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Devid Rokfeller Jon D.ning beshinchi va kenja o'g'li va Standard Oil asoschisining nabirasi. U oilaviy bank biznesiga kirib, dunyoning eng taniqli bankirlaridan biriga aylandi. Rokfeller 1915 yil 12 -iyunda Nyu -Yorkda tug'ilgan. Nyu -Yorkdagi maktabda o'qigan va Garvard universitetining ingliz tarixi va adabiyoti bakalavrini tugatgan. 1936 yilda. Rokfeller 1940 yil sentyabr oyida Margaret "Peggi" Makgratga uylandi va ular olti farzandni tarbiyaladilar, jumladan o'g'li Devid Rokfeller Ikkinchi jahon urushi paytida Rokfeller Shimoliy Afrika va Frantsiyada xizmat qilgan. Armiya lentasi va frantsuz faxriy legioni.Urushdan so'ng, Rokfeller o'z oilasi nazorat qiladigan Cheyz Manxetten bankiga qo'shildi. 1961 yilda u uning prezidenti bo'ldi va shundan 1981 yilgacha u bankning uchta yuqori boshqaruv lavozimlaridan kamida bittasini - prezident, bosh direktor yoki raisni egalladi. U 1981 yildan buyon bankning Xalqaro maslahat qo'mitasida ishlagan, boshqalar qatorida Genri Kissinger, Jorj P. U 1970 yildan 1985 yilgacha Tashqi aloqalar kengashining raisi bo'lgan. Davlat va xususiy sektor vakillari tashqi ishlar masalalarini muhokama qilish uchun yig'ilishadi.David Rokfeller 1973 yilda Uch tomonlama Komissiya tuzilishidagi roli bilan ma'lum doiralarda tanilgan. Tashkilot o'z nomini olgan "uch tomon" - bu dunyodagi uchta asosiy siyosiy va iqtisodiy kuch markazlari - AQSh, Evropa va Yaponiya. Uch tomonlama komissiya a'zolikni faqat shu uchta mintaqadagi nufuzli kishilarga beradi. Xalqaro tushunish va globallashuvni targ'ib qilishga intilgan 350 kishilik guruh sifatida rasman taqdim etilgan bo'lsa, boshqalarga Uch tomonlama Komissiya iqtisodiy manfaatlarni ilgari surishni istagan "yangi kabal" ni ifodalaydi. uning eng boy a'zolaridan. U katta ta'sirga ega bo'lib, maxfiy usulda ishlaydi va global bank operatsiyalari bilan bog'liq fitna nazariyalarining mavzusi bo'lgan. Hozir 80 -yillarning oxirida Devid Rokfeller Jon D. Rokfeller va Ebbi Grin Aldrichning qolgan tirik farzandi. , senator Nelson V. Devidning qizi 2,5 milliard dollarga ega bo'lib, uni dunyodagi eng badavlat kishilar orasida 215 -o'rinda turadi.
Tahririyatimiz siz yuborgan narsalarni ko'rib chiqadi va maqolani qayta ko'rib chiqish kerakligini aniqlaydi.
Devid Rokfeller, (1915 yil 12 -iyunda tug'ilgan, Nyu -York, Nyu -York, AQSh - 2017 yil 20 -martda vafot etgan, Pocantico Hills, Nyu -York), amerikalik bankir va xayriyachi, Jon D. Rokfellerning besh o'g'lining kenjasi.
U B.S.ni oldi. Garvard universitetini tamomlagan (1936), Garvardda va London iqtisodiyot maktabida iqtisod fanlari bo'yicha aspiranturada o'qigan, keyin fan doktori ilmiy darajasini olgan. Chikago universitetini tamomlagan (1940). Ikkinchi Jahon urushi paytida (1942–45) AQSh armiyasida xizmat qilganidan so'ng, u 1946 yilda Nyu -Yorkdagi Chase National Bank xodimlariga qo'shildi, uning onasi amakisi Uintrop V. Aldrich boshqaruv kengashi raisi edi. U ierarxiyada tobora ko'tarilib, 1952 yilda katta vitse -prezident bo'ldi va Chase National va Manhetten Bankining birlashishida (1955) muhim rol o'ynadi, natijada Chase Manxetten banki paydo bo'ldi. Uning birlashgan institutdagi yuksalishi 1969 yilda boshqaruv kengashi raisi (1969–81) va bosh ijrochi direktor (1969–80) bo'lganida cheklangan. Uning ixtisosligi xalqaro bankchilikka aylandi va u dunyoning turli mamlakatlari vazirlari va davlat rahbarlari, shuningdek, transmilliy korporatsiyalar rahbarlari uchun tanish shaxs edi. 1973 yilda Rokfeller globallashuv bilan bog'liq muammolarni hal qilish va Qo'shma Shtatlar va uning asosiy ittifoqchilari (Kanada, Yaponiya va G'arbiy Evropa mamlakatlari) o'rtasidagi hamkorlikni rag'batlantirish uchun mo'ljallangan Uch tomonlama Komissiyani tashkil etdi. U Bilderberg konferentsiyasida qatnashdi va moliyaviy hissa qo'shdi, har yili o'tkaziladigan uch kunlik yig'ilishda Evropaning 100 ga yaqin nufuzli bankirlari, iqtisodchilari, siyosatchilari va hukumat amaldorlari qatnashdi.
"Britannica" entsiklopediyasi muharrirlari Ushbu maqola oxirgi marotaba Ma'lumotlar tarkibini boshqaruvchi muharriri Adam Avgustin tomonidan qayta ko'rib chiqilgan va yangilangan.
Devid Rokfellerning rafiqasi, bolalari, Netvort va boshqalar
Devid Rokfeller, uzoq vaqt Chase Manxetten korporatsiyasi bilan tanilgan mashhur familiyasi bo'lgan bankir, 101 yoshida vafot etdi.
Rokfeller 1970 -yillar davomida "Devid banki" deb nomlanuvchi Cheyz Manxettenda rais va bosh direktor bo'lib ishlagan.
Nyu -York Tayms ma'lumotlariga ko'ra, Cheyz Manxetten uzoq vaqtdan beri Rokfeller banki sifatida tanilgan, ammo oila hech qachon aktsiyalarining 5 foizidan ko'prog'iga ega bo'lmagan.
Dovudning ishi uni jahon moliyaviy ishlarida va o'z mamlakatining tashqi siyosatida kuchga aylantirdi. Bankir va xayr -ehsonchi, Amerika kapitalizmining xushxabarini tarqatgani sayin, butun dunyo bo'ylab katta ta'sir ko'rsatdi.
1915 yil 12 -iyunda Nyu -Yorkda tug'ilgan, oltitaning eng kichigi, Devid mamlakat tarixidagi eng boy va eng kuchli oilalardan birida o'sgan. Uning bobosi Jon D. Rokfeller 19 -asrda Standard Oil kompaniyasiga asos solgan va uni Amerikaning birinchi milliarderi qilgan boylikni qurgan.
Imtiyozli Dovud va uning aka -ukalari ota -onalari kechki ovqat uchun kiyinishgan paytlarda o'sgan. Otasi Jon D. Rokfeller, - neft titanining yagona o'g'li, u o'z hayotini xayriya ishlariga bag'ishlagan. onasi Ebi Aldrix Rokfeller Rod -Aylend shtatining badavlat senatori Nelson Aldrichning qizi edi.
Devid Manxettendagi Linkoln maktabida o'qidi va Garvardda o'qishni davom ettirdi, o'z bakalavr darajasini oldi. 1936 yilda. U keyinchalik London iqtisodiyot maktabida bir yil o'qidi. U 1940 yilda Chikago universitetida iqtisod fanlari doktori ilmiy darajasini oldi.
Ikki yil o'tgach, u Ikkinchi Jahon Urushida Shimoliy Afrika va Frantsiyada xizmat qilgan armiyaga qo'shildi. U 1945 yilda xizmatdan bo'shatilgan. Armiyada xizmat qilishdan oldin u Nyu -Yorkning liberal respublikachisi Fiorello X. La Gvardiya kotibi bo'lib ishlagan.
Janob Rokfeller bank faoliyatini 1946 yilda Chase National Bank menejeri yordamchisi sifatida boshlagan. Hatto 1981 yilda faol boshqaruvdan nafaqaga chiqqanidan keyin ham, janob Rokfeller Cheyzni xalqaro maslahat kengashi raisi sifatida xizmat qilishni davom ettirdi va bankning xorijiy diplomati vazifasini bajarishni davom ettirdi.
Umrining oxirida janob Rokfeller o'zini xayriya ishlariga bag'ishladi. 2002 yilda, 87 yoshida, u Rokfellerlarning uch avlodida birinchi bo'lib o'z tarjimai holini nashr etdi.
Margaret MakGrat va Devid Rokfeller 1940 yilda to'y qilishdi. Ular 1996 yilda vafot etishidan oldin 56 yil turmush qurishgan. Ikkalasining olti farzandi bor edi: Devid Jr., Abbi, Neva, Margaret, Richard va Eilin.
Peggi nomi bilan ham tanilgan Margaret MakGrath 1915 yil 28 sentyabrda tug'ilgan. Uning otasi Frensis Sims Makgrat Uoll -stritdagi taniqli yuridik firmaning hamkori bo'lgan. Uning onasi Neva MakGrath edi va uning bir akasi bor edi, Gordon Randolf Makgrat.
U Nyu -Yorkdagi Chapin maktabining talabasi edi. Margaret McGrath turmushga chiqishdan etti yil oldin, Garvardda birinchi kursda o'qiyotganda, eri bilan raqsda uchrashdi.
Peggi ko'p yillar davomida Maine Coast Heritage Trust boshqaruvi raisi bo'lib ishlagan, u ko'p yillar davomida qishloq xo'jalik erlarini muhofaza qilish, American Farmland Trust, Nyu -York botanika bog'i va Nyu -York filarmoniyasida ishlagan.
Nekrologiga ko'ra, u Linkoln sahna san'ati markaziga va Nyu -York filarmoniyasiga katta hissa qo'shgan va 1953 yildan 1970 yilgacha ishonchli bo'lgan.
Katta san'at kollektsioneriga aylangan Peggi va uning eri, Sezanne, Gogin, Matiss va Pikassoning qimmatbaho rasmlari - muzeyga doimiy ijaraga berildi.
Er -xotin san'atni, shu jumladan yuzlab rasmlarni, rangli shisha, chinni, toshlangan yog'och va mebeldan yasalgan asarlarni yig'ishni davom ettirdilar.
Tabiatni muhofaza qilish bilan shug'ullanuvchi Peggi MakGrat Rokfeller 1996 yil 26 martda 80 yoshida vafot etdi. Ma'lum bo'lishicha, u past obro'ga ega bo'lgan.
1. Devid Jr., 1941 yil 24 -iyulda tug'ilgan. U ko'plab oilaviy muassasalarda, shu jumladan Rockefeller Family & amp Associates va Rockefeller Financial Services xizmatlarida xizmat qilgan. U Syuzan Kon Rokfellerga uylangan.
2. 1943 yilda tug'ilgan Abbi Rokfeller ekolog va feminist sifatida tanilgan. U Fidel Kastroni qoyil qoldirgani uchun eng isyonkor qiz sifatida tanilgan.
3. Neva Gudvin nomi bilan mashhur Neva Rokfeller 1944 yil 1 -iyunda tug'ilgan. Iqtisodchi va xayriyachi Global taraqqiyot va atrof -muhit instituti direktori, Rokfeller aka -ukalar jamg'armasi raisining o'rinbosari va Rokfeller xayriya maslahatchilari direktori lavozimlarida ishlagan. U Bryus Mazlishga uylandi, uning ikki farzandi bor edi.
4. Margaret Rokfeller, shuningdek Peggi Dulani 1947 yilda tug'ilgan. Peggi 1969 yilda Radcliffe kollejini imtiyozli diplom bilan tugatgan va Garvard oliy ta'lim maktabida magistrlik va doktorlik unvonini olgan - BMT va Ford fondi bilan hamkorlikda. U ikki marta ajrashgan. U va uning birinchi eri, Devid Quattrone, bir o'g'ilning ota -onasi, Maykl Dulani Quattrone.
5. Richard Rokfeller 1949 yil 20 yanvarda tug'ilgan. Shifokor va xayriyachi 2014 yilda 65 yoshida otasining tashrifidan uyga qaytayotganda halokatga uchrashi natijasida vafot etgan.
Men Portlendda tibbiyot bilan shug'ullangan va o'qitgan Richard - Nensi Kingga uylangan, uning to'rt farzandi bor edi.
6. Eilin Rokfeller Growald 1952 yilda tug'ilgan. Xayriyachi, 1974 yilda Middlebury kollejida bakalavr darajasini, 1976 yilda Shady Hill maktabi bilan birgalikda Lesley kollejida erta bolalik ta'limi bo'yicha magistrlik darajasini olgan.
U va uning eri Pol Growaldning ikki farzandi bor.
Forbes ma'lumotlariga ko'ra, 2016 yil holatiga ko'ra, tadbirkorning boyligi 3 milliard dollarga teng edi. U dunyoning eng boy odamlari orasida 49 -o'rinni egalladi.
Bayonotga ko'ra, "bankirning bankiri" deb ham ataladigan Rokfeller, butun umri davomida Rokfeller universiteti, Garvard universiteti va san'at muzeyiga qariyb 2 milliard dollar xayriya qilgan.
2005 yilda, o'zining to'qsoninchi tug'ilgan kunida, u zamonaviy san'at muzeyiga yiliga 5 million dollar xayriya qilishga vafot etganda yana 100 million dollar vasiyat qilishga va'da berdi.
90 -larda u yarim yildan ko'proq vaqt davomida Chez yoki Tashqi aloqalar kengashi va Uch tomonlama komissiya nomidan sayohat qilgan. 2005 yilga kelib, u Rokfeller markazidagi ofislarida intervyu berganda, u jismoniy faollikni saqlagan, markaz sport klubida murabbiy bilan ishlagan.
Ammo uning eng katta garovi 2006 yilda, u akalari Jon, Nelson, Lorans va Uintrop bilan boshlagan Rokfeller aka -ukalar jamg'armasiga 225 million dollar berishini e'lon qilganida, vafot etdi.
Rokfeller uyqusida, Nyu -Yorkdagi Pokantiko -Xillzda, yurak etishmovchiligidan vafot etdi.
Yashirin munosabatlar, maxfiy aloqa, maxfiy havolalar
Devid RokfellerUning oilasi ko'p sirlarga ega edi. Bu oilaning ishtiroki haqida dalillar bor edi Rokfeller Amerika tarixidagi eng muhim siyosiy qarorlarda, ularning Markaziy razvedka boshqarmasi bilan chuqur va sirli aloqasi haqida. The Rokfellerlar AQSh va dunyoning ko'plab siyosatchilari bilan aloqasi bor edi va boshqa ko'plab qorong'u va shubhali narsalar. Devid Rokfeller vafot etdi, lekin uning oilasi hali ham katta boylikka ega va ular ko'p iplarni tortib olishadi.
Rokfeller 1900 -yillarning boshlarida oila nihoyatda yomon ko'rilgan. Ularni o'z uylarida himoya qilish uchun bir nechta soqchilarni yollashlari kerak edi, chunki odamlar ularni o'g'rilar, ayollar va bolalar qotillari, to'liq yolg'onchilar va manipulyatorlar deb atashgan.
Oila ayblanmoqda vijdonsiz boyitish. Ular eng kam ish haqiga ishonishmasdi va har bir ishchi, erkak, ayol yoki bola o'zlari xohlagancha maosh olishlari kerakligiga ishonishardi. Bundan tashqari, ularning ishchilari qurolli odamlarni Ludlouga qo'zg'olonni to'xtatish uchun yuborganlaridan keyin qo'rquvda yashab, u erda o'n bir bola, ikki ayol va bir juft erkakni o'ldirishdi.
Ishchilar bilan yomon tarixga ega bo'lganlari uchun, ularga ommaviy axborot vositalarida xushxabar kerak edi. Shuning uchun ular o'z jurnallarini ochishdi va nufuzli Hearst nashriyoti bilan birlashishdi va ular haqida yaxshi narsalarni nashr etishdi. Rokfellerning raqiblari haqida yolg'on gapirishadi.
Devid Rokfeller - Tarix
Keyin Jon kasalliklarni o'rganish va uning oldini olish uchun Rokfeller tibbiy tadqiqotlar institutini (hozir Rokfeller universiteti deb ataladi) tashkil qildi. O'shandan beri institutda tug'ilgan ko'plab usullar biokimyo va tibbiyotni o'zgartirdi, shu jumladan pnevmoniya va o'murtqa menenjitni davolash.
Yana bir muhim voqea 1902 yilda, Jon AQShda "irqi, jinsi va e'tiqodidan qat'i nazar" ta'limni qo'llab -quvvatlash maqsadida Umumta'lim Kengashini tashkil qilganida, oliy ma'lumotni rivojlantirishga alohida e'tibor qaratdi. Albatta, 1913 yilda Jon "butun dunyoda insoniyat farovonligini oshirish" uchun asos solgan Rokfeller jamg'armasi keldi. U aynan shunday qildi, ta'lim, sog'liqni saqlash, ilmiy yutuqlar, san'at, ijtimoiy tadqiqotlar va boshqalarni targ'ib qilish uchun millionlab xayriya qildi. Jamg'arma yordam beradigan tashkilotlar va sabablar ro'yxati ajablanarli emas.
Jonning karerasini qamrab olgan tanqidlarga qaramay - soliq to'lashdan bo'yin tovlashda turli ayblovlar - uning xayriya qilish odati boy bo'lishidan ancha oldin boshlangan. Jon birinchi ish haqidan boshlab, mahalliy baptist cherkoviga, yakshanba maktabiga va afro-amerikalik cherkovga muntazam xayriya qila boshladi. Demak, uning diniy e'tiqodi (aytaylik, soliqdan voz kechishga intilish) emasligini inkor etish qiyin.
uning altruizmini boshqargan.
"Balki biz shunday dunyoviy asrda yashayapmizki, biz u qanday xristian diniga sodiq qolganini tushunmaymiz", deb tushuntirdi Koks. "Qisqacha aytganda: siz 10 dollar topasiz, birinchi uchligingizni berasiz va bu uning hayotida juda erta boshlangan, u boyligini yig'a boshlagan edi. Menimcha, u boy odamning nasroniy ma'nosida o'z boyligini tarqatish va foydali yo'llar bilan boshqalarga yordam berish vazifasi ekaniga ishongan.
"U ko'pchilikni protestantizmning asosiy fazilatlari deb ataydigan narsani o'zida mujassamlashtirgan - bilasizmi, tirishqoqlik, erta turish, faqat bitta xotini, standart oilasi, dindor, shuningdek, xayriya ishi kuchli. U bu haqda ko'p gapirgan: boy odam boy bo'lib o'lmasligi uchun, boy o'zi yaratgan boyligi bilan yaxshilik qilib o'lishi kerak.
1874 yil 29 yanvarda tug'ilgan Jon Jr otasining izidan borishi va dunyoga o'zining katta izini qo'yishi kerak edi. Uch singlisi bilan birga Klivlendda o'sgan Jon Jr otasining ulkan boyligidan unchalik xafa bo'lmagan. Braun universitetini tamomlagandan so'ng, u katta to'ntarish paytida Standard Oil shtab -kvartirasida ishlagan. Shunday qilib, Jon Jr xafa bo'lganini sezib, katta qadam tashladi va ish dunyosini ortda qoldirib, faqat xayriya ishlariga e'tibor qaratdi.
U o'zini altruizmga bag'ishlaganiga qaramay, 1913 yilda Kolorado yoqilg'i va temir kompaniyasida ishlaydigan 9000 ga yaqin ko'mir ishlab chiqaruvchilar ish haqini, ish vaqtini va turar joyni yaxshilashni talab qilib, ish tashlashga qaror qilishganda, jamoatchilik fikrining tez-tez o'zgarib turishi o'zgardi. Ish tez orada zo'ravonlikka aylandi, ishchilar oilalari uylaridan haydab chiqarildi va qishda qattiq chodirlarda yashashga majbur bo'lishdi. 1914 yilga kelib, xususiy xavfsizlik kuchlari tomonidan 40 dan ortiq odam, jumladan 11 bola otib o'ldirildi.
Gazetalar yozgan Jon Jrga ayb qo'yildi, voris tez orada Kongress oldida o'zini topdi va Rokfellerning ismi, ehtimol, uning eng katta zarbasini oldi. Bir necha yillardan so'ng, Jon Jr munozaralarga tushib qoldi, lekin bir vaqtning o'zida o'z obro'sini tiklashga e'tibor qaratib, xayrixohlik faoliyatini davom ettirdi. Dunyoga mashhur Rokfeller markazini yaratish, keyinchalik Birlashgan Millatlar Tashkilotining qarorgohiga aylanadigan erni hadya qilish va mustamlakachi Uilyamsburgni tiklash shular jumlasidandir. Biroq, har xil sabablarga ko'ra juda katta hissa qo'shishdan tashqari, ehtimol, Jon Jrning dunyodagi eng chuqur izi o'z farzandlari mehnati orqali paydo bo'lgan.
Beshta aka -uka Rokfeller. Chapdan o'ngga: Devid, Uintrop, Jon D Rokfeller III, Nelson va Lorans
Hech kimga o'xshamaydigan oila
Ebbi Rokfeller xayriya ishlarini jamoatchilik e'tiboridan chetda qoldirmagan bo'lsa -da, uning beshta aka -ukasi AQSh tarixidagi hech qanday oiladan farqli o'laroq, biznes, siyosat va xayriya ishlarining o'zaro bog'liq sohalarini bosib o'tib, o'ziga xos obro 'qozongan.
Aka -ukalarning to'ng'usi Jon III o'z hayotini tashqi ishlar va xayriya ishlariga bag'ishlagan. O'qishni tugatgandan so'ng dunyo bo'ylab sayohatdan ilhomlanib, Jon III Osiyoga katta qiziqish uyg'otdi, natijada Osiyo jamiyati va Iqtisodiy va madaniy masalalar bo'yicha kengash tuzildi. Jon III shuningdek, aholi sonini ko'paytirish masalalarini birinchi o'ringa qo'ygan Aholi kengashi va hozirda dunyodagi etakchi san'at markazlaridan biri bo'lgan Linkoln markazi uchun mas'ul edi. Jon III 1978 yilda avtohalokatda vafotidan oldin ko'plab nodavlat tashkilotlarini tashkil etdi va qo'llab -quvvatladi.
Nelson, ehtimol, aka -uka va opa -singillarning eng obro'si edi. Otasining o'zini tutish va kamtarlik qadriyatlarini singdirishga urinishlariga qaramay, Nelson har doim katta rejalar tuzgan va bolaligidan prezident bo'lish haqida gapirgan. Chex Manxetten bankida ishlaganidan so'ng, u murakkab iqtisodiy davrda Rokfeller markazining rivojlanishiga rahbarlik qildi va oxir -oqibat uning prezidenti bo'ldi. Nelson keyin siyosatga kirdi va 1953-1973 yillar oralig'ida to'rt muddat Nyu -York gubernatori bo'lib ishlagan ko'plab qurilish loyihalari orqali Nyu -York silsilasini o'zgartirdi. U 1974-1977 yillar oralig'ida AQSh Prezidenti vitse -prezidenti Jerald Ford bo'lib ishladi.
Lorans Nyu -Yorkka ham katta ta'sir ko'rsatdi, lekin Uoll -strit orqali venchur kapitalizmning kashshofi sifatida. Nyu-York fond birjasida o'nlab yillar davomida Laurans elektronika, aviatsiya, kompyuter va biotexnologiyaga yo'naltirilgan yuzlab startaplarga sarmoya kiritdi. Lorans keyingi katta narsani sezish qobiliyatiga ega edi, buni Apple va Intelga qilgan dastlabki sarmoyalarida ko'rish mumkin. U, shuningdek, atrof -muhitni muhabbat bilan shug'ullangan va AQShning Vayomingdan Gavayigacha bo'lgan ko'plab milliy bog'larini yaratish va kengaytirishda muhim rol o'ynagan.
Kamtarlik darslari faqat o'z familiyasi asosida yuqori cho'qqilarni zabt etishni istamagan Uintrop uchun foydali bo'ldi. Buning o'rniga, u o'z karerasini oilasining neft konlarida ishlaydigan shogird sifatida boshladi. Ikkinchi Jahon Urushidan so'ng, Uintrop siyosatga kirdi va 1967-1971 yillar oralig'ida gubernator bo'lib ishlagan paytda Arkanzas shtatida olib borilgan chuqur madaniy va iqtisodiy o'zgarishlar bilan mashhur bo'ldi. va sug'urta qonunchiligi kuchaytirildi, faqat bir nechta misollar.
Eng kenja ukasi Devid Uoll -stritda kuchli kuch bo'lgan, shuningdek, jamiyatning eng yuqori pog'onalarini bosib o'tgan nihoyatda nufuzli shaxs bo'lgan. London Iqtisodiyot maktabini tugatgandan so'ng, Devid 1940 yilda Chikago universitetida doktorlik dissertatsiyasini himoya qildi. Devidning Nyu -York meri uchun xat yozishni o'z ichiga olgan birinchi ishi, xuddi shu kabi, ko'pchilik kabi, to'xtab qoldi. Ikkinchi jahon urushi natijasida. O'z familiyasini ishlatishdan voz kechishni tanlagan Devid, AQSh armiyasida xizmat paytida kapitan darajasiga ko'tarilib, oddiy askar sifatida yozildi.
Rokfellerlar biznes yuritish xususiyatini o'zgartirib, har qanday korxona uchun samaradorlikni asosiy, chiqindilarni esa anatema sifatida o'rnatdilar.
Urushdan so'ng, Devid professional karerasi davomida qoladigan kompaniyaga qo'shildi: Cheyz Manxetten banki. Uning amakisi Uintrop Aldrich bank raisi bo'lganini va uning otasi va bobosi uning eng yirik aktsionerlari bo'lganini hisobga olsak, Devid kelganidan keyin boyvachcha boladan boshqa narsa emasligi ajablanarli emas edi. Biroq, tez orada u o'zini munosib isbotladi, shu bilan birga har kuni jamoat metrosini ishga joylashtirish odati buzilgan maqomdan voz kechishga yordam berdi. Uning mashaqqatli mehnati uni yuqori cho'qqilarni zabt etdi, 1960 yilda bosh direktor va 1969 yilda yagona bosh direktor bo'ldi.
Rulda bo'lgan vaqtida Devid o'zining butun dunyo bo'ylab tarmog'idan foydalanib, bankning xorijiy filiallarini 11 tadan 73 taga etkazdi, Chase Bank Xitoy va Rossiyada o'z filiallarini ochgan birinchi g'arbiy bank bo'lib, o'z o'rnini haqiqiy global institut sifatida ta'minladi. Devid, shuningdek, bankni ichidan qayta quvvatlantirish, kadrlar, rejalashtirish va marketing bo'limlarini "menejment otasi" Piter Drukerning yordami bilan yaratish uchun mas'ul edi. 1970 -yillar qiyin bo'lganiga qaramay, Devid 1981 yilda nafaqaga chiqqunga qadar bosh direktor vazifasini bajargan.
Devid 1946 yilda Chase Bank -ga kirganda, bu 4,8 milliard dollarlik muassasa edi. 1981 yilga kelib, uning aktivlari 76,2 mlrd. "Xo'sh, u hamma bankirlarning bankiri edi", deb izoh berdi. Ikki yirik birlashish natijasida bank bugungi kunda AQShdagi eng yirik bank hisoblanadi.
Bir erkak yoki oila qanday qilib Rokfellerlar kabi ajoyib boylikni to'plashi mumkinligi haqida savollar bor. Ha, Jon strategiyasining tajovuzkor va raqobatbardosh bo'lmagan tomonlari bor. Biroq, birlashish va qo'shilishning bunday yondashuvi biznesning odatiy amaliyotiga aylandi - u bunday muvaffaqiyat bilan birinchi bo'ldi. Jon boshqacha yo'l tutishga tayyorligi tufayli, jahon iqtisodiyotining ajralmas qismi bo'lgan sanoat va boshqa ko'p sonli odamlarning rivojlanishi va yangiliklarini rag'batlantirgan savdo sohasiga asos soldi.
Neft qimmat bo'lgan va uning ko'p qismi behuda sarflangan paytda, Jon ishlab chiqarish jarayonini ancha samarali va iqtisodiy jihatdan tejamkor qilib, kerosinni ommaga arzon qilib qo'ydi, shuning uchun u tez orada kit va ko'mir moyini (hatto elektr energiyasini bir muncha vaqt) yoqilg'i sifatida, Amerikani ko'cha -ko'cha yoritadi. Jonning topqirligi, shuningdek, bo'yoqlar va soqol yog'laridan anestezikalargacha bo'lgan 300 ga yaqin yon mahsulotni ishlab chiqishga turtki bo'ldi. Shu nuqtai nazardan, u biznes yuritishning mohiyatini o'zgartirdi, samaradorlikni asosiy sifatida, chiqindilarni esa
har qanday korxona uchun anatema.
"U tashkilotdan kelmagan. U ko'p jihatdan shunday edi-menimcha, bu hikoyani qahramonlik qiladi-o'zini o'zi yaratgan odam ", dedi Koks. Darhaqiqat, Jon Amerika orzusining arxetipal timsoli edi. Va u biznes strategiyasi va neft sanoatida inqilob qilar ekan, uning nabiralari, xususan, Lorans va Devid, AQShning moliya bozorini o'zining tafakkur tuyg'usi orqali shakllantirdilar.
Rokfellerlarning ta'lim, tibbiy tadqiqotlar, tenglik, ijtimoiy fan va san'atga ta'siri yana ham ajoyib. Ularning qo'llab -quvvatlashi turli xil tashkilotlarni qamrab oldi va bu yo'lda millionlab millionlarga yordam berdi. Jonning o'zi butun umri davomida 540 million dollar bergan, lekin oilaning davom etayotgan xayriya ishlarining haqiqiy qiymati noma'lum.
Rokfeller oilasi tarixidagi muhim voqealar:
1839: Jon D Rokfeller 8 -iyul kuni Nyu -Yorkning Richford shahridagi fermada tug'ilgan
1859: 2000 dollarlik mablag 'bilan Jon Maurice B Clark bilan hamkorlik o'rnatdi
1863: Ikki sherik neft biznesiga kirib, Andrews, Clark & amp Co.
1870: Standard Oil kompaniyasi kapitali 1 mln
1874: Jon Rokfellerning o'g'li Jon Jr Ogayo shtatining Klivlend shahrida tug'ilgan
1890: Jonning 600 ming dollarlik xayr -ehsoni Chikago universitetini tashkil etishga yordam berdi
1901: Rokfeller tibbiy tadqiqotlar instituti (hozirgi Rokfeller universiteti) tashkil etilgan
1906: Jon III o'g'li, 21 -mart kuni Nyu -York shahrida tug'ilgan
1911: Oliy sud Standard Oil kompaniyasini tarqatib yuborish to'g'risida qaror qabul qildi
1915: Jon Jonning kenja farzandi Devid Rokfeller Nyu -York shahrida tug'ilgan
1946: Devid Chase Bank -ga xorijiy bank bo'limida menejer yordamchisi sifatida ishga kirdi
1969: Devid Chase Manxetten Bank direktorlar kengashi raisi va bosh direktori etib tayinlandi
1994: Devid Rokfellerning Garvard universitetida Lotin Amerikasi tadqiqotlari markazi ochildi
2000: Rokfellerlar oilasining Rokfeller markaziga bo'lgan mulki 1,85 milliard dollarga sotilgandan so'ng tugadi
2017: Devid 101 yoshida Nyu -York shtatida 3,3 milliard dollarlik boyligi bilan vafot etdi
Magnat Jon D. Rokfeller o'tmishdagi otasining jinoyatchisini yashira olmadi
Bolaligida, Jon D. Rokfeller otasining pullarini va bankda saqlashdan bosh tortgan katta sumkalarini kuzatib turardi va muhabbat bilan o'g'lining oldida yig'ilgan edi. U hech qachon 1000 dollardan kam bo'lmagan pulni olib yurishni odat qilgan va neft baronini keyinroq eslagan va u cho'ntagida saqlagan. U o'ziga g'amxo'rlik qila olardi va pullarini olib yurishdan qo'rqmasdi. ”
Uilyam Averi Rokfeller va uning o'g'li butun zamonning eng boy odamlaridan biriga aylanadi. Mashhur pulga chanqoq, Jon D. otasi va eng xayoliy orzularidan oshib ketadigan boylik orttirganidan ko'p vaqt o'tgach, otasining pullari haