T.P. Dono kishi

T.P. Dono kishi


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Qadimgi kelib chiqishi, biz inson sifatida biz izlay oladigan bilimlarning eng muhim sohalaridan biri bu bizning boshlanishimiz deb hisoblaymiz. Ba'zilar bu voqeadan mamnun bo'lib tuyulsa -da, bizning fikrimizcha, hali ochilmagan va tushuntirilmagan son -sanoqsiz sirlar, ilmiy anomaliyalar va hayratlanarli artefaktlar mavjud.

Qadimgi kelib chiqishning maqsadi-yaqinda o'tkazilgan arxeologik kashfiyotlar, ilmiy tadqiqotlar va dalillarni ta'kidlash, shuningdek, butun dunyo bo'ylab fan, arxeologiya, mifologiya, din va tarixga muqobil nuqtai nazar va tushuntirishlarni taqdim etish.

Biz ilmiy tadqiqotlarni kutilmagan nuqtai nazar bilan birlashtirgan yagona Pop Arxeologiya saytimiz.

Bu arxeologiya veb -sayti eng yaxshi mutaxassislar va mualliflarni birlashtirib, yo'qolgan tsivilizatsiyalarni o'rganadi, muqaddas yozuvlarni o'rganadi, qadimiy joylarni kezadi, qadimiy kashfiyotlarni o'rganadi va sirli hodisalarni so'raydi. Bizning ochiq hamjamiyatimiz er yuzidagi turlarimizning kelib chiqishini o'rganishga va kashfiyotlar bizni qaerga olib borishi mumkinligi haqida savol berishga bag'ishlangan. Biz boshlagan voqealarimizni qayta hikoya qilishga intilamiz.


Rim mifologiyasi

Rim mifologiyasi qadimgi Rim afsonalari to'plami bo'lib, ular rimliklar adabiyoti va tasviriy san'atida tasvirlangan. Rim folklorining turli xil janrlaridan biri, Rim mifologiyasi shuningdek, bu tasavvurlarni zamonaviy o'rganishga va har qanday davrda boshqa madaniyatlar adabiyoti va san'atida tasvirlangan mavzuga murojaat qilishi mumkin. Rim mifologiyasi italik xalqlarining mifologiyasidan va oxir-oqibat proto-hind-evropa mifologiyasidan kelib chiqadi.

Rim mifologiyasi Rim protohistoriyasi davrida yunon mifologiyasidan va keyinchalik Rim mualliflarining yunon adabiy modellariga badiiy taqlid qilishidan ta'sir ko'rsatadi. Bilingan jarayon orqali roman talqini, Rimliklar o'z xudolarini qadimgi yunonlarning xudolari bilan aniqladilar, ular tarixiy jihatdan bir -biri bilan chambarchas bog'liq bo'lgan, masalan, Zevs va Yupiter - yunon xudolari haqidagi afsonalarni Rimdagi hamkasblari nomi bilan qayta talqin qilishgan.

Lotin adabiyoti O'rta asrlar va Uyg'onish davrida Evropada keng tarqalgan. Rimliklarning yunon afsonalarini talqini ko'pincha "klassik mifologiyaning" hikoya va tasviriy tasviriga yunon manbalariga qaraganda ko'proq ta'sir ko'rsatgan. Xususan, ovidlarning yunon afsonalarining versiyalari Metamorfozalar, Avgust davrida yozilgan, kanonik deb hisoblana boshladi.


Siyosiy tarix nima?

Davom etayotgan seriyada 'Nima. tarix? ' sakkizta tarixchi siyosiy tarixni ta'riflaydi - bu maydonni ba'zan "tor", "elitist" yoki oddiygina "zerikarli" deb atashadi, lekin hozir bu o'zgarmoqda.

T.P. Wiseman (Exeter universiteti klassikasi professori)

Siyosiy tarix - bu politsiya tarixi, ommaviy axborot vositalari, fuqarolar organi siyosiy voqealar, u yoki unga nomidan qilingan voqealar. Fuqarolik organi shaxslardan tashkil topganligi sababli, uni tashkil etuvchi qoidalar mavzuning asosi hisoblanadi. Birinchi savollar quyidagicha bo'lishi kerak: kim? Qanaqasiga? qayerda? qachon? Biz franchayzing chegaralarini, fuqarolar yig'ilishining mexanizmini, ularning yig'ilishlarining chastotasini, jismoniy sharoitlarini va tartibini, qaror qabul qilish vakolatlarini bilishimiz kerak. Fuqarolik organi odatda mas'uliyatni maslahat yoki maslahat kengashiga yuklaydi: uning a'zolari qanday tanlangan? ular qancha vaqt xizmat qilishgan? ularning uchrashuvlari qayerda, qachon va qanday o'tkazilgan? U o'z qarorlarini amalga oshirish va o'z biznesini boshqarishga qarash uchun ijrochi xodimlarni tanlashi kerak: muvofiqlik? saylov vositasi? xizmat muddati? vakolat doirasi?

Ushbu maqolani o'qishni davom ettirish uchun siz onlayn arxivga kirishni sotib olishingiz kerak bo'ladi.

Agar siz allaqachon kirishni sotib olgan bo'lsangiz yoki bosma va arxivga obuna bo'lsangiz, iltimos, ishonch hosil qiling kirgan.


Afsona, Respublika Rimidagi tarix va madaniyat. T. P. Visman sharafiga o'qish

Avgust marmar kiygan holda Rim shahrini tark etganidan keyin ham, bir itning ko'chalari kesilgan qo'lini topa olardi. Bu tafsilot qimmatbaho tosh, lekin ehtiyotkorlik bilan izohga joylashtirilgan (4 -bet, 8 -bet, Suetga iqtibos keltirgan holda). Vesp. 5.4), deyarli hamma o'quvchilarga yoqadi Katull va uning dunyosi. Va bu to'g'ri: bu Rimni haqiqiy joy sifatida ko'rish va uni o'z o'quvchilari uchun hayotga qaytarish uchun Piter Uisemanning maxsus sovg'asining aniq namunasidir. U buni 1960 -yillardan beri tarixiy va adabiyotshunoslik o'rtasidagi an'anaviy to'siqlarni xotirjam va samarali tarzda e'tiborsiz qoldirgan holda qilmoqda va bizning intizomimiz ham xuddi shunday qilishga intilayotgan sari, uning ishi yildan -yilga yangi va qiyinlashib bormoqda.

Bu hodisaning tan olinishi, albatta, to'g'ri edi va 2000 yil mart oyida Exeter Universitetining Klassika va qadimiy tarix kafedrasi o'zining oltmish yoshli yubileyi munosabati bilan "Afsona, tarix va ijro: bayramni nishonlash" konferentsiyasini o'tkazdi. TP Wisemanning ishi. ” Joriy jild o'sha voqeaning yaxshi xulq-atvorini Kirish (Devid Braund va Kristofer Gill), Minnatdorchilik (Elaine Fantham) va TPW avtobiografik eslatmasini o'z ichiga oladi. (u o'z asarining bibliografiyasini 2002 yilgacha taqdim etgan), lekin uning o'n uchta inshosi doimiy e'tiborga jiddiy da'vo qiladi. Bular:

1. Nikolas Purcell, “ Tarixiy bo'lish: Rim ishi ” (12-40).

Tarixiy ongning tabiati haqidagi bu provokatsion va sezgir tadqiqot yunon tabiati haqidagi umumiy kuzatuvlardan kelib chiqadi tarixiy V asrning boshlarida Purcell izlagan aniq Rim tarixiy ma'nosining rivojlanishi. Uning so'zlariga ko'ra, bu birinchi navbatda adabiy rivojlanish emas, na Rim tarixshunoslik an'anasi oddiy Gretsiya sovg'asi edi.

2. Filippo Coarelli, “Remoria ” (41-55).

Yilda Remus (114-17), Wiseman Remoriyani Muqaddas Tog' bilan aniqladi. Coarelli buning o'rniga, shahar janubidagi Campana orqali o'tishning beshinchi bosqichi yaqinidagi Colle di Piche (“Magpie Hill ”) deb nomlangan joyni taklif qiladi va bu joy arxaik chegarasida joylashganligini tasdiqlaydi. katta Romanus, Remusning Rim qishloqlari va Romulusning shahar yadrosi bilan bir qator identifikatsiyasiga olib keladi.

3. Maykl Krouford, “Yer va Respublikachilar Italiyasidagi odamlar ” (56-72).

Krouford ba'zi qishloqlarning muqaddas joylari va tepaliklar joylashganligi va oltinchi asrning og'irlik standartlari dalillari bilan Appennin Italiyasidagi arxaik aholi punktlari daryo havzalarida emas, balki baland tog'lardagi yozgi yaylovlarda joylashganligini isbotlaydi. yunoncha bo'lmagan.

4. Tim Kornell, “Coriolanus: afsona, tarix va ishlash ” (73-97).

Ushbu maqola Coriolanus afsonasining asosiy elementlarini aniqlaydi va ularning miloddan avvalgi 500 -yillar atrofida Italiyaning markaziy qismidagi aristokratik jamiyat haqidagi boshqa manbalardan bilganlarimizga mosligini isbotlaydi. Kornel bunday hikoyaning rivojlanishi va omon qolishini Piter Uiseman yaqinda e'tibor qaratgan adabiy faoliyatdan-ballada, epik yoki o'yinlardan izlaydi.

5. Elaine Fantham, “Pacuvius: Melodrama, Qaytish va tan olish ” (98-118).

Taniqli o'yinlarga e'tiborni qaratish ( Atalanta, Medus, Iliona, Xriz) Fanthamga Pacuvian fojiasidagi sahna harakati va uslubining muhim xususiyatlarini aniqlashga imkon beradi. Keyin u bu ‘ ovozli chaqishlar ’ dan foydalanib, Rimning fojia ta'mi va janrdagi o'rni haqida umumiyroq takliflar beradi. ludi scaenici.

6. Jeyms Zetzel, “Yostiqsimon Platon: Tsitseron yunon madaniyatidan foydalanishda ” (119-38).

Zetzelning Tsitseron ramkasining nuanslariga sezgirligi de Oratore uni Tsitseronning grek madaniyatini qabul qilish tabiati va darajasini qayta ko'rib chiqishga undaydi. Hujjatdan olingan boshqa dalillar Archia uchun va To'rtinchi Verrin Tsitseron yunon tilini o'rganishda odatda o'ylagandan ko'ra ko'proq qo'riqchi va foydaliroq bo'lgan degan fikrni qo'llab -quvvatlaydi: “ Tsitseron yostiqlari yostig'i yunon nazariyotchilarining yalang'och ahamiyatsizligidan ” (135).

(Aytgancha, Crassus skameykalari haqiqati hech bo'lmaganda uning yostiqchalari kabi tafsilotlarni ochib beradi. Men shaxsiy tajribamdan xabar berishim mumkinki, toga kiyganingizda erga o'tirish juda qiyin va qayta turish deyarli mumkin emas. Ehtimol, rim bu urinishdan oldin o'z qarorini echgan bo'lardi, bu munozarachilar uchun mafkuraviy imkonsizlik edi. de Oratore.)

7. Syuzan Treggiari, “Anestestral fazilatlar va illatlar: Tsitseron tabiat, tarbiya va taqdimot haqida ” (139-64).

Fazilatning Rimda nasl -nasabi bor edi. Odamlarning o'ziga xos fazilatlari (yoki ularning etishmasligi) o'z oilalarining axloqiy xususiyatlariga bog'liq deb hisoblangan. Treggiari Tsitseron va uning zamondoshlari siyosiy va ijtimoiy manfaatlar uchun ishlatgan munozaralarga qarshi tabiatning bu qadimiy versiyasiga asoslangan ko'plab materiallarni to'playdi.

8. Frensis Kerns, “Katullus va Bifiniya haqida: 68, 10, 28 va 47-she'rlar va#8221 (165-90).

Cairns, Bitiniyadagi Catullus va#8217 shaxsiy manfaatlarini aks ettiruvchi she'rlar haqida bir qator fikrlarni bildirish uchun adabiy, arxeologik va tarixiy dalillarni o'z ichiga oladi. U Troya shahridagi Protesilaus qabrini ekspluatatsiyasini 68 -she'rning bir -biriga o'xshamaydigan mavzulari orasidagi bog'lanish sifatida ko'rsatmoqda va 10 -yilda (28 va 47 -yillar bilan) Katulus Memmiusga chinakam dushmanlik qilganini va Plotius Tucca - “Porcius “ 8221 dan 47 gacha.

9. A. J. Vudman, “ Tarixchilarga she'rlar: Katul 1 va Horas Odes 2.1″ (191-216).

Vudman o'z nomining ikkita she'rini diqqat bilan o'qiganida, ularni tarixchilar - Kornelius Nepos va Asinius Pollio ishlariga javob sifatida ko'rib chiqishadi. U Nepos tarixining "#8220Callimachean" fazilatlarini, so'ngra Horace she'ridagi Pollio mavzularining aks -sadosini to'liq qisqacha o'rganadi. Bu Pollio fuqarolar urushi tarixi haqidagi kuzatishlarga olib keladi va Horace va she'riyatni tarixdan ataylab uzoqlashtirib, birinchi asrning oxiridagi umumiy farqlarni kengroq ko'rib chiqishga olib keladi.

10. Mario Torelli, “ "Boskorale" dagi villaning katta zalining freskalari: ikonografiya va siyosat ” (217-56).

Torelli bu murakkab freskalarni murakkabligi bo'yicha shunchaki mohirona tahlil qilishni taklif qilmaydi - uning u yoki bu allegorik o'qishdan imtiyoz berishining o'zi juda muhim - lekin binoning sxemasini, uning istiqboliga qarab, talqin jarayonining o'zi haqida muhim bayonot beradi. tomoshabin, ellinistik va rim kontekstlarida sub'ektlarning o'zgaruvchan ahamiyati va villaning ta'mi va ijtimoiy mavqei egasining dalillari. Oddiy, lekin yaxshi tanlangan oq-qora fotosuratlar va chizmalar bu murakkab dalilni ta'qib qilishni yoqtiradi.

