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Jeannette Rankin Montana shtatidagi siyosatchi bo'lib, 1916 yilda AQSh Kongressiga saylangan birinchi ayol sifatida tarixga kirgan. U, shuningdek, ikkala jahon urushida qatnashishga qarshi ovoz bergan Kongressning yagona a'zosi edi. Bir nechta yallig'lanish muammolari bo'yicha tortishuvli pozitsiyalarni egallashdan qo'rqmagan Rankin, ayollarning saylov huquqi harakatining etakchisi va umrbod pasifist edi.
Janet Rankinning dastlabki yillari
Jeannette Rankin, 1880 yil 11 -iyunda tug'ilgan, Montana o'lkasidagi Missula yaqinidagi oilasining ranchosida o'sgan. Etti bolaning to'ng'ichi Rankin ukalariga g'amxo'rlik qilish, xo'jalik ishlarini bajarish va qishloq xo'jaligi texnikasini saqlashda yordam berdi. Uning erta hayot tajribasi g'arbiy chegarada erkaklar bilan yonma-yon ishlash, ayollarning ovoz berish huquqi haqidagi siyosiy qarashlarini shakllantiradi.
1902 yilda Montana shtati universitetini (hozirgi Montana universiteti) tugatgandan so'ng, Rankin San -Frantsisko va Nyu -Yorkda ijtimoiy ishchi sifatida qisqa vaqt ishladi. Keyin u Vashington shtatiga ko'chib o'tdi va u erda ayollarning saylov huquqiga qo'shildi, bu kurash 1910 yilda Vashington Ittifoqning ayollarga ovoz berish huquqini bergan beshinchi shtati bo'lganida avj oldi.
Rankin Amerikalik ayollarning saylov huquqlari milliy assotsiatsiyasida professional lobbichi bo'lib ishladi, ayollarning ovoz berish huquqi haqida gapirish va lobbi qilish uchun mamlakat bo'ylab oldinga va orqaga sayohat qildi. Uning asosiy shtati o'z uyida shtat harakatlarini uyushtirdi, 1914 yilda Montana shtatining ayollarini ovoz berish huquqini qo'lga kiritdi.
1916 yildagi Kongress saylovlari
Ikki yil o'tgach, Rankin Montana shtatining AQSh Vakillar palatasining ikkita ochiq joyidan biriga saylov kampaniyasini o'tkazdi. U siyosiy jihatdan nufuzli ukasi Vellingtonning moliyaviy ko'magi bilan ilg'or respublikachi sifatida yugurdi.
Rankin federal lavozimga nomzod bo'lgan birinchi ayol emas edi. 1866 yilda supragist Elizabet Kedi Stanton Nyu -Yorkda Kongressga o'tirish uchun ramziy taklifni e'lon qildi, Ogayo shtatida tug'ilgan Viktoriya Vudxull 1872 yilda prezidentlikka nomzod bo'ldi.
Jeannette Rankin ijtimoiy farovonlik masalalari, AQShning Birinchi jahon urushidagi betarafligi va har bir shtatda ayollar uchun ovoz berish huquqi bo'yicha kampaniya o'tkazdi. U tarixni 1916 yil 7 noyabrda, 7500 ovoz farqi bilan g'alaba qozonib, Kongressning birinchi ayol a'zosi bo'ldi.
Uning muddati 1917 yil aprelda boshlanganidan ko'p o'tmay, AQSh prezidenti Vudro Vilson Kongressdan Germaniyaga urush e'lon qilib, "dunyoni demokratiya uchun xavfsiz qilish" ni so'radi. Pasifistik qarashlarga ega bo'lgan Rankin Amerikaning urush e'lon qilishiga qarshi ovoz berdi. 1917 yil 6 aprelda bu qaror Vakillar palatasi tomonidan 373-50 ovoz bilan qabul qilindi.
Ayollar saylov huquqi
Qolgan ikki yillik muddat davomida Janet Renkin ayol ishchilar, onalar va bolalarni himoya qilish choralarini qo'llab-quvvatladi.
U Vakillar palatasida konstitutsiyaga o'zgartirish kiritish uchun kurash olib borgan va ayollarga saylov huquqini beradigan qo'mitaning asoschilaridan biri bo'lgan.
Rankin 1918 yilgi Kongress Kongressida ayollarning konstitutsiyaviy saylov huquqini o'zgartirish bo'yicha munozarani ochib, prezident Uilsonning AQShning Birinchi jahon urushiga kirishini qo'llab -quvvatlash haqidagi nutqini eslatdi.
"Demokratiya uchun dunyoni xavfsiz qilish uchun ovoz bergan o'sha Kongress mamlakatimiz ayollariga bu kichik demokratiya o'lchovini berishdan bosh tortsa, ularga demokratiyaning ma'nosini qanday tushuntiramiz?" u e'tiroz bildirdi.
1918 yilgi tuzatish Palatadan o'tdi, lekin Senatda vafot etdi. Shtatlar va federal hukumatga ayollarga ovoz berish huquqini bermaslikni taqiqlovchi 19 -tuzatish bo'lgan shunga o'xshash qaror, Rankin o'z lavozimidan ketganidan keyin, 1919 yilda ikkala palatada ham qabul qilingan.
Ikkinchi Kongress muddati
1918 yilda mustaqil ravishda AQSh Senatida o'tirish uchun muvaffaqiyatsizlikka uchragan Jannet Rankin o'z lavozimini tark etdi va keyingi yigirma yil ichida o'z vaqtini pasifistik va ijtimoiy farovonlik sabablariga ajratdi.
U 1929 yildan 1939 yilgacha Urushni oldini olish milliy kengashining lobbisi va ma'ruzachisi bo'ldi.
AQShning boshqa jahon urushiga aralashuvi yaqinlashib qolganida, Rankin yana yugurdi va 1940 yilda Montana shtatidan Vakil etib saylandi. Kongressning ikkinchi muddatida u uyida xizmat qilayotgan ettita ayoldan biri edi.
Yaponlar 1941 yil 7 -dekabrda Pearl -Harborni bombardimon qilishganidan so'ng, Janet Rankin Ikkinchi jahon urushiga qarshi yagona ovoz berdi, bu esa uni AQShning ikkala jahon urushida qatnashishiga qarshi ovoz bergan yagona Kongress a'zosi qildi.
"Men ayol sifatida urushga borolmayman va boshqa hech kimni yuborishdan bosh tortaman", dedi u.
Rankinning urushga qarshi ovoz berishiga qarshi keskin javob bo'ldi. G'azablangan odamlar unga zarar etkazish bilan tahdid qilishganda, Rankin o'z ofisiga politsiya eskortini kutayotib, respublikachilar kiyinish xonasi ichidagi telefon kabinasida o'zini yopdi.
Rankinning harakatlari urush tarafdorlari matbuotida keng masxara qilindi. Uning mashhur emasligini hisobga olib, u 1942 yilda qayta saylanmaslikka qaror qildi.
Keyinchalik, Rankin ko'p vaqtini dunyo bo'ylab sayohat qildi. U, ayniqsa, Hindistonga jalb qilingan, u erda o'zini Maxatma Gandining zo'ravonliksiz qarshilik ta'limotiga bag'ishlagan.
1960-yillarda Jeannette Rankin amerikaliklarning yangi avlodiga urushga qarshi faolligi bilan tanildi. 1968 yilda u Vashington urushiga qarshi namoyish qilish uchun 5000 ga yaqin feministlar, pasifistlar, radikallar va talabalardan iborat Jeannette Rankin Tinchlik brigadasini boshqargan.
Janet Rankin 1973 yilda 92 yoshida vafot etdi. U vafot etganda Vetnam urushiga norozilik sifatida Vakillar palatasi o'rindig'iga boshqa nomzodni qo'yishni o'ylardi.
Rankin, Janett; Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari Vakillar palatasi, tarix, san'at va arxiv.
Ayollar uchun ovoz berish; Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari Vakillar palatasi, tarix, san'at va arxiv.
Jeannette Rankin: AQSh Senati.
Xillari Klintonga yo'l ochgan Kongressmen; Siyosat. 2016 yil 2 -noyabr.
Jannat Rankinning tarjimai holi, Kongressga saylangan birinchi ayol
Jeannette Rankin ijtimoiy islohotchi, ayol saylov huquqi faoli va pasifist edi, u 1916 yil 7 noyabrda Kongressga saylangan birinchi amerikalik ayol bo'ldi. Bu muddatda u AQShning Birinchi jahon urushiga kirishiga qarshi ovoz berdi. AQShning Ikkinchi jahon urushiga kirishiga qarshi ovoz berdi va Kongressda ikkala urushga qarshi ovoz bergan yagona odam bo'ldi.
Tez faktlar: Jeannette Rankin
- To'liq ismi sharif: Janet Pikering Rankin
- Bilingan: Suffragist, pasifist, tinchlik tarafdori va islohotchi
- Tug'ilgan: 1880 yil 11 -iyun, Montana shtatining Missoula okrugida
- Ota -onalar: Olive Pickering Rankin va Jon Rankin
- O'lgan: 1973 yil 18-may, Kaliforniya shtati, Carmel-by-the-Sea shahrida
- Ta'lim: Montana shtati universiteti (hozirgi Montana universiteti), Nyu -York xayriya maktabi (hozirgi Kolumbiya universiteti ijtimoiy ish maktabi), Vashington universiteti
- Asosiy yutuqlar: Kongressga saylangan birinchi ayol. U 1917-1919 va 1941-1943 yillar Montana shtatining vakili
- Tashkiliy aloqalar: NAWSA, WILPF, Milliy iste'molchilar ligasi, Jorjiya tinchlik jamiyati, Janet Rankin brigadasi
- Mashhur iqtibos: "Agar men o'z hayotimni qayta boshdan kechirgan bo'lsam, hammasini qaytadan qilardim, lekin bu safar men yomonroq bo'lardim."
Holbuki: Xalq uyidan hikoyalar
Rankinning 1916 yil noyabr oyida uyga saylanishi uning mashhurlik maqomiga olib keldi va u ayollarning saylov huquqini hal qilish uchun jamoatchilik e'tiboridan oqilona foydalandi. U va uning xodimlari "Hearst" gazetasi sindikatiga yarim haftalik ustun yozdilar va u jurnalistlarga tez -tez intervyu berib turardi. U kamdan -kam hollarda uy tashqarisidagi fuqarolik guruhlariga murojaat qilish imkoniyatini qo'ldan boy berdi. Uning taktikasi va Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari 1917 yil aprelda Birinchi Jahon Urushiga kirganida Kongressning barcha lobbichilik faoliyatini to'xtatgan Milliy Amerika Ayollar Saylov Assotsiatsiyasi (NAWSA) taktikasi, ba'zida raqib bo'lgan Milliy Ayollar Partiyasi (NWP) boshchiligida keskin yengillikka erishdi. Elis Pol. 1917 yil yanvar oyida NWP Oq uyning har kungi hushyorligini boshladi, bu ayollarning saylov huquqi bo'yicha harakatlarni talab qildi - bu qaror dastlab istehzo va keyinchalik urush paytida vatanparvarlik yo'qligi uchun dushmanlikka sabab bo'ldi.
Bunday muhitda Rankinning Kongressda bo'lishi ayollarning ovoz berish huquqlarini milliy kun tartibida saqlab qoldi. U Kaliforniya shtatidan demokrat Jon E. Rakerning ovoz berish qonunchiligiga adolatli sud qo'mitasini chetlab o'tishga ruxsat beruvchi, faqat ayollarning saylov huquqi bilan bog'liq qonun loyihalarini ko'rib chiqadigan yangi doimiy qo'mita tuzish haqidagi taklifini ma'qulladi. Saylov huquqini alohida shtatlar ixtiyorida qoldirgan prezident Vudro Vilson, Rakerning tashabbusini konstitutsiyaga o'zgartirish kiritishni talab qilmasdan, ayollarning huquqlarini qo'llab -quvvatlash yo'li sifatida qo'llab -quvvatladi. Rankin May oyida uy qoidalari qo'mitasida Raker taklifi bo'yicha guvohlik berdi va 6 iyun kuni Rakerning rezolyutsiyasi yangi qo'mitani ko'rib chiqish uchun qabul qilinishidan oldin barcha kutilmagan urush choralari ko'rilishi sharti bilan palataga ma'qul keldi. Rankin rahbarligi ortida NAWSA Rakerning taklifini ma'qulladi va Kongressni NWP noroziligiga qarshi vosita sifatida qayta boshladi.
Reyker qarori 24 -sentabr kuni uylar qavatiga etib bordi. Shimoliy Karolinadan Qoidalar qo'mitasi raisi Edvard V. Pou "bu respublikaning hayoti xavf ostida bo'lgan paytda va amerikalik ayollar navbatchilik chaqirig'iga birdek javob berishganda. erkaklar ”saylov huquqi qo'mitasi zarur edi. "Biz ushbu organ a'zosi sifatida Amerika Kongressidagi birinchi ayol vakilga egamiz", dedi Pau qarsaklar bilan. "U oxirgi bo'lmaydi, janob ma'ruzachi."
Rankin rezolyutsiyani ma'qulladi va yangi qo'mita Kongressning shtatlarga qoldirilgan taqdirda o'zgartirish qanchalik qiyinligini inobatga olgan holda bu masalaga sodiqligini ta'kidlaydi. "Balki siz uchun yangilik bo'lsa, Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlarining ba'zi ayollarini hech qachon federal tuzatishlarsiz huquqidan mahrum qilish mumkin emas", dedi u, "chunki ba'zi shtatlarning konstitutsiyalariga tuzatish kiritish deyarli imkonsizdir. ular » O'lchov osonlik bilan amalga oshirildi, 180 dan 107. So'ngra, ba'zilar Rankin Ayollar saylov huquqi qo'mitasini boshqaradi deb taxmin qilishdi, lekin ozchilik vakili sifatida bu ehtimoldan yiroq edi. Shunga qaramay, u respublikachilar reytingida xizmat qilish sharafiga sazovor bo'ldi - bu katta a'zolari qonun chiqaruvchi hokimiyatning katta qismini egallagan muassasa birinchi kursi a'zosining g'ayrioddiy nodidir.
Ayollar saylov huquqining muxoliflari, yangi qo'mitaning ishiga to'sqinlik qilish uchun har qanday imkoniyatdan foydalanib, faolligini saqlab qolishdi. Dekabr oyida Sud qo'mitasi raisi, Shimoliy Karolina shtatidan Edvin Yeyts Uebb, uyga ayollarning saylov huquqi to'g'risidagi konstitutsiyaviy tuzatishini yubordi, unga etti yillik ratifikatsiya oynasi kirdi. Uning qo'mitasi bu masalani to'la -to'kis o'rganib chiqdi, deb bahslashib, Vebb uyni "qarorni qo'limizdan olishimiz kerakligi haqidagi saylov huquqlari bilan rozi emasligini" aytdi. Raker zudlik bilan norozilik bildirdi, lekin raisning qaroriga binoan, Adliya qo'mitasi Ayollar saylov huquqi qo'mitasi tuzilgunga qadar unga berilgan barcha saylov huquqlarini saqlab qoldi. Missuri shtati spikeri Champ Klark murosaga kelgan holda, barcha saylov huquqi choralarini qayta kiritishni so'radi va Raker qo'mitasiga yuborildi, u 1918 yil 10 yanvargacha yangi qonun loyihasi to'g'risida hisobot berishi kerak edi.
Raker vaqtni yo'qotmadi. Ayollar saylov huquqi qo'mitasi o'z eshituvlarini 1918 yil 3 yanvarda, guvohlar ovoz berish huquqini o'zgartirishga qarshi va qarshi ko'rsatma berish bilan boshladi. Sud majlisida Rankin saylov huquqi tarafdorlarining dalillarini kuchaytirdi va muxolifat mantig'idagi kamchiliklarni ta'kidladi. Sobiq senator Jozef V. Beyli ovoz berish "fuqarolikning barcha majburiyatlarini" bajarishi mumkin bo'lganlar bilan cheklanishi kerak, deb guvohlik berganida, Rankin: "AQSh Senatida armiyada xizmat qila olmaydigan erkaklarimiz bor, lekin ular ajoyib senatorlar. "
1918 yil 10 -yanvar kuni ertalab Kapitoliy saylov galasi munozarasi uchun uy galereyasidan joy olish uchun erta kelgan odamlar bilan gavjum edi. Ko'pchilik tushlik va trikotaj buyumlarini olib, uzoq bahsga tayyorgarlik ko'rgan ayollar edi. NAWSA rahbariyati - Kerri Chepman Katt va boshqalar spiker Klarkning mehmonlari edi. Munozaradan bir kun oldin, qonun Uilson tomonidan qo'llab -quvvatlanganligini e'lon qildi, chunki bu "to'g'ri va adolat harakati" va "urush chorasi" edi.
Saylovchilarning dastlabki g'alabasi sifatida, Vakillar palatasi Qoidalar qo'mitasi, Adliya qo'mitasining hisobotiga umuman e'tibor bermay, Ayollar saylov huquqi qo'mitasi hisobotini erga olib chiqishga qaror qildi. O'sha kuni ko'rib chiqiladigan qoida munozarani to'rt qismga ajratdi. Rais Raker rezolyutsiyaning demokrat tarafdorlari uchun vaqtni nazorat qildi, Virjiniya shtatidan Edvard Uotts Saunders esa demokrat raqiblarga vaqt ajratdi. Missuri shtatidan Jeykob Edvin Meeker respublikachi raqiblarni boshqarishga saylandi va Rankin respublikachilar tarafdorlari uchun vaqtni nazorat qilish uchun tanlandi. O'sha kuni unga faqat bitta ayol uy qavatida qo'shildi: May Offterdinger, rais Raker yonida o'tirgan ayollarning saylov huquqlari qo'mitasining kotibi.
Rankin munozarani boshqaradi
Reyker munozarani ochish uchun minbarga yaqinlashganda, Massachusets shtatidan respublikachi Jozef Uolsh birdaniga so'radi: "Miss Rankinga munozarani ochishga ruxsat bersangiz, bu sizning rejalaringizga jiddiy ta'sir qilarmidi?" Raker darhol Rankinga bo'ysundi.
U amerikalik ayol rahbarlarni chaqirishni boshladi: Syuzan B. Entoni, Elizabet Kedi Stanton, Klara Barton, Meri Livermor, Xarriet Bexer Stou, Frensis Uillard, Lusi Stoun, Jeyn Addams va boshqalar - "barchasi hukumatdan ayollarga ruxsat berishni so'ragan. milliy farovonlikka yanada samarali xizmat qilish. " Rankin bu masala endi urush davrida ko'tarilganini aytib, ayollarga o'z millatiga xizmat qilish imkoniyatini berishni so'radi. "Millat hech qachon o'z ayollariga muhtoj emas - qo'llari, yuragi va ongining ishiga muhtoj", dedi u.
Bu masalani shtatlarga qoldirish kerak deb hisoblaganlarga u oddiy xabar yubordi. "Biz armiyamizni shtatdan emas, Kongress orqali safarbar qildik va jihozladik", deb eslatdi u. "Bizning ayollar, bizning uy mudofaamiz, demokratiya uchun kurashda bizning yagona kurashchilarimiz bo'la oladimi? Demokratiya uchun kurashda hamma oldinga intildi - nafaqat frontdagilar, balki dehqonchilik bilan shug'ullanadigan dehqon, kiyim tikuvchi tikuvchi va yer ostidan mis qazib oluvchi.
U o'z so'zlarini davomli qarsaklar bilan yakunladi. "Biz bu erkaklar va ayollarga bizning demokratiyaga bo'lgan noroziligimizning samimiyligiga birdaniga shubha qilishlariga yo'l qo'yib bera olamizmi? Janoblar, biz ularning da'vosiga qanday javob beramiz, agar demokratiya uchun dunyoni xavfsiz qilish uchun urush uchun ovoz bergan Kongress mamlakatimiz ayollariga demokratiyaning bu kichik o'lchovini berishdan bosh tortsa, ularga demokratiyaning ma'nosini qanday tushuntiramiz? "
O'sha kuni Rankinning borligi ayollarning Amerika siyosatida yangi rolni egallaganligi haqida kuchli va vizual eslatma bo'lib xizmat qildi. Agar ayollar endi federal saylov vakolatlarini egallashi mumkin bo'lsa, nega hamma amerikalik ayollar federal saylovlarda ovoz bera olmadi? Uning misolining notiqligi o'sha kuni qilingan har qanday nutqdan ancha ustun edi. Konstitutsiyaga tuzatish sifatida, rezolyutsiyada palataning uchdan ikki qismi ovoz berishi kerak edi va u eng nozik farq bilan 274 dan 136 gacha g'alaba qozondi (agar kerak bo'lsa, ma'ruzachi Klark hal qiluvchi ovoz berishga tayyor edi). Qarsaklar va olqishlar e'lonni kutib oldi.
O'sha kuni shov -shuvli ritorikaga qaramay, Senat Kongressda saylov huquqini o'zgartira olmadi (ayollarning saylov huquqi to'g'risidagi qonun loyihasi - 19 -tuzatish bo'ladi - keyingi Kongressda ratifikatsiya qilish uchun shtatlarga yuborilgan). Shunga qaramay, 1918 yil yanvar oyida uydagi g'alaba 70 yil oldin Seneca sharsharasida boshlangan saylov huquqi harakatining asosiy belgisidir. Tarixchilar uyning qishki oqshomdagi harakatining turli sabablarini ko'rsatmoqdalar: NAWSAning shtat va milliy darajadagi saylov kampaniyalari, NWPning to'g'ridan-to'g'ri harakatlari, prezident Uilsonning 1916 yildan beri ayollar saylov huquqini respublikachilar tomonidan qo'llab-quvvatlashi.
Va bu o'zgaruvchilarning har biri, shubhasiz, natijaga asoslansa -da, ular yakka shaxsning ta'sirini hisobga olmaydilar: Jeannette Rankin, bu harakatni ommaviy qabul qilgan, saylov huquqi qo'mitasini tuzishga qaror qilgan, notiqlik va, ehtimol - Kongressdagi birinchi ayol sifatida barqaror misol, ayollarning ovoz berish huquqini Amerikaning kun tartibiga qo'ydi va uni haqiqatga yaqinlashtirdi.
Manbalar: Kongress rekordi, Uy, 65 -Kong., 2d sessiyasi. (1918 yil 10 yanvar) Atlanta Konstitutsiyasi, 1917 yil 25 sentyabr, 1918 yil 11 yanvar Louisville Courier-Journal, 1918 yil 11 yanvar Chikago Daily Tribune, 1917 yil 25 sentyabr, 1918 yil 11 yanvar Christian Science Monitor, 1917 yil 19 may, 1917 yil 7 iyun, 1917 yil 4 sentyabr, 1917 yil 13 dekabr, 1918 yil 10 yanvar New York Times, 1917 yil 11 dekabr, 1917 yil 12 dekabr, 1917 yil 16 dekabr, 1917 yil 19 dekabr, 1918 yil 11 yanvar Nyu -York Tribunasi, 1917 yil 11 -dekabr Vashington Post, 1917 yil 25 sentyabr, 1917 yil 12 dekabr Xanna Jozefson, Jeannette Rankin, Kongressning birinchi xonimi: tarjimai holi (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merril, 1974) Aleksandr Keyssar, Ovoz berish huquqi: AQShda demokratiyaning bahsli tarixi (Nyu -York: Asosiy kitoblar, 2000) Devid E. Kyvig, Aniq va haqiqiy harakatlar: AQSh Konstitutsiyasiga o'zgartirishlar, 1776-1995 (Lawrence: Kanzas universiteti matbuoti, 1996) Norma Smit, Jeannette Rankin: Amerika vijdoni (Helena: Montana Tarixiy Jamiyati Matbuoti, 2002).
Saylovning 100 yilligi va Kongressda birinchi ayolning qasamyod qilishi sharafiga biz erta a'zo ayollar va institutdagi ayollarning o'rni o'zgarishi haqida bir qator blog postlarini nashr etdik.
Rankin, Janett (1880-1973)
Janet Reynkinning hayoti g'ayrioddiy yutuqlarga to'la edi: u Kongressga saylangan birinchi ayol, Kongressga saylangan sayg'oqchilarning biri va AQShning Birinchi jahon urushida ham, Ikkinchi jahon urushida ishtirok etishiga qarshi ovoz bergan yagona Kongress a'zosi. "Men Kongressning birinchi ayol a'zosi bo'lishim mumkin", dedi u 1916 yilda saylanganida. "Ammo men oxirgi bo'lolmayman." 1
Jannat va maktab o'qituvchisining to'ng'ich qizi Janett Rankin 1880 yil 11 iyunda Montana shtatining Missoula shahri yaqinida tug'ilgan. 1902 yilda Montana shtati universitetini (hozirgi Montana universiteti) tugatgan va Nyu -Yorkdagi xayriya maktabida o'qigan. keyinchalik Kolumbiya universiteti ijtimoiy ish maktabi). Qisqa muddat Vashington shtatining Spokane shahrida ijtimoiy ishchi bo'lib ishlaganidan so'ng, Rankin Sietldagi Vashington universitetiga o'qishga kirdi. Aynan o'sha erda u 1910 yilda Vashington shtatida o'z maqsadiga erishgan ayollarning saylov huquqi harakatiga qo'shildi. Rankin Amerikalik ayollarning saylov huquqlari milliy assotsiatsiyasining (NAWSA) professional lobbisiga aylandi. Uning so'zlashuvi va tashabbuskorligi Montana ayollariga 1914 yilda ovoz olishga yordam berdi.
Rankin 1916 yilda Montana shtatidan uyga saylanishga qaror qilganida, uning ikkita asosiy afzalligi bor edi: uning supragist sifatida obro'si va siyosiy jihatdan yaxshi bog'langan akasi Vellington, u o'z kampaniyasini moliyalashtirgan. Ba'zi milliy ayollarning saylov huquqi rahbarlari, bu sababni yo'qotib, zarar etkazishidan qo'rqishdi. Biroq, Kongressga nomzod bo'lgan ayolning yangiliklari Rankinga 1916 yil 29-avgustda Montanadagi ikkita katta uydan biri uchun GOP nomzodini olishga yordam berdi. ijtimoiy farovonlik masalalariga alohida e'tibor qaratildi. Uzoq vaqtdan beri tinchliksevar bo'lgan u saylovchilarga AQShning ikki yildan buyon davom etayotgan Evropa urushidagi ehtimoliy ishtiroki haqida o'z fikrlarini bildirishdan qochmadi: “Agar ular urush qilmoqchi bo'lsa, ular chollarni va Yoshlarni musobaqani targ'ib qilish uchun qoldiring. " 3 Rankin Montana o'rindiqlaridan birini qo'lga kiritib, ikkinchi bo'ldi. U birinchi o'rinni egallagan Demokratik Vakil Jon M. Evansdan 7600 ovoz bilan ortda qoldi, lekin u keyingi nomzodni - boshqa demokratni - 6000 ovoz bilan ortda qoldirdi. Rankin, umuman partiyalarga milliy dushmanlik davrida, demokratik davlatda partiyasiz kampaniya o'tkazdi. Va bu Montana ayollari uchun federal saylovda ovoz berish uchun birinchi imkoniyat edi. "Men o'z zimmamga yuklangan mas'uliyatni juda yaxshi tushunaman", - dedi uning g'alaba haqidagi bayonoti. 4
Rankinning xizmati Germaniya Atlantika okeanining barcha kemalarida cheksiz suv osti urushini e'lon qilganidan keyin Kongressni aprel oyining navbatdan tashqari sessiyasiga chaqirgandan so'ng keskin boshlandi. 1917 yil 2 aprelda u 65 -Kongressning boshqa a'zolari (1917–1919) bilan birga qasamyod qilish uchun Kapitoliyga keldi. 5 Montanadagi hamkasbi kuzatib qo'ygan Rankin, "baquvvat ayolga emas, balki etuk kelinga" o'xshardi, bir kuzatuvchi shunday yozgan edi: "... Uning ismi uy deb atalganda, u ko'tarilib, ikki marta ta'zim qilishi kerak edi. u o'zini butun mulk bilan qildi. " 6
O'sha kuni kechqurun Kongress qo'shma yig'ilishda yig'ildi va prezident Vudro Vilson Germaniyaga urush e'lon qilib "dunyoni demokratiya uchun xavfsiz qilish" so'radi. Uy 5 -aprel kuni urush rezolyutsiyasini muhokama qildi. Rankinning pasifistik qarashlarini hisobga olgan holda, u urushga moyil edi. Saylov huquqi harakatidagi hamkasblar, urushga qarshi ovoz berish butun ishni buzishidan qo'rqib, ehtiyot bo'lishga chaqirdi. Rankin urush haqidagi munozarani olib bordi, keyinchalik bu qaroridan pushaymon bo'ldi. 7 U ovoz berishda qisqacha nutq so'zlab, uy qoidalarini bexosdan buzgan. "Men o'z mamlakatim yonida bo'lishni xohlayman, lekin urushga ovoz berolmayman", dedi u uyga. "Men" yo'q "deb ovoz beraman. 8 Yakuniy ovoz 374 ta urush rezolyutsiyasiga, 50 tasi qarshi edi. Xelen Mustaqil uni "nemis targ'ibotchilarining qo'lidagi xanjar, AQShdagi Hunlar armiyasining a'zosi, Kaiserning dupi va yig'layotgan maktab o'quvchisi" ga o'xshatdi, garchi Montananing Rankin ofisiga yuborgan xat AQSh aralashuviga qarshi chiqqan bo'lsa ham. 9 NAWSA saylov huquqini Rankindan uzoqlashtirdi: "Miss Rankin millatning saylovchilariga ovoz bermadi, u Montananing vakili." 10 Boshqalar, masalan, Nyu -York vakili Fiorello LaGuardiya, uni himoya qilishga shoshildi. 11
Birinchi ayol a'zo sifatida Rankin milliy saylov huquqi kurashining frontlarida edi. 1917 yilning kuzida u ayollarning saylov huquqi bo'yicha qo'mitasini tuzishni yoqladi va u tashkil etilgach, unga tayinlandi. 12 Maxsus qo'mita 1918 yil yanvar oyida ayollarning saylov huquqiga konstitutsiyaviy o'zgartirish kiritgani haqida xabar berganida, Rankin bu masala bo'yicha "Uy qavatining birinchi munozarasi" ni ochdi. 13 "Janoblar, biz qanday javob beramiz?" deb so'radi u. "Demokratiya uchun dunyoni xavfsiz qilish uchun ovoz bergan o'sha Kongress mamlakatimiz ayollariga bu kichik demokratiya o'lchovini berishdan bosh tortsa, ularga demokratiyaning ma'nosini qanday tushuntiramiz?" 14 Qaror galereyalardagi ayollarning shod -xurramligida Palatani tor doirada qabul qildi, lekin u Senatda vafot etdi. 15
Rankin bu tadbirda Montana saylov okrugini e'tiborsiz qoldirmadi. U g'arbiy masalalar bilan shug'ullanadigan jamoat erlari qo'mitasiga tayinlangan. Butda sodir bo'lgan kon falokati natijasida konchilarning mehnat sharoitlari tufayli ommaviy norozilik namoyishi bo'lib o'tdi, tez orada zo'ravonlik boshlandi. Mo''tadil konchilar kasaba uyushmalarining iltimoslariga javoban, Rankin Uilson ma'muriyatidan qonunchilik va inqirozga shaxsiy aralashuvi orqali yordam so'radi. Bu urinishlar muvaffaqiyatsizlikka uchradi, chunki tog' -kon kompaniyalari na u bilan, na konchilar bilan uchrashishdan bosh tortishdi. 16 Rankin konchilik manfaatlarini zarba berayotgan konchilarni qo'llab -quvvatlashi uchun xarajat kutishini kutdi. "Ular davlatga egalik qiladi", dedi u. "Ular hukumatga tegishli. Ular matbuotga egalik qiladi ”. 17
1918 yilgi saylovlardan oldin, Montana shtatining qonun chiqaruvchi organi shtatning ikkita katta o'rindig'ini ikkita alohida tumanga almashtirgan qonunni qabul qildi va Rankin o'zini demokratik g'arbiy okrugda topdi. 18 Hozirgi prezident bilan raqobatlashish yoki boshqa partiya nazorat qiladigan okrugda qatnashish ehtimoliga duch kelib, u AQSh Senatiga nomzod bo'lishga qaror qildi. Rankin "Urushni birinchi navbatda yut" shiori ostida yugurdi va Uilson ma'muriyatini "urushni yanada samarali ta'qib qilish uchun" qo'llab -quvvatlashga va'da berdi. 19 Uch tomonlama tanlovda Rankin respublikachi senatorlar partiyasida ikkinchi o'rinni egalladi va g'olibdan 2 mingdan kam ovoz ortda qoldi. 20
Respublikachilar uni olib ketish uchun pora berishgani haqidagi ayblovlar uni imkonsiz vazifa-umumiy saylovda uchinchi tomon chiptasi bilan qatnashishga majbur qildi. "Pora taklif qilinmaydi, siz ularni isbotlay olasiz va men pora olmaganligimni isbotlash uchun men yugurishim kerak edi", deb eslaydi u keyinchalik. 21 Amaldagi demokrat senator Tomas Uolsh Rankinni kam baholamadi: "Agar miss R.ni qo'llab -quvvatlaydigan partiya bo'lsa, u xavfli bo'lardi". 22 Oxir-oqibat, Rankin berilgan ovozlarning beshdan bir qismini qo'lga kiritib, uchinchi o'rinni egalladi, Uolsh ko'p ovoz bilan qayta saylandi. Ajablanarlisi shundaki, Respublikachilar partiyasidan Rankin uyi nomzodi ozgina g'alaba qozondi. 23
Keyin Rankin o'z vaqtini pasifizm va ijtimoiy farovonlik o'rtasida taqsimladi. U 1919 yilda Shveytsariyada o'tkazilgan "Doimiy tinchlik uchun ayollar xalqaro konferentsiyasi" da qatnashgan va Xalqaro tinchlik va erkinlik ligasiga qo'shilgan. 1928 yilda u shtatdagi fermani sotib olgach, Jorjiya tinchlik jamiyatini tuzdi. Rankin 1929 yildan 1939 yilgacha Urushning oldini olish milliy kengashining etakchi lobbisi va ma'ruzachisi bo'ldi. U ijtimoiy ta'minot dasturlarini ilgari surishda ham faol edi. 1920 -yillarning boshlarida u Milliy iste'molchilar ligasining kotibi bo'lgan. Rankinning faoliyati asosan Kongressni Sheppard -Tauner to'g'risidagi qonun loyihasi va bolalar mehnatini taqiqlovchi konstitutsiyaviy tuzatish kabi ijtimoiy himoya qonunlarini qabul qilish uchun lobbichilik qilishdan iborat edi.
1940 yilda yaqinlashib kelayotgan urush inqirozi Rankinni Kongressga qaytarishga olib keldi. U Montanaga qaytib keldi va g'ayratli respublikachilar partiyasi vakili Jeykob Torkelsonning g'ayrioddiy antisemit uyi tumanini ko'zlari bilan qaytdi. 24 Rankin o'z maqomini Kongressga saylangan birinchi ayol sifatida urush va tinchlik mavzusida o'rta maktab o'quvchilariga gapirib berdi. Respublikachilarning dastlabki natijalari e'lon qilinganida, Rankin uchta nomzodni, shu jumladan amaldagi nomzodni ham mag'lub etdi. 25 Umumiy saylovda u Torkelson tomonidan o'tgan saylovda Kongressdan chetlatilgan Jerri J. O'Konnellga duch keldi. Rankin poygaga tog' -kon sanoati endi u ilgari duch kelgan og'ir siyosiy ta'sirni o'tkazmasligiga ishongan holda kirdi. 26 Eminent Progressives uni tasdiqladi: senator Robert M. LaFollette, Viskonsin shtatidan va Nyu -York shahrining meri Fiorello LaGuardiya. 27 Saylov kuni Rankin 54 foiz ovoz bilan ikkinchi muddatga-birinchi muddatga saylanganidan atigi chorak asr o'tmay, Palataga qayta saylandi. 28 "Bu safar menga hech kim e'tibor bermaydi", deb bashorat qilgan g'olib. "Ayol saylanishida g'ayrioddiy narsa yo'q." 29
24 yil oldin bo'lgani kabi, urush tahdidi Rankinning yangi muddatining boshlanishida ustunlik qildi. U jamoat erlari qo'mitasi va izolyatsiya masalalari bo'yicha qo'mitaga tayinlandi, bu past darajadagi ikkita qo'mita, ammo shunga qaramay, u o'zining g'arbiy saylov okrugiga foydalidir. Rankin saylangan paytga kelib, Evropadagi urush to'liq kuchga kirdi va AQShning ishtiroki haqida munozara boshlandi. Bu qizg'in munozarada Rankin yakkalanuvchi etakchi guruh-Amerika Birinchi Qo'mitasiga qurolli munosabatda edi. Ko'pincha Franklin Ruzveltning yangi bitim siyosatining muxoliflaridan iborat. Rankin, ularning ichki rejalari bilan hamdardlik ko'rsatdi. 30
Shunga qaramay, Rankin o'zining pasifist qarashlarini sessiyaning boshida ma'lum qildi. Ittifoqchilarning urush harakatlarini ta'minlash uchun "Lend-Lizing" loyihasini muhokama qilish paytida, u 1941 yil fevral oyida AQSh qo'shinlarini chet elga yuborish uchun Kongressning maxsus roziligini talab qiladigan muvaffaqiyatsiz tuzatishni taklif qildi. "Agar Buyuk Britaniyaga bugun bizning materialimiz kerak bo'lsa, - so'radi u, - keyinchalik u bizning erkaklarimizga kerak bo'ladimi?" 31 may oyida u "AQSh qurolli kuchlarini G'arbiy yarim sharning tashqarisidagi har qanday joyga yoki Qo'shma Shtatlarning er osti mulklariga yuborish" harakatlarini qoralovchi rezolyutsiya kiritdi. 32 U keyingi oyda o'z iltimosini takrorladi, ammo natijasi bo'lmadi. Rankinning pozitsiyasi g'ayrioddiy emasligini prezident Franklin Ruzveltning 1941 yil kuzida Amerika savdo kemalarini qurollantirishga ruxsat berish haqidagi iltimosini qondirgani yaqqol namoyon bo'ldi.
Rankin nutq so'zlash uchun Detroytga ketayotganida, yaponlarning Pearl -Harborga qilgan hujumini eshitdi. U ertasi kuni ertalab Vashingtonga qaytib keldi va AQShning urushda qatnashishiga qarshi chiqdi. Prezident Ruzvelt Kongressning qo'shma majlisida ma'ruza qilganidan so'ng, palata va senat urush e'lon qilish uchun yig'ilishdi. Uyda urush to'g'risidagi rezolyutsiyaning birinchi o'qilishi tugagach, Rankin bir necha bor tan olinishga urindi. Qisqa bahsda Texas spikeri Sem Raybern uni tan olishdan bosh tortdi va uni ishdan chiqqan deb e'lon qildi. Boshqa a'zolar uni o'tirishga chaqirishdi. Boshqalar unga uyning qavatida yaqinlashib, uni urushga ovoz berishga yoki betaraf qolishga ishontirishga harakat qilishdi. 35 Qo'ng'iroq ovozi qabul qilinganda, Rankin "Yo'q" deb ovoz berdi. 36 Rankin davom etdi: "Men ayol sifatida urushga borolmayman va boshqa hech kimni yuborishdan bosh tortaman". 37 Urush rezolyutsiyasi 388–1 -uyni qabul qildi.
Uning o'rnini qoralash darhol va shiddatli bo'lib, Rankinni ofisiga politsiya eskortini qabul qilishdan oldin qisqa vaqt ichida telefon kabinasida o'tirishga majbur qildi. 38 "Men o'z e'tiqodimga ovoz berdim va saylov kampaniyasidagi va'dalarimni sotib oldim", dedi u o'z saylovchilariga. 39 "Montana sizga 100 foiz qarshi", - dedi ukasi Vellington. 40 Yakkama -yakka u do'stlariga: "Menda halollikdan boshqa hech narsa qolmagan", dedi. 41 Ovoz asosan Rankinning qolgan muddatlarini ahamiyatsiz qildi. O'z fikrini bildirib, u faqat Germaniya va Italiyaga urush e'lon qilganida, "hozir" ovoz berdi. 42 U hamkasblari va matbuot unga e'tibor bermasligini topdi. U 1942 yilda qayta saylanish uchun qatnashmaslikni tanladi va uning okrugi izolyator respublikachining o'rniga uchta harbiy bo'linmada xizmat qilgan, internatsionalist demokrat Mayk Mansfildni qo'ydi.
Rankin Kongressni tark etganidan keyin ham vaqtini Montana va Jorjiya o'rtasida taqsimlashni davom ettirdi. Hindiston Mohandas K. Gandining zo'ravonliksiz norozilik taktikasi uni jalb qilgan eng sevimli ekskursiyalaridan biriga aylandi. Vetnam urushi paytida u 5000 kishilik Jeannette Rankin brigadasini boshqargan, 1968 yil yanvar oyida Vashingtonda uyushtirilgan norozilik yurishida Massachusets shtatining Vakillar palatasi spikeri Jon Makkormakka tinchlik so'rovini taqdim etgan. 1970 yilda uning 90 yilligi Rayburn House ofis binosida ziyofat va kechki ovqat bilan nishonlandi. At the time of her death, on May 18, 1973, in Carmel, California, Rankin was considering another run for a House seat to protest the Vietnam War.
1 Cited in Winifred Mallon, “An Impression of Jeannette Rankin,” The Suffragist (March 31, 1917).
2 Norma Smith, Jeannette Rankin: America’s Conscience (Helena: Montana Historical Society Press, 2002): 99.
3 Smith, Jeannette Rankin: 101.
5 Hannah Josephson, Jeannette Rankin, First Lady in Congress: A Biography (Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs–Merrill, 1974): 68–70.
6 Washington Wife: Journal of Ellen Maury Slayden from 1897–1919 (New York: Harper & Row, 1962, 1963): 299.
7 In December 1917 during the debate over war with Austria–Hungary, Rankin did speak, though she voted in favor of the resolution. At that time, she said, “I still believe that war is a stupid and futile way of attempting to settle international disputes. I believe that war can be avoided and will be avoided when the people, the men and women in America, as well as in Germany, have the controlling voice in their government.” See, Josephson, Jeannette Rankin: 84 Smith, Jeannette Rankin: 114.
8 Josephson, Jeannette Rankin: 76 Smith, Jeannette Rankin: 112 and Nancy Unger, “RANKIN, Jeannette Pickering,” American National Biography (ANB) 18 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999): 142.
9 Josephson, Jeannette Rankin: 77 see page 75 for public opinion mail.
10 Smith, Jeannette Rankin: 113.
11 Josephson, Jeannette Rankin: 66.
12 When the committee was established, there was a move to make Rankin the chair, despite her belonging to the minority party. See, Josephson, Jeannette Rankin: 93–94.
13 Smith, Jeannette Rankin: 123.
14 Josephson, Jeannette Rankin: 97–98.
15 Ibid., 99 Smith, Jeannette Rankin: 125–126.
16 Josephson, Jeannette Rankin: 88–92 Smith, Jeannette Rankin: 127–133.
17 Smith, Jeannette Rankin: 131.
18 Josephson, Jeannette Rankin: 102–103 Smith, Jeannette Rankin: 133–134.
19 Smith, Jeannette Rankin: 135.
20 Oscar Lanstrum received 18,805 votes and Rankin 17,091 out of 46,027 cast. See, Smith, Jeannette Rankin: 137.
21 Josephson, Jeannette Rankin: 104. See also, Smith, Jeannette Rankin: 137–138.
22 Smith, Jeannette Rankin: 140.
23 Michael J. Dubin et al., U.S. Congressional Elections: 1788–1997 (Jefferson, NC: McFarland Company, Inc., Publishers, 1998): 424 428.
24 Smith, America’s Conscience: 172–173. For a contemporary press account of Thorkelson’s reputation see, “:Democracy’s Mental Dissolution Pictured as Nazi Goal in U.S.,” 20 July 1940, Christian Science Monitor: 15.
25 Smith, Jeannette Rankin: 172–175 Josephson, Jeannette Rankin: 153–155.
26 Josephson, Jeannette Rankin: 156.
27 Smith, Jeannette Rankin: 176.
29 Smith, Jeannette Rankin: 177.
30 Josephson, Jeannette Rankin: 157 Smith, Jeannette Rankin: 180.
31 Smith, Jeannette Rankin: 180–181 Josephson, Jeannette Rankin: 158.
32 Josephson, Jeannette Rankin: 158–159.
33 Robert Dallek, Franklin D. Roosevelt and American Foreign Policy, 1932–1945 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995): 290–292.
34 Josephson, Jeannette Rankin: 160–161 Smith, Jeannette Rankin: 183.
35 Josephson, Jeannette Rankin: 161–162. The Mutual Radio Network, which had broadcast the president’s address, continued broadcasting in the House Chamber. As a result, portions of the House debate went out live over the radio until House officials realized what was happening during the roll call. As part of a National Public Radio feature, Walter Cronkite reports on this broadcast focusing on the war of wills between Speaker Rayburn and Rankin. “The Lone War Dissenter: Walter Cronkite Remembers Pearl Harbor, Jeanette Rankin,” NPR’s All Things Considered http://www.npr.org/programs/atc/features/2001/dec/cronkite/011207.cronkite.html (accessed August 10, 2004)
36 Josephson, Jeannette Rankin: 162.
37 Unger, “Rankin, Jeannette Pickering,” ANB: 142.
38 Josephson, Jeannette Rankin: 162 Smith, Jeannette Rankin: 183.
39 Smith, Jeannette Rankin: 184.
42 Josephson, Jeannette Rankin: 163–164 Smith, Jeannette Rankin: 186.
On this day, Jeannette Rankin’s history-making moment
It was on April 2, 1917 that Jeannette Rankin became the first woman in Congress. But within days, she became the target of national scorn for voting against America&rsquos entry into World War I.
Four years before the 19th Amendment's ratification, which extended the right to vote to all American women, Rankin was elected as the first woman member of Congress. A Republican from Montana, Rankin ran on a platform promising a constitutional amendment for woman&rsquos suffrage and reforms on other social welfare issues such as child labor. Despite the fact that she was elected in 1916, she wasn&rsquot sworn in as a Representative until April 2, 1917, only after Congress had a month-long debate about whether a woman was fit to be a United States Representative.
Born in 1880, Rankin was a trailblazer and activist from a young age. After graduating Montana State University, she worked as a social worker in Washington before joining the woman suffrage movement in that state, which extended to women the right to vote in 1910. By 1914 she was experienced in navigating the suffrage battle and she was a lobbyist for the National American Woman Suffrage Association, where she contributed to the woman suffrage campaign in Montana.
When she announced her candidacy for a House seat in Montana in 1916, some were understandably skeptical about her chances. While her election was a long shot, she benefitted from her political experience and reputation as an activist, and from support from her wealthy brother Wellington. During the campaign, she took a staunch pacifist position towards U.S. participation in World War I, and she pledged that she would not vote for any American involvement in the deadly European conflict. After her victory, she acknowledged the gravity of her achievement for women across the country and said that she was &ldquodeeply conscious of the responsibility resting upon&rdquo her.
On April 2 , the same day that she officially became the first female member of Congress, President Wilson addressed Congress encouraging it to pass a declaration of war and authorize United States involvement in World War I.
As she voted no on the declaration of war three days later, she told her colleagues &ldquoI want to stand by my country, but I cannot vote for war&rdquo. The resolution ultimately passed 373 to 50, but Rankin established herself as both an active member of Congress and a staunch anti-war representative.
The Helena Mustaqil called her &ldquoa dagger in the hands of the German propagandists, a dupe of the Kaiser, a member of the Hun army in the United States, and a crying schoolgirl.&rdquo Others questioned if women were able to be congressional representatives. "Miss Rankin's vote is regarded, not as that of a pacifist, but rather as one dictated by the inherent abhorrence of women for war,&rdquo said the New York Times.
Later in 1917, Rankin led the fight in Congress to create the Committee on Woman Suffrage, and worked on the Committee to produce a constitutional amendment extending suffrage to women nationally. While the particular resolution the committee produced eventually failed to pass the Senate, she rallied support for it among her colleagues in the House by asking on the floor, &ldquoHow shall we explain to them the meaning of democracy if the same Congress that voted to make the world safe for democracy refuses to give this small measure of democracy to the women of our country?&rdquo
As she was considering reelection in 1918, the Montana House passed legislation altering how representatives from the state were to be elected, which resulted in her being assigned to an overwhelmingly Democratic district. Acknowledging the difficulty of being re-elected to the House, she decided to campaign for the Senate seat in Montana, but eventually lost in the Republican primary. Never one to easily capitulate in the face of adversity, she pursued a third party run for Senate but eventually finished third.
After spending the next 20 years as an anti-war and social welfare activist, she ran again for a House seat in Montana in 1940. Again she triumphed and joined the House as the United States was debating whether to enter another world war. Even in the face of the destruction in Europe and the imperialism of Nazi Germany, she remarked on the House floor that &ldquoas a woman, I can&rsquot go to war, and I refuse to send anyone else.&rdquo
Most pacifist sentiment quickly evaporated in the United States after the attack by Japan on Pearl Harbor and President Roosevelt asked for a declaration of war. Rankin&rsquos sole vote against a declaration of war against Japan garnered &ldquoboos and hisses&rdquo in the House chamber, and made her the only representative to vote against entry to both World Wars.
While she maintained that &ldquokilling more people won&rsquot help matters,&rdquo her vote was extremely unpopular and contributed to her decision to not seek re-election in 1942. After her term, she continued to be an anti-war advocate, and was outspoken against America&rsquos involvement in Vietnam decades after her vote against the WWII declaration.
Rankin died in 1973 after a colorful life of public service, activism, and courageous, historic firsts. Today, nearly 24 percent of members of Congress are women. While parity among men and women has still yet to be realized, it&rsquos obvious that the efforts of activists and trailblazers like Rankin have helped move our country forward, and recognize the ideals first articulated in the Declaration of Independence and Constitution.
No history of American representative government could properly be written without a major reference to Representative Jeannette Rankin. The Montana Republican carries the distinction of being the first woman elected to the U.S. Congress. That singular event occurred in 1916. A year later, she earned a second distinction by joining 49 of her House colleagues in voting against U.S. entry into World War I. That vote destroyed her prospects for reelection in 1918.
Over the next 20 years, Rankin tirelessly campaigned for world peace. In 1940, riding a tide of isolationism, she won her second term in the House. The December 1941 Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor put an end to isolationism, but Rankin remained true to her antiwar beliefs, becoming the only member of Congress to vote against declaring war against Japan.
What is less well known about Jeannette Rankin is that she ran for a seat in the U.S. Senate in 1918. After her 1917 vote opposing World War I, she knew she stood no chance of winning a seat in a congressional district that the state legislature had recently reshaped with a Democratic majority. Instead, she placed her hopes for continuing her congressional career on being able to run statewide as a candidate for the Senate. Narrowly defeated in the Republican primary, she launched a third-party campaign for the general election.
Although unsuccessful in her 1918 Senate race, Rankin helped destroy negative public attitudes about women as members of Congress. During her second House term in 1941, she served with six other women members, including Maine's Margaret Chase Smith. Those members carefully avoided making an issue of their gender. Rankin agreed with a colleague's famous comment, "I'm no lady. I'm a member of Congress."
At the time of Rankin&rsquos death in 1973, the number of women serving in the House of Representatives had steadily grown, but prospects for women in the Senate looked bleak. Margaret Chase Smith had lost her bid for a fifth term and retired that year. No women served in the Senate during the next six years, and not until 1992 did more than two serve simultaneously.
Three-quarters of a century separated Rankin's 1918 Senate campaign from that pivotal 1992 election. Since then, the slowly increasing number of women members has become the norm rather than the exception.
Jeannette Rankin: First Woman Member of the U.S. Congress
Jeannette Rankin (1880-1973) was born in Missoula, Montana and briefly worked as a social worker in New York and Washington state before joining the women’s suffrage movement and becoming a prominent lobbyist for the National American Woman Suffrage Association. A talented and passionate public speaker, Rankin made over 6,000 speeches around the world in her lifetime, about women’s suffrage, worker’s rights, and peace. After helping Montana women win the vote in 1914, Rankin ran for office in the U.S. House of Representatives as a Republican in 1916. At age thirty-six, she became the first woman elected to the U.S. Congress, where she championed legislation to protect children’s rights and women’s rights, including introducing what later became the 19th Amendment, which secured women the right to vote nationwide in 1920. She helped establish the Women’s Peace Party, an American pacifist and feminist organization established to resist U.S. involvement in World War I. She served two non-consecutive congressional terms (1917 to 1919 and 1941 to 1943) and was the only member of Congress to vote against U.S. participation in both World War I and World War II. She remains the only woman to date elected to the U.S. Congress from the state of Montana.
Interviewees: Nancy C. Unger, Professor of History at Santa Clara University Congresswoman Deb Haaland, U.S. Representative of New Mexico and one of the first two American Indian women elected to Congress.
Tahririyat yozuvi: The number of federally recognized Tribes has increased from 573 to 574 since the recording of Representative Deb Haaland’s interview in October 2019.
Jeannette Rankin is the first woman to serve in the United States Congress.
She is instrumental in bringing women the vote, and is now strongly associated with being anti-war and a pacifist.
Jeannette Rankin made a passionate speech to the all-male state legislature, lobbying for women's right to vote.
As the suffrage movement is really heating up, Jeannette Rankin is coming in just at the right time.
Her great strength was as a speaker and apparently she was just mesmerizing.
'Women were given equal suffrage in Wyoming, Colorado, Utah, Idaho, Washington. geographically, Montana is next, for it is nearly surrounded with states in which women vote.'. Jeannette Rankin was born on a ranch outside Missoula, Montana in 1880.
She comes from a very well-to-do family.
She is expected to devote much of her time to helping raise her sisters and brother.
But her parents also promoted her education. In 1902, Rankin graduated from Montana State University with a degree in biology.
The expectation wasn't that she was going to become a biologist, but that a woman of a certain class should have a good education, because this will allow her to be a better wife and mother. But she's very unusual in that she doesn't feel compelled to be married, to have children, which was what women were told was the only goal in life.
She is certainly close and has intimate relations with other women like herself, but there's no indication that she's in a passionate relationship with another woman.
She seems to me someone who really values her independence and her privacy.
After working briefly as a teacher and a seamstress, Rankin moved to New York in 1908, to train at the country's first graduate program in social work.
It's just a few blocks from the Lower East Side.
So she is seeing firsthand the tenements, the conditions of poverty, this enormous divide in American cities between the haves and the have nots.
And she's really struck by this.
She starts thinking that women need to be involved in politics.
'I saw that if we were to have decent laws for children, sanitary jails, safe food supplies, women would have to vote.'. Rankin became a field secretary for the National American Women's Suffrage Association, crusading for the vote in 16 States.
She is traveling the country, buttonholing members of Congress.
She's going to conventions, ladies' organizations, standing on street corners. And she's one of their best speakers.
'Is it not possible that the women of the country have something of value to give to the nation?
It is time for our old political doctrines to give way to new visions.'. Rankin's oratory paid off, and in 1914, women in her home state of Montana won the right to vote and run for office. She was inspired to campaign for a seat in the U.S. House of Representatives.
The fact that women have the vote in Montana really works to her advantage because she's promoting the kinds of things that most women support.
But first and foremost, she wants the vote for women across the nation.
But she faced stiff resistance from men and women opposed to women's vote.
Many women believe that it would undermine their authority in the home, in society.
There are a million different cartoons of husband wearing an apron, holding a crying baby, while the wife is smoking a cigar.
It will make men effeminate, women masculine. It's unnatural, it's wrong.
'Nothing else will go so far toward overcoming the prejudice against women in office, and nothing would be a greater aid to the feminist movement than to have the higher offices led by women.'. Rankin won her campaign by 10,000 votes, and on April 2nd, 1917, at age 36, was sworn in as the first woman elected to national office in the United States.
'I may be the first woman member of Congress, but I will not be the last.'. It's not easy to stand up for your values and be strong and not waver.
So I have to respect immensely Jeannette Rankin. I think she was exemplary and an inspiration.
My name is Deb Haaland, and I am proud to represent the first district of New Mexico.
I'm a member of the Laguna Pueblo, and it's a very traditional community.
Women generally, they're not the politicians.
But I'm very proud to be in this historic class with a number of women who were elected in 2018.
And I want to make sure that we keep it that way. You know, it's a stark reality to see that we're not half the population here in Congress. When we're all on the floor together, you can see that the men outnumber the women.
I cannot imagine what it would have been like to be the one woman working with 434 men, many of whom are not happy to see a woman among their ranks.
She's barely taken her hat off and she has to vote on whether or not the United States should enter into World War I.
On Rankin's very first day in office, President Woodrow Wilson asked Congress to vote for a declaration of war against Germany.
And when it's time to vote, she breaks a precedent of 140 years.
You're just supposed to say 'yay' or 'nay.' But instead she makes a speech.
'I want to stand by my country, but I cannot vote for war. I vote 'no.''. Even though 49 male members of Congress also voted no, Rankin's vote was especially controversial.
She really sets off a whole firestorm. It's just pandemonium.
And for many, particularly in the suffrage movement, there is just so much anger and outrage. 'You've ruined it for us.
You are giving the message that women are sentimental, that they can't be trusted with important decisions.'. 'The first vote of the first woman member of Congress was a vote against war.
You can no more win a war, than you can win an earthquake.'. Despite the backlash, Rankin pursued an agenda of reform, introducing a number of bills to increase the rights of women and children.
But her biggest goal remained securing the vote nationally.
'How shall we explain the meaning of democracy, if the same Congress that voted for war to make the world safe for democracy, refuses to give this small measure of democracy to the women of our country?'. She created a congressional committee on women's suffrage, initiating the legislation that later became the 19th Amendment. But like many white women of her day, Rankin's record was not as stellar around issues of race.
The very racist Mississippi senator John Sharp Williams tells her 'if we pass your amendment, then Negro women could vote.' She responds, 'But couldn't you keep them from voting the same way you keep the Negro man from voting?' It's very disappointing for someone who is so concerned about women's rights that she succumbs to the racism of the day.
In New Mexico, tribes gained that right to vote in state elections in 1948.
Indians have wanted to be a part of this system for a long, long time.
We've had many activists fighting for our right to water, our lands.
The issues that are important to me are the environment, climate change, moving renewable energy forward.
We want economic development and we want our children to have a quality public education. We want all our people to have healthcare.
There's 573 tribes across the country.
So I have tribal leaders from all over the country coming to visit me and talking about the issues that are important to them.
I definitely feel that I am here for all of Indian Country, as well as my district.
By the time the 19th Amendment became law in 1920, Rankin's two-year term was over and she had lost her reelection campaign.
In 1925, Rankin moved to Athens, Georgia, and focused on anti-war activism as a founding member of various peace organizations.
'The work of educating the world for peace is a woman's job, because men are afraid of being classed as cowards. At the present time, I can see no more urgent cause than outlawing war.'. In 1941, at age 60, Rankin campaigned to represent Montana in Congress again.
As World War II in Europe is expanding, there's real fear that the United States will once again be sucked into a war.
So this is a good time for her to be reentering politics.
She wants to be at the center of power.
Rankin won. Back in Congress, this time among nine other women, she made history again.
Jeannette Rankin is the only person in Congress to vote against us entry into World War II, which makes her the only person in American history to have voted against U.S.
entry into both wars. This time, she is really vilified.
She is so harassed after her vote that she actually takes refuge in a phone booth, and she has to call the Congressional office and say, 'You have to get security down to get me out.'. Rankin retired from politics in 1943, but remained active in the peace movement.
In 1968, at the age of 87, she led 5,000 women in the Jeannette Rankin Brigade at a Vietnam War demonstration in Washington, D.C.
'You can't have freedom for anybody in a society unless you have freedom for everybody. We women should pick everything. This is no time to be polite.'. Rankin died in 1973, weeks shy of her 93rd birthday. Twelve years later, her statue was installed at the U.S. Capitol.
Montana has not had a woman in the House of Representatives since Jeannette Rankin.
She chose a very difficult path and she met with a lot of vilification and she continued on.
I am intent on leaving the ladder down for young girls who want to achieve a leadership position.
'You don't do the right thing because of the consequences. If you are wise, you do it regardless of the consequences.
Former Montana legislator Tom Haines recalls interactions with Jeannette Rankin and her brother Wellington Rankin throughout his political career, during which he served 11 consecutive terms (1950-1974). Haines talks about Jeannette Rankin’s tenacity in pursuing votes on the campaign trail. He then discusses Wellington Rankin, . Read More
Although several of our posts have mentioned Jeannette Rankin and some of her contributions to the country, we’ve never explored the life and legacy of the first Congresswoman. So, as we celebrate Women’s History Month, let’s take a look at the life of this influential woman.
2004 Portrait of Rankin by Sharon Sprung (Collection of the U.S. House of Representatives)
Jeannette was born in Missoula, Montana on June 11, 1880, during the Gilded Age in America. Significant technological changes were taking place during this time inventors and scientists were perfecting the use of electricity for purposes such as rail travel and lighting streets. The world was changing, and this was the perfect setting for Jeannette to grow and develop into the powerful woman that she would become.
Coming from humble circumstances—her father a rancher and her mother a teacher—Jeannette learned in her youth how to work hard. She applied this to her education, attending Montana State University, New York School of Philanthropy, and the University of Washington. Before her entry into the political sphere, she tried several occupations, including teaching and social work. She also spent some time as a seamstress before realizing her passion for the suffrage movement.
While living in Washington, Jeannette worked to change the state constitution to allow women the right to vote. Her hard work paid off in 1910, when Washington finally amended its constitution. Jeannette then took her social activism expertise back to Montana. Her efforts were successful once again: Montana granted women the right to vote in 1914.
Rankin c. 1916 (Library of Congress)
Once again applying her political prowess, Jeannette ran for the U.S. House of Representatives in 1916 for Montana’s At-Large district. According to the History of the House website, Jeannette “had two key advantages: her reputation as a suffragist and her politically well-connected brother, Wellington, who financed her campaign.” (1) These were certainly advantages to her campaign, but Jeannette also had a progressive platform, something that strongly appealed to the supporters of the suffrage movement. She was opinionated and unapologetic about her stance on war. Among other qualities, these advantages helped her to win one of Montana’s two seats and become the first female Member of Congress.
Jeannette made significant contributions to the country during her two-year term in the House. For example, when President Wilson asked for a declaration of war on Germany, Jeannette adamantly voted in opposition. She also created legislation for women’s rights and helped to pass the Nineteenth Amendment. After her term ended in 1919, Rankin remained a proponent of pacifism and women’s rights.
Later in life, when she was about 60 years old, Rankin took her seat for a second term in the House, this time representing Montana’s first district. It was during this term that she voted against American involvement in World War II, the only Member of Congress to do so. Although she proved herself to be true to her convictions, Jeannette received severe criticism for her negative vote. Her brother even stated, “Montana is 100 percent against you.” (2) Because of this opposition, she did not run for re-election in 1942, thus ending her formal political career.
Rankin statue in the Capitol Visitor Center (Architect of the Capitol)
Because of her historic election to Congress and her dedication to the cause of women, Jeannette Rankin is currently honored in multiple ways. She has a namesake foundation that awards scholarships to “mature, unemployed women workers.” She also is memorialized by a statue in Statuary Hall.
This month, as we recognize the powerful women in American history, let’s remember how Congresswoman Rankin paved the way for the future women of Congress.
Do you have a favorite female Senator or Representative? Leave your thoughts in the comments!
Jeannette Rankin: The woman who voted to give women the right to vote
2017 marks the centennial of the swearing-in of the first woman to become a member of the U.S. Congress, Jeannette Rankin (R-Montana).
A pacifist and suffragist, Rankin was elected to Congress four years before the 19th Amendment gave women nationwide the right to vote. In 1914, her home state of Montana passed a law granting suffrage to women in that state. In fact, 15 states allowed women to vote before the 19th Amendment’s ratification in 1920.
Before running for Congress, Rankin promoted suffrage in many states with the New York Women’s Suffrage Party and the National American Woman Suffrage Association in the 1910s. She was also heavily involved in the campaign for suffrage in Montana.
In 1916 she decided to try to continue that work in Congress. Running as a Republican, Rankin campaigned for one of two at-large seats from Montana in the U.S. House of Representatives. She came in second place, thus securing one of the seats.
Rankin was sworn into office in the 65th Congress on April 2, 1917. When Rankin arrived at the House that day, she presented her credential. This is the document that serves as evidence that a person was duly elected by the people of a state. It is usually signed by the governor and the secretary of state, as hers is.
On her first day, President Woodrow Wilson addressed a joint session of Congress to ask for a declaration of war against Germany. He cited Germany’s resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare and Germany’s attempts to recruit Mexico as an ally against the U.S.
Rankin found herself in a very tough position. She had long advocated for pacifism, and her inclination was to vote against war. But many of her suffragist supporters were concerned that if the only woman in Congress voted against war, it would damage the cause of woman suffrage by making women look weak.
Regardless, she cast her vote against the declaration of war, as did 49 other members. As a result, many suffragists pulled their support from her, although she continued to advocate in the House for suffrage.
In 1918 the House voted on a constitutional amendment for woman suffrage. Although that resolution failed, Rankin later said that she was “the only woman who ever voted to give women the right to vote.”
She decided not to run for the House again after Montana redistricted and she felt she couldn’t win. She ran for the Senate instead, but lost in the Republican primary. She then mounted a third-party candidacy, but came up short again, and left Congress.
Her vote against war in 1917 had doomed her reelection bid, and for most of the next 21 years she worked on peace issues. However, she grew frustrated with the ineffectiveness of nongovernmental organizations, and she decided to try again from inside Congress. Isolationist sentiment was also growing strong in America in the 1930s, and her run for the House again in 1940 mostly centered on a platform of pacifism.
In 1940 Rankin was reelected. On December 8, 1941, the day after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, she again was called upon to vote on war. Again, she voted against war—but this time she was the only person in Congress to do so.
She was ignored and ineffective for the rest of her term, and she chose not to run again. She continued, however, to advocate pacifism, including speaking out against the Vietnam War.
Jeannette Rankin, the first woman in Congress, had two controversial terms, and two career-ending controversial votes on war. But in an interview the year before her death in 1973, she said that if she had her life to relive, she’d do it all again, “But this time I’d be nastier.”
You can see a special document exhibit on Jeannette Rankin in the East Rotunda Gallery of the National Archives Building in Washington, DC, from January 26 though April 3, 2017.