.

LMEminis - smaller, cash-settled monthly futures contracts and provides a simple way to access the LME's most liquid contracts - were introduced for copper, aluminium and zinc in December 2006.

In 2008, the LME made a move into ferrous metals with the introduction of two regional contracts for steel billet. In July 2010 these contracts merged into a single global contract.

In February 2010 came the launch of two minor metals futures contracts for cobalt and molybdenum.

More recently we launched LME Steel Scrap and LME Steel Rebar in November 2015 and July 2017 saw the introduction of LME Gold and LME Silver.

The LME was acquired by Hong Kong Exchanges & Clearing Limited in December 2012 and with that custom built a clearing house from scratch, LME Clear, to specifically serve the needs of the metals community.


Victorian London

The Victorian city of London was a city of startling contrasts. New building and affluent development went hand in hand with horribly overcrowded slums where people lived in the worst conditions imaginable. The population surged during the 19th century, from about 1 million in 1800 to over 6 million a century later. This growth far exceeded London's ability to look after the basic needs of its citizens.

A combination of coal-fired stoves and poor sanitation made the air heavy and foul-smelling. Immense amounts of raw sewage was dumped straight into the Thames River. Even royals were not immune from the stench of London - when Queen Victoria occupied Buckingham Palace her apartments were ventilated through the common sewers, a fact that was not disclosed until some 40 years later.

Upon this scene entered an unlikely hero, an engineer named Joseph Bazalgette. Bazalgette was responsible for the building of over 2100 km of tunnels and pipes to divert sewage outside the city. This made a drastic impact on the death rate, and outbreaks of cholera dropped dramatically after Bazlgette's work was finished. For an encore, Bazalgette also was responsible for the design of the Embankment, and the Battersea, Hammersmith, and Albert Bridges.

Before the engineering triumphs of Bazalgette came the architectural triumphs of George IV's favourite designer, John Nash. Nash designed the broad avenues of Regent Street<, Piccadilly Circus, Carlton House Terrace, and Oxford Circus, as well as the ongoing creation of Buckingham transformation of Buckingham House into a palace worthy of a monarch.

In 1829 Sir Robert Peel founded the Metropolitan Police to handle law and order in areas outside the City proper. These police became known as "Bobbies" after their founder.

Just behind Buckingham Palace, the Grosvenor family developed the aristocratic Belgrave Square. In 1830 land just east of the palace was cleared of the royal stables to create Trafalgar Square, and the new National Gallery sprang up there just two years later.

The early part of the 19th century was the golden age of steam. The first railway in London was built from London Bridge to Greenwich in 1836, and a great railway boom followed. Major stations were built at Euston (1837), Paddington (1838), Fenchurch Street (1841), Waterloo (1848), and King's Cross (1850).

In 1834 the Houses of Parliament at Westminster Palace burned down. They were gradually replaced by the triumphant mock-Gothic Houses of Parliament designed by Charles Barry and A.W. Pugin.

The clock tower of the Houses of Parliament, known erroneously as Big Ben, was built in 1859. The origin of the name Big Ben is in some dispute, but there is no argument that the moniker refers to the bells of the tower, NOT to the large clock itself.

In 1848 the great Potato Famine struck Ireland. What has this to do with the history of London? Plenty. Over 100,000 impoverished Irish fled their native land and settled in London, making at one time up to 20% of the total population of the city.

Prince Albert, consort of Queen Victoria was largely responsible for one of the defining moments of the era that bears his wife's name the Great Exhibition of 1851. This was the first great world's fair, a showcase of technology and manufacturing from countries all over the world. The Exhibition was held in Hyde Park, and the centrepiece was Joseph Paxton's revolutionary iron and glass hall, dubbed the "Crystal Palace".

The exhibition was an immense success, with over 200,000 attendees. After the event, the Crystal Palace was moved to Sydenham, in South London, where it stayed until it burned to the ground in 1936. The proceeds from the Great Exhibition went towards the founding of two new permanent displays, which became the Science Museum and the Victoria and Albert Museum.

The year 1863 saw the completion of the very first underground railway in London, from Paddington to Farringdon Road. The project was so successful that other lines soon followed.

But the expansion of transport was not limited to dry land. As the hub of the British Empire, the Thames was clogged with ships from all over the world, and London had more shipyards than anyplace on the globe.

For all the economic expansion of the Industrial Revolution, living conditions among London's poor were appalling. Children as young as 5 were often set to work begging or sweeping chimneys. Campaigners like Charles Dickens did much to make the plight of the poor in London known to the literate classes with his novels, notably Oliver Twist. In 1870 those efforts bore some fruit with the passage of laws providing compulsory education for children between the ages of 5 and 12.

What to See:
Victoria Embankment
Regent Street
Piccadilly Circus
Trafalgar maydoni
Milliy galereya
Parlament uylari
Victoria and Albert Museum
Science Museum


Videoni tomosha qiling: Eng katta imperiyalar


Izohlar:

  1. Matwau

    You were visited with simply excellent idea

  2. Maktilar

    Unyvay emas! Qiziqarli!

  3. Bentleah

    rahmat, uni bir nafasda o'qing



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