11. Erich Gruen, “Cleopatra Rimda: Faktlar va fantaziyalar ” (257-74).

Gruen Elizabet Teylor va Kleopatraning tarixiyligiga birinchi bo'lib e'tiroz bildirmaydi, lekin u o'zining qadimiy prototipi haqida muhim yangi takliflar beradi. Biznes Kleopatrani 46 yilda Rimga olib keldi va u o'z vaqtida ketdi. Bu ikkinchi tashrif, yana diplomatik xarakterga ega bo'lib, Qaysarning o'limi bilan shoshilinch tarzda yakunlandi. Faktlar, hech bo'lmaganda Gruen o'qiganida, tanish fantaziyalardan ham ajoyib bo'ladi.

12. Karl Galinskiy, “Yunon va Rim dramasi va Aneyid” (275-94).

Bu erda dramatik diqqat V asr Afinaga qaratilgan. Galinskiy epik fojiali tuyg'uni Gomerga javob sifatida Afina fojiasi tajribasidan kelib chiqqan holda o'rganadi. U fikrini munozara orqali tasvirlab beradi Aneyid 9 (Nisus va Evyalus) va 12 (Turnusning o'limi). Rim dramasining Vergilning fojia tuyg'usiga ta'siri ancha qisqacha ko'rib chiqilgan.

13. Edvard Champlin, “ Agamemnon Rimda: Rim sulolalari va Yunon qahramonlari ” (295-319).

Nega Pompey o'zini Orest bilan Agamemnon yoki Oktavian (yoki Neron) bilan tanishtirish xavfini tug'diradi, Rim jamoatchiligining obrazlari va rimliklarning afsonaviy o'tmishdagi o'qishlarini qismlarga ajratish qobiliyati haqida qiziqarli savollar tug'diradi. Muammo etarlicha e'tiborga olinmagan va Champlin boy tadqiqot yo'nalishiga aylanishi mumkin bo'lgan muhim qadamni qo'yadi.

Bu insholarning har biri mustaqil, o'z izohlari va bibliografiyasi bor. (Ko'rsatilgan mavzular va qadimiy parchalarning kompozitsion indekslari orqada paydo bo'ladi.) Ayrim insholar bir -birini ayniqsa yaxshi to'ldiradi. Masalan, Kornel Purcell tomonidan mavhum tarzda tasvirlangan jarayonning amaliy ishini taqdim etadi. Galinskiydan yo'qolgan Rim elementlarini Fanthamdan taxmin qilish mumkin. Topografik dalillar Koarelli va Kroufordning bahslarida boshqacha tarzda namoyon bo'ladi va Zetselning tugashi va Treggari Edmund Berkning chaqiruvi bilan boshlanishi tasodif emas. Boshqa aloqalar o'rnatilishi mumkin va bo'ladi, chunki o'quvchilar o'z sevimlilarini aniqlaydilar va o'z uyushmalarini tuzadilar. O'quvchilar tez orada bilib olishlari mumkinki, bu kitobning boy mazmunini adolatga yaqinlashtirmayman.

Boshqa bir -birini to'ldiruvchi jarayon ham alohida e'tiborga loyiqdir. Bu qismlarni Piter Visemanning o'ziga xos qiziqishlari va tushunchalari bilan bog'lash uchun alohida harakat qilingan va Rim topografiyasi, ijtimoiy tarix, tarixshunoslik va ishlash amaliyotiga takroriy havolalar muharrirlarning muvaffaqiyatini ko'rsatadi. Yana bir aniq bo'lmagan aloqa ham ahamiyatlidir. Piter Visemanni rimshunoslikda shunday ajoyib shaxsga aylantirgan narsa shundaki, u empirizm va tasavvurning g'ayrioddiy baxtli kombinatsiyasi bo'lib, u doimo tushunishdan qo'rqmaydigan, aniq va kuchli nasrda taqdim etadi. Aynan rimliklar dunyosi bizniki bo'lmaganligi sababli, uning rekonstruksiyasi dalillarga asos solishni va uning cheklanganligini ochiq tan olishni talab qiladi. Bu erdagi insholar shunga o'xshash printsiplar asosida ishlaydi. Ular nazariyaga emas, balki qat'iy, ba'zida hatto tajovuzkor empirik, dalillarga asoslangan. Ularning taqdimoti shubhasiz sodda. Bu qayta tiklanadigan yoki yozadigan, joylashtiradigan yoki siljitadigan, muammoli, yopiq yoki so'roq qiladigan stipendiya emas. Bu insholarning ba'zilari baribir o'z mazmunida tubdan radikaldir. Ko'pchilik provokatsion. Hammasi qimmatli. Shuni eslatib o'tish joizki, juda ko'p turli xil yo'llar bizni rimliklarga qaytarishi mumkin va bu haqiqatni Piter Viseman hammadan yaxshi biladi.


T.P. Dono kishi

T.P. Wiseman va rsquos kitoblari o'z ichiga oladi Rim afsonalari, Yozilmagan Rim va Rim tomoshabinlari. Uning Yuliy Tsezarning siyosiy tarjimai holi noyabr oyida nashr etiladi.

Bu haqiqatan ham tarjima bo'lganmi? Lotin adabiyoti

T.P. Wiseman, 2016 yil 22 sentyabr

Lotin adabiyotining boshlanishi va#8203 - bu muhim voqea. Bir zumda u mavjud emas edi, keyin Livius ismli odam lotin tilida spektakl qo'yganidan keyin shunday bo'ldi. Hech bo'lmaganda, Tsitseron bundan ikki yuz yil o'tgach, miloddan avvalgi 46 -yilgi Brut bilan notiqlik tarixi bo'yicha muloqotda aytganga o'xshaydi. Katta Katonning nutqlari erta bo'lsa -da, degan fikrini oqlash uchun.

Lotin adabiyotining#8203 -yilining boshlanishi muhim voqea edi. Bir zumda u mavjud emas edi, keyin Livius ismli odam lotin tilida spektakl qo'yganidan keyin shunday bo'ldi. Hech bo'lmaganda shunday.

Yarim xudolar er yuzida yurganlarida: Rim afsonasi, Rim tarixi

T.P. Wiseman, 2007 yil 18 oktyabr

Rim necha yoshda? Bronza davriga mansub kulolchilik buyumlarining bo'laklari uzoq vaqtdan beri ma'lum bo'lgan, ammo yaqinda Kapitolin tepaligidagi qazishmalarda tabaqalanib ketgan sharoitda topilgan. Endi birinchi marta ishonch bilan aytish mumkinki, saytning doimiy ishg'ol qilinishi miloddan avvalgi 1300 yillarga borib taqaladi. So'nggi qazishmalar, shuningdek, ostidan temir davri qabristonini topdi.

Rim necha yoshda? Bronza davriga mansub kulolchilik buyumlarining parchalari uzoq vaqtdan beri ma'lum bo'lgan, lekin yaqinda tabaqalashtirilgan sharoitda, Kapitolin tepaligidagi qazishmalarda topilgan. Bu.


Rim tomoshabinlari: klassik adabiyot ijtimoiy tarix sifatida

Kitobda quyidagi gipoteza taklif qilingan: Rim dunyosidagi she'riy va nasriy bo'lmagan texnik bo'lmagan adabiyotlar birinchi navbatda keng jamoatchilik auditoriyasiga og'zaki etkazish uchun tuzilgan va yozma matnlarning nusxalanishi va aylanishi faqat ikkinchi darajali bo'lgan. "nashr etish" jarayonining bosqichi. Gipoteza Rim tarixining ming yillik tarixini, Rimning shahar-davlat sifatida shakllanishidan (miloddan avvalgi VII asr oxiri) xristian madaniyatining yakuniy o'rnatilishigacha (eramizning IV asrining oxirigacha) dalillarni tizimli tekshirish orqali tekshiriladi. Bu davrning dastlabki to'rt asrida. Ko'proq

Kitobda quyidagi gipoteza taklif qilingan: Rim dunyosidagi texnik bo'lmagan adabiyotlar, ham she'r, ham nasr, birinchi navbatda, keng jamoatchilik auditoriyasiga og'zaki etkazish uchun tuzilgan va yozma matnlarni nusxalash va tarqatish faqat ikkinchi darajali bo'lgan "nashr etish" jarayonining bosqichi. Gipoteza Rim tarixining ming yillik tarixini, Rimning shahar-davlat sifatida shakllanishidan (miloddan avvalgi VII asr oxiri) xristian madaniyatining yakuniy barpo etilishigacha (eramizning IV asrining oxirigacha) dalillarni tizimli tekshirish orqali tekshiriladi. Bu davrning birinchi to'rt asrida zamonaviy dalillar, albatta, bilvosita, arxaik yunon jamiyatiga o'xshab, terakota relyeflari, bo'yalgan kulolchilik va o'yilgan bronzalar ikonografiyasidan kelib chiqqan holda, lekin badiiy matnlar miloddan avvalgi 200 -yillarda mavjud bo'lganda, yaqin o'qish adabiy ishlab chiqarish va tarqatish shartlari to'g'risida ishonchli ma'lumotlar. Har yili "sahna o'yinlari" (ludi scaenici) ga alohida e'tibor qaratiladi, bu esa mualliflarga Rim xalqi bilan odatdagidek keng tomoshabinlarni yig'ishga imkon beradi. Adabiyot va drama o'rtasida aniq farq bo'lmasligi kerak va ba'zi adabiy janrlar, xususan, satira va "epilion" aktyorlar va raqqosalar ishtirokidagi spektakl an'anasining bir qismi sifatida yaxshi tushuniladi. Barcha dalillar adabiy tarixni Rim xalq madaniyatining siyosiy va ijtimoiy voqelikining bir qismi sifatida ko'rib chiqadi va miloddan avvalgi I asrda Rimda yirik doimiy teatrlar yaratilishining ta'sirini o'rganadi.


Davra suhbati

Tiberiy Klavdiy Tiberin qabridagi yozuv, Rim. Fotosurat Kleuske. Wikimedia Commons (CC BY-SA 3.0).

U o'z yoshidagi iqtidorlarni har tomonlama rag'batlantirdi. U nafaqat she'rlar va tarixlarni, balki nutq va dialoglarni ham o'qiganida, u xushmuomalalik va sabr bilan tinglardi. Ammo u haqida jiddiy bo'lmagan va eng taniqli kishilar haqida biror narsa yozilganida, u xafa bo'lgan va u musobaqalarda uning ismini kamsitishga yo'l qo'ymasliklarini ogohlantirgan.

CSuetoniusning ushbu ochiq parchasining uchinchi jumlasi sharhlovchilar tomonidan noto'g'ri talqin qilingan bo'lsa, Avgust Rimdagi mualliflar va ularning jamoatchiligi haqida muhim dalillarni taqdim etadi.

Pretorlar yillik yillik hisobot uchun mas'ul edilar ludi, apreldagi Megalenslardan noyabrdagi Plebeygacha, har yili Rim teatrlari va plyazalarida ellik olti kunlik "sahna o'yinlari" va Maximus sirkida o'n sakkiz kunlik "tsirk o'yinlari" qo'shiladi. Bu paytlar shoir yoki nasr muallifi o'z asarini Rim xalqiga etkazishga umid qilib, o'sha kunlarni ertalabdan to kechgacha to'ldirish uchun zarur bo'lgan har xil turdagi mashg'ulotlar yoki o'yin -kulgilar orasida o'z navbatini tanlagan. Ammo u qanday qilib pretor dasturiga kirdi? Agar u "eng taniqli" lardan biri bo'lganida, taklif qilinmasa, u taklif qilinadi, u musobaqalardan biriga kirishi kerak bo'ladi.

Biz ular haqida bilvosita, raqobat qilmagan shoirlardan bilamiz. Horace, Mecenas uyidagi kichik, ammo taniqli xususiy tomoshabinlar oldida chiqish qilishdan mamnun edi:

Men o'ynaydigan bu narsalar ma'badda, Tarpa bilan hakam sifatida raqobatda yoki teatr namoyishlari sifatida qayta -qayta qaytib kelishni anglatmaydi.

Men olijanob mualliflarni tinglaydigan va ularga hujumlardan qasos oladigan odam sifatida, adabiy doiralar va bosqichlarni tasvirlashga to'g'ri kelmaydi. Bu shunday muammoga nima sabab bo'ladi. Agar men: "Men gavjum teatrlarda o'zimning noloyiq yozganlarimni o'qishdan va mayda -chuyda narsalarga og'irlik qo'shishdan uyalaman", desam, kimdir javob beradi: "Siz kulasiz - narsalaringizni Jovning quloqlariga saqlaysiz".

Earpius ham faqat shaxsiy tasdiq uchun yozishni da'vo qilgan:

Men bunga erishganimdan so'ng, bu jamoatchilikning chalkash gaplari bilan xayrlashdi. Men xo'jayinim bilan sudda xavfsiz bo'laman.

Shubhasiz, kim hakamlik qilayotgani muhim edi. Papirus parchasi Kornelius Gallusning "Men sizdan sudya sifatida qo'rqaman, Kato", she'rining bir qismini saqlaydi va u "shoirlarning yagona tanlovchisi va yaratuvchisi" sifatida tanilgan Valerius Katoga murojaat qiladi. Horats tomonidan eslatilgan Maecius Tarpa singari, Kato ham o'yinda o'z dasturlari uchun eng yaxshisini tanlab, pretorlar uchun adabiy hakam bo'lganga o'xshaydi.

Biz bilmaydigan ko'p narsalar bor va biz notanish nuqtai nazarni ochadigan dalillarni e'tiborsiz qoldirmasligimiz muhim. E'tibor berilmagan narsalardan biri - XVIII asrda, Karakalla vannalaridan unchalik uzoq bo'lmagan joyda topilgan Tiberiy Klavdiy Tiberin qabridagi yozuv.

Tiberinus - Augustalis, miloddan avvalgi 7 yilda Avgust tomonidan yaratilgan, shaharning har bir mahallasi chorrahasida, Lares Avgustining (va o'z Geniusining) yangi kultiga g'amxo'rlik qilish uchun yaratilgan kamtar ruhoniylik a'zosi. Avgustales odatda ozod bo'lganlar edi, lekin Tiberinus erkin tug'ilgan va bundan g'ururlanar edi, u o'zi yozgan Esquilina saylov okrugi to'liq yozilgan edi (odatda qisqartirilgan). O'ziga xos ism, u patris Tiberiy Klavdiyning ozod qilingan o'g'lining o'g'li ekanligini, ehtimol Liviyaning birinchi eri yoki Tiberiy Tsezar bo'lgan o'g'li yoki imperator Klavdiyning nabirasi edi.

Tiberinus yigirma yoshlarida vafot etdi va qabrni qo'ygan onasi unga o'z hikoyasini zo'r epitaf bilan elegiya qo'shiqlari bilan aytib berishni buyurdi:

Siz, sayohatchim, kim bo'lsam ham, mening qabrim ostonasida o'tirsangiz, iltimos, shoshilgan sayohatingizni tekshiring. Buni o'qing, shunda siz hech qachon bevaqt o'lim uchun qayg'urmaysiz.

Siz mening ismimni yozuvga biriktirilgan holda topasiz. Rim - mening tug'ilgan shahrim, ota -onam haqiqiy plebeylar edi, keyin mening hayotim hech qanday kasallik bilan buzilmadi. Bir paytlar men odamlarning sevimlisi sifatida tanilgan edim, hozir men yig'lab yuborilgan pirdan ozgina kulman.

Kim kulgili yuz bilan yaxshi kechalarni ko'rmagan va mening quvnoqligim men bilan kech qolganini kim ko'rmagan? Bir paytlar men oqsoqolga o'xshash o'lchovlarda pirlarning ohangdorligi bilan bardlarning asarlarini o'qishga mahoratli edim, Gomer she'ri bilan nafas oladigan she'rlarni, Qaysarning forumida yaxshi ma'lum bo'lgan she'rlarni gapirishni yaxshi bilardim.

Afsuski, ota -onamning ko'z yoshlari bilan yig'lagan butun vujudimdan sevgi va ism qoldi. Ular men uchun gulchambarlar va yangi gullar joylashtiradilar, shunda men Elisium vodiysida qolganman. Taqdirim menga delfin va qanotli Pegasusdan o'tadigan yulduzlar kabi tug'ilgan kunlarni berdi.

Shubhasiz, bu professional ko'ngilochar xususiy partiyalar uchun ham ochiq bo'lgan bo'lsa -da, uni odamlarning sevimli mashg'ulotiga aylantirgan omma buyurtmalari bo'lishi kerak. Pretor har doim ham shoirlarni shaxsan ijaraga bera olmagan va har qanday holatda ham professional ijrochi shoir matni bilan yaxshiroq ish qilishi mumkin edi.

Shu o'rinda biz avgust adabiyotining barcha asarlarining eng ramzi haqida o'ylashimiz kerak. Virjiliy o'z hayotida juda mashhur bo'lgan va hamma uni bilardi Aneyid asar bo'lardi. Garchi uning o'zi bundan hech qachon qoniqmagan bo'lsa -da, Avgust vafotidan keyin matn saqlanganligiga ishonch hosil qilgan. Lekin u yozilgan auditoriyaga qanday etib kelgan? Javob Tiberinus singari, "Gomer oyatidan nafas olgan she'rlarni gapirishga mahoratli" odamlarning ishi orqali bo'lishi kerak. Va, albatta, tomoshabinlar ularni yaxshi ko'rishardi.

Bunday asarlar "Qaysarning forumida yaxshi ma'lum" edi - bu juda jumboqli ibora. Miloddan avvalgi 54 yilda Yuliy Tsezar tomonidan boshlangan Forum Iuliumni nazarda tutgan holda, bu haqiqiy toponim bo'lganmi? Yoki bu "Qaysarning jamoat joyi" ning ta'rifi, Palatin maydoniga tegishli bo'lganmi? Ikkala variant ham mumkin, lekin Tiberin Augustalis bo'lgani uchun, Lares kultining avgust mavzusi va joylari bilan tasdiqlangan assotsiatsiyasi, ehtimol, ikkinchisiga ma'qul kelishi mumkin.

Biz Tiberin epitafining sanasini bilmaymiz, lekin uning plebey tug'ilishi va erkin fuqarolik maqomi bilan faxrlanishi Avgust davrining axloqiga mos keladi. Shahzoda hokimiyati pleb tribunalarining an'anaviy vakolatlaridan foydalangan holda fuqarolar organini himoya qilish deb ta'riflangan. Uning hayot tarzi ataylab oddiy edi, uning biografi Suetonius aniq aytganidek:

U konsul bo'lganida, u odatda piyoda piyoda yurar, ko'pincha ochiq axlatxonada konsul bo'lmaganida. O'zining ochiq auditoriyasida u hatto oddiy odamlarni ham tan oldi, unga murojaat qilganlarning iltimoslarini shunday qabul qildi, u "filga tangadek" o'z iltimosnomasini uzatganida ikkilanib qolgani uchun hazillashib tanbeh berdi.

Ba'zida u kechki ovqatga kech etib, erta chiqib ketar edi, chunki mehmonlari uning o'rnini egallashidan oldin ovqatlana boshlashdi va u ketganidan keyin ham davom etardi. U kechki ovqatlarni uchta yoki oltita eng saxovatli, ortiqcha xarajatlarsiz, lekin juda xushmuomalalik bilan xizmat qilar edi. Chunki u sukut saqlaganlarni yoki jim gapiradiganlarni umumiy suhbatda ishtirok etishga undaydi. U o'yin -kulgilarni, aktyorlarni yoki hatto tsirkdagi ko'cha o'yinchilarini va tez -tez hikoyachilarni aralashtirib yuborardi.

"Ko'ngil ochish" (akroamata) tez -tez she'r o'qish edi va Tiberinus kabi ijrochilar, o'yinlar boshlangan paytda, o'z vatandoshlariga bo'lgani kabi, Avgustning oshxonasida ham mehmonlarga zavq bag'ishlayotganini tasavvur qilish oson.

Suetonius shunday dedi: "U o'z e'tiborini sharafladi," ommaviy shoularda o'z xizmatlarini taklif qilganlarning har bir toifasi. " Ko'zga ko'ringan misol, bravura ijrosi bilan mashhur yulduz raqqosa Pylades edi Herkulning jinniliklari. Makrobiusdan Saturnaliya:

Bu spektaklda u hatto tomoshabinlarga o'q otdi va u xuddi shu rolni Augustusning ovqat xonasida buyurtma qilganida kamonini tortdi va o'qlarini otdi. Qaysar Pylades uchun u va Rim xalqi bir xil pozitsiyani egallaganidan xafa bo'lmagan.

Albatta, u emas edi: nima uchun u bo'lishi kerak? U saroyda imperator emas edi. U respublikani oligarxiya hukmronligidan ozod qilgan Qaysar edi. Uning uyi hurmatli, lekin hashamatli emas edi, birinchi fuqaroga (knyazlarga) mos edi. Faqat uning sudyasi katta ommaviy bayonot berdi, u oligarxlarning musodara qilingan shahar uylaridan qurgan maydonini ochdi. Bu maydonda biz o'z davrining shuhrati bo'lgan shoirlar o'z asarlarini Rim xalqiga o'qishlari yoki kuylashlarini taklif qildik.


Yarim xudolar er yuzida yurganlarida

Rim necha yoshda? Bronza davriga mansub kulolchilik buyumlarining parchalari uzoq vaqtdan beri ma'lum bo'lgan, lekin yaqinda tabaqalashtirilgan sharoitda, Kapitolin tepaligidagi qazishmalarda topilgan. Saytning doimiy ishg'oli miloddan avvalgi 1300 yillarga borib taqaladi, deb birinchi marta ishonch bilan aytish mumkin. So'nggi qazishmalar, shuningdek, bir asr oldin Palatin ostidagi Sakra Via yonida (Antoninus va Faustina ibodatxonasi yonida) topilgan Kapitolin ostidagi temir asrga mansub qabristonni (keyinchalik Qaysar forumi) aniqlagan. Tabiiy xulosa shuki, har birining o'z dafn marosimiga ega bo'lgan ikkita jamoa bor edi, ehtimol yaqin atrofda boshqalar bo'lishi mumkin edi, masalan, zamonaviy shaharning sharoitlari, masalan, Quirinalda tizimli tadqiqotni imkonsiz qiladi.

Sacra Via qabristoni deb nomlanuvchi arxeologik bosqichda yopildi Kultura laziale IIA1, miloddan avvalgi 970 yoki 870 yillarda, siz bir vaqtning o'zida qaysi tanishuv konventsiyasidan foydalanganingizga qarab, Esquiline platosidan bir chaqirim narida yangi qabriston ochilgan edi, u sakkiz yoki to'qqiz asr davomida, Avgustga qadar ishlatilgan. Maecenas uni shahar atrofi bog'i sifatida qayta qurdi. Bu qo'shni jamoalarning zamonaviy tarixdan oldingi odamlar "lsquoproto-urban" va "rsquo Rim" deb ataydigan katta birlikka birlashishini anglatishi mumkin. Ammo asl yadrolari, qaysidir ma'noda, Palatinning atrofini o'rab turgan va miloddan avvalgi 730 yillarga tegishli bo'lgan alohida devorlar edi, 1988 yilda kashf etilgan. O'sha paytga kelib, ularning aholisi va ularning Lotin va Etrusk qo'shnilari O'rta er dengizining sharqidan kelgan savdogarlar bilan uzoq vaqtdan beri tanish bo'lishgan. Egey orolidan Euboeans va Ionians va Yunon materikidan Korinfliklar. Tiberdagi birlashgan jamoaning nomi yunoncha so'zning lotinlashtirilgan shakli edi. uy, & lsquostrength & rsquo.

Taxminan miloddan avvalgi 650 yilga kelib, Sitsiliya va Italiyaning janubida, Neapol ko'rfazigacha shimolda o'ndan ortiq yunon mustamlakachi aholi punktlari bo'lgan. Biz yunon mifologiyasi deb ataydigan an'anaviy qahramonlik hikoyalari, bu yangi va yunonni o'z ichiga olish uchun ishlab chiqilgan. Troya qulaganidan so'ng, Eney va mag'lub bo'lgan troyanlar g'arbga qochib ketishdi. Adashgan Odissey xuddi shu suvlarda suzib yurdi. Circe va Rsquos oroli, Liberiya qirg'og'ida, Tiber oqimidan ellik mil narida, mustahkam joylashgan edi. Geraklning o'ninchi Mehnatkashligi (lotincha Gerkules) endi u Geryonning chorva mollarini Italiya va Sitsiliya bo'ylab haydab ketayotganini, g'arbda gigantlarni mag'lubiyatga uchratganini va darhol ilohiylik bilan taqdirlanishini ko'rdi. Mollar haqidagi hikoyani Sitsiliyaning shimoliy qirg'og'idagi Yunonistonning Himera koloniyasidan bo'lgan shoir (Stesichorus) aytgan, ehtimol miloddan avvalgi 600-yillardan taxminan ikki avlod o'tgach, Heraklning ilohiyligi yonidagi ma'baddagi haykal guruhida nishonlangan. Rimdagi daryo porti. O'sha paytda Rim hukmdori, ehtimol, boy korinf savdogaridan kelib chiqqanligini da'vo qilgan Tarquinius bo'lishi mumkin.

Miloddan avvalgi 507 yilda Tarquiniusni va uning oilasini Rimdan quvib chiqargan inqilob, Rim siyosiy tarixidagi birinchi ishonchli voqea va bu voqea ishonarli, chunki u Kuma hukmdori bilan qiziqqan yunon mualliflari vakolatiga kirgan. , Neubol yaqinidagi Evo koloniyasi, surgun qilingan Tarkiniy boshpana topgan. Uch asr o'tgach, rimliklarning o'z adabiyoti yo'q edi. Miloddan avvalgi III asr oxirida Rim va Gannibal bilan urush paytida yozgan epik shoir va dramaturg Gney Nevius va tarixchi Fabius Piktor davrida Romul va Rem haqidagi afsonalar vujudga kelgan. . Naeviusning so'zlariga ko'ra, egizaklar Aena va rsquo qizi Ilianing o'g'illari edi, albatta, troyanlik ayol va rsquo, shoir sanalarni ishlatmaydi, lekin o'sha paytgacha yunon tarixshunosligi Gomer va Troya ertakiga mos keladigan xronologiyani qo'lga kiritgan, Naevius va bu hikoya. Romulus miloddan avvalgi 1130 yilga kelib, Rimga asos solgan. Tarixchi sifatida sanalarni ko'rsatishi kerak bo'lgan Fabius, miloddan avvalgi 747 yilgi sakkizinchi olimpiadaning birinchi yilida poydevor qo'ydi, Romul esa Enadan kelib chiqqan lotin qirollarining uzoq sulolasining avlodlari edi.

Bu ulkan tafovut rimliklarning uzoq o'tmish haqidagi tasavvurining tarixiy bo'lmaganligini ko'rsatadi. Ikkala sana ham zamonaviy arxeologik rekordlarga ziddir, xuddi xuddi Rim mustamlakachi aholi punkti bo'lgani kabi, bitta poydevor tuzish g'oyasi ham. Lekin bu biz kutishimiz kerak bo'lgan narsa. Hikoyaviy voqealarni yozishga majburlamagan jamiyatlar bundan ikki avlod oldin sodir bo'lgan voqealar haqida ishonchli ma'lumotga ega bo'la olmaydi, faqat ota -bobolarimiz davrida sodir bo'lgan voqealar haqida faqat tekshirib bo'lmaydigan hikoyalar mavjud.

Bunday jamiyatlar bir vaqtning o'zida qat'iy tarixiy mezonlarga mos kelmaydigan hikoyalarga ishonishlari mumkin. Gerakl Geron mollari bilan Tiber vodiysidan tushganda, uni Palatinada o'z xalqini o'sha erga joylashtirgan, Arcadian Pallantiondan kelgan yunon qiroli Evander kutib oldi. Onasi payg'ambar ayol qahramon va bashorat qiladigan apofiz haqida bashorat qilganida, Evander Buyuk qurbongohni o'rnatdi.eng yuqori) that was the centre of the cult of Hercules throughout the history of Rome. It was quite close to the Lupercal, where the infants Romulus and Remus were abandoned and then found and suckled by the she-wolf. But that happened in the wild, not in an Arcadian colony, and when the twins grew up and chose that place to found their city, there wasn&rsquot one there already.

The Romans founded their own colonial settlements in Italy from the fourth century BC onwards, and they laid them out where possible in rectangular form, ritually marking the line of the walls with a furrow cut by an ox-drawn plough. Naturally, they thought their own city had been created in the same way: according to the traditions reported by Dionysius, Plutarch and Appian, Romulus &ndash or Romulus and Remus together &ndash marked out &lsquosquare Rome&rsquo with each side four stadia in length (about 740m), big enough to enclose the Palatine.

Even if we make an arbitrary choice and use Fabius Pictor&rsquos date rather than Naevius&rsquo, the chronological interval between the &lsquofoundation&rsquo and the earliest author to record it is more than five centuries, comparable to the interval between the supposed date of the fall of Troy and the composition of the Homeric epics, or between the supposed post-Roman context of King Arthur and Geoffrey of Monmouth&rsquos Britaniya qirollarining tarixi. In each of these three cases, serious scholars still try to make the legend fit the archaeology and turn it into history. See, for instance, Joachim Latacz&rsquos Troia und Homer (2001), Christopher Gidlow&rsquos The Reign of Arthur: From History to Legend (2004), or Andrea Carandini&rsquos Archeologia del mito (2002) and Remo e Romolo (2006). Carandini is the leading archaeologist of early Rome it was he who excavated the Palatine walls in 1988, and announced to the world that his discovery proved the historicity of the foundation story as we have it in Ovid and Plutarch. &lsquoWho is it,&rsquo he demanded, &lsquowho interprets the walls in terms of foundation by a first king (whether or not we call him Romulus): Andrea Carandini? Or more than twenty generations of Romans with no gap in the continuity of their memory?&rsquo Carandini relies on the unexamined concept of &lsquocultural memory&rsquo: the idea that the walls themselves, bits of which may still have been visible in the time of Augustus, were a lieu de mémoire which somehow transmitted the knowledge of who built them and why.

What is needed to structure this epistemological free-for-all is a thorough, properly nuanced account of the Romans&rsquo concept of time &ndash and in Denis Feeney&rsquos excellent new book, that is very nearly what we have. Caesar&rsquos Calendar consists of three pairs of chapters: &lsquoSynchronising Times&rsquo, &lsquoTransitions from Myth into History&rsquo and &lsquoYears, Months, and Days&rsquo. The first is a superb exploration of what it was like to live in a world that had no agreed way of numbering years, and how, by the development of synchronisms between events &ndash or supposed events &ndash in different parts of their world, Greek and Roman scholars evolved a composite overall chronology which culminated in Eusebius&rsquo Chronici Canones, with their base list of years dated from the birth of Abraham. Feeney rightly insists on the key contribution of Sicilian Greek writers in the Hellenistic period &ndash particularly Timaeus of Tauromenium, the first author to show any serious interest in Rome &ndash and on the effect of Roman imperial expansion, which made it necessary to &lsquograft the Romans into the deep past of the Mediterranean&rsquos time webs&rsquo. (It is hard to think about this subject without resorting to metaphor but Feeney is a subtle writer, and doesn&rsquot often test his readers&rsquo patience.)

The third pair of chapters deals with the various time systems used by the Romans. For instance, though they sometimes placed events in years &lsquofrom the foundation of the city&rsquo (ab urbe condita), such dates were relative, not absolute, since the time of the &lsquofoundation&rsquo was itself disputed and the same applied to the other starting points that were sometimes used, such as &lsquofrom the expulsion of the kings&rsquo or &lsquofrom the capture of the city by the Gauls&rsquo. Feeney observes:

All of these schemes &ndash eras, millennial and centennial anniversaries, epochs and saecula &ndash are attempts to impose meaningful shape on the flux of past time, and to create a sensation of monitored progress through time. They are of particular importance in a setting where there was no one common grid of chronology, but a medley of diverse tools for orientation in time. Patterns were not picked out of a pre-existing frame of decades and centuries grounded on an unshakeable foundation, as may so readily be done now, but manufactured anew on many occasions.

The closest the Romans came to an agreed chronological system was in the list of annual magistracies, as when Horace refers to a bottle of vintage wine &lsquoborn with me in the consulship of Manlius&rsquo. Augustus transcribed the whole list from the beginning of the Republic onto his triumphal arch in the Roman Forum many fragments of it survive, and Feeney brilliantly illustrates the visual impact of the change when each year begins to carry the name of Imperator Caesar Divi filius Augustus, not as consul but by virtue of the &lsquotribunician power&rsquo granted him by the Roman people and annually renewed. Augustus also controlled the days and months, thanks to the calendar created by his father, Julius Caesar, which for the first time represented the real length of the year without significant slippage.

In all of this, the book&rsquos stated aim of &lsquobringing to light the power and significance of the dating mentality that was surrendered in the transition to the universal numerical grid&rsquo of BC/AD dating is realised with elegance and erudition. The second pair of chapters, however, the significance of which is underlined by the book&rsquos subtitle as well as by its central position, seems to me much less compelling.

All three components of the title &lsquoTransitions from Myth into History&rsquo demand much more careful definition than they get. The first two paragraphs refer repeatedly to this &lsquotransition&rsquo, &lsquothe contentious horizon between myth and history&rsquo, the &lsquopassage from myth to history&rsquo, as if it were self-evident that this was a concept familiar to the Greeks and Romans, and the only question were where in time it should be placed. Feeney knows that &lsquomore and more scholars nowadays are inclined to deny that there is much value in the language of &ldquomythical time&rdquo and &ldquohistorical time&rdquo, holding that these distinctions are not current in the ancient world,&rsquo but wants to &lsquopush back on the pendulum before it gathers too much momentum&rsquo. I think his effort is in vain.

Herodotus created the discipline of history (as opposed to telling stories about the past) when he began his &lsquoinquiries&rsquo into the origin of the Persian Wars with Croesus, &lsquothe man who I myself know was the first to act unjustly against the Greeks&rsquo. Croesus was king in Lydia a little longer than a century before Herodotus was carrying out his inquiries that far back, he could get reliable information which enabled him to take responsibility for the essential accuracy of his narrative. Feeney rightly sees this as Herodotus &lsquomarking what he will vouch for and what he will not&rsquo, but then goes on to describe the distinction as &lsquoHerodotus&rsquo tension between myth and history&rsquo, &lsquoas he grapples with demarcating his material from the material of myth&rsquo. It is true that mythos in Greek, like fabula in Latin and &lsquomyth&rsquo and &lsquolegend&rsquo in English, can be used to mean any kind of story that is not susceptible to verification but that is not how Feeney wants to use it here.

It is a pity that, among the multifarious aspects of time, Feeney deliberately chose to exclude &lsquoindividual memory, transience and mortality&rsquo. The sort of history practised by Herodotus and Thucydides, Polybius and Tacitus, requires the exploitation of the memory of living people to achieve a reliable narrative. Those historians knew that beyond the memory of man, the past could only be reconstructed by rational conjecture, or inference from any records that happened to survive. But other writers were quite prepared to use those methods and to narrate the distant past as history. Mythos va fabula were usually defined not chronologically but by the nature of particular stories and though most historians were unwilling to include miracle stories or direct divine interventions, regarding them as the province of poets, there were some who protested against even that limitation as implicitly denying the power and goodwill of the gods.

Feeney&rsquos argument, however, assumes that myth refers to a different sort of past, softening &lsquothe potentially destabilising discrepancy between the nature of experience now and then, when demigods are said to have walked the earth&rsquo. The second chapter of the middle pair is about &lsquothe ages of gold and iron&rsquo, an ahistorical myth which does indeed presuppose such a distinction, but Feeney slides from one conception to the other by giving disproportionate significance to the tale of Troy:

The fall of Troy was . . . a mark in time. On the other side of that demarcation live the heroes, who converse with gods and lift rocks it would take twelve men now to lift on this side of the demarcation begins the movement into current human history.

The Trojan War, then, is a key marker of a transition from a period of myth to a period of history, as the first beginning of a scientific historical chronology, and as the moment of passage from a more blessed time of heroes and gods to the continuous time of history.

Certainly, the combined prestige of Homer and the Athenian tragic dramatists gave the Trojan stories a particular prominence, but they were not different in kind from those of Herakles, Theseus and the war against Thebes, which were agreed to be chronologically earlier. Historians did not feel obliged to start from Troy: Ephorus began with the &lsquoreturn of the Herakleidai&rsquo, Pompeius Trogus with Ninus the king of Assyria, Diodorus with the creation of the world. The search for &lsquoa gigantic hinge between myth and history&rsquo is doomed from the start.

The Romans would not have understood Feeney&rsquos claim that Aeneas came to Italy in &lsquoheroic time&rsquo, but Romulus founded Rome in &lsquohistorical time&rsquo. When Livy says in his preface that narratives about the period before the foundation were &lsquocloser to the fabulae of poets than to uncorrupted history&rsquo, he is not distinguishing categories of time but justifying his own choice of starting point. It was always open to historians to begin earlier &ndash and to include poetic fabulae shuningdek. Valerius Antias reported King Numa&rsquos conversation with Jupiter Dionysius of Halicarnassus described the manifestation of Hercules at Rome in 312 BC. Varro began his Genealogy of the Roman People with Ogyges of Thebes, the first king of the first city, 2100 years before his own time, in whose reign the great flood took place which gave rise to the Roman festival of the Lupercalia. The chronological scheme of Velleius Paterculus&rsquo history of Rome took as its starting point the deification of Hercules, which he placed forty years before the fall of Troy.

How old was Rome? There was no single answer. In 44 BC an Etruscan prophet announced the conclusion of the ninth saeculum (and immediately died, having revealed a divine secret) in AD 19 panic was caused by an oracle threatening the end of Rome after &lsquothrice three hundred years&rsquo. Learned writers had their own chronological systems, but there was no agreement. So it is just as fallacious for Andrea Carandini to favour one view as &lsquothe tradition&rsquo, and to try to square it with the archaeology, as it is for Denis Feeney to propose that Greek and Roman scholars deliberately sought to bring the foundation date out of &lsquomythic time&rsquo and into &lsquohistory&rsquo. Romulus was always history (in their terms), and always myth (in ours).


T.P. Wiseman - History

History has been a passion of mine since I discovered how much we qilmoq know about the past. I particularly remember being astonished to find out, in my early teens, that the barbarian invasion of the Roman Empire was not a time of complete chaos with no historical record, but rather that we know pretty well what happened and when. Despite enjoying and doing well in history in junior school (age 15) I did not continue it in senior, opting for science subjects instead. I don't regret this, because I think history is more accessible to an interested amateur than is science.

    The transition from Roman Britain to early-mediaeval England and Wales is, to me, one of the most fascinating periods in history. The struggle and ultimate failure of one society to defend itself against decline and replacement by another is bound to be interesting. It is of course the time of the real "King Arthur", if there ever was such a person. It has become a hobby for me to try to reconstruct the history of the 5th and 6th centuries in Britain. I first put this website up c.1997, and it has been evolving ever since.


The Cambridge Ancient History

Bu kitobga quyidagi nashrlar iqtibos keltirgan. Ushbu ro'yxat CrossRef ma'lumotlari asosida tuzilgan.
  • Nashriyot: Kembrij universiteti matbuoti
  • Online publication date: March 2008
  • Print publication year: 1994
  • Online ISBN: 9781139054379
  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521256032
  • Subjects: Ancient History, Classical Studies
  • Collection: Cambridge Histories - Ancient History & Classics
  • Series: The Cambridge Ancient History

Kutubxonachingiz yoki ma'muringizga elektron pochta orqali ushbu kitobni tashkilotingiz va#x27 to'plamingizga qo'shishni tavsiya eting.

Kitob tavsifi

Volume IX of the second edition of The Cambridge Ancient History has for its main theme the process commonly known as the 'Fall of the Roman Republic'. Chapters 1-12 supply a narrative of the period from 133 BC to the death of Cicero in 43 BC, with a prelude analysing the situation and problems of the Republic from the turning-point year 146 BC. Chapters 13-19 offer analysis of aspects of Roman society, institutions, and ideas during the period. The chapters treat public and private law, the beginnings of imperial administration, the economy of Rome and Italy, and the growth of the city of Rome, and finally intellectual life and religion. The portrait is of a society not in decay or decline but, rather, outstripping its strength and attracting the administrations of men who rescued it at the price of transforming it politically.

Sharhlar

"The new CAH IX is a welcome achievement, a readable and reliable political narrative with significant thematic contributions that mark major progress in sophistication and incisiveness of thought." The Classical Journal


Videoni tomosha qiling: Энергетическая конструкция человека. Исконные знания. Строение человека в невидимом мире. Тайна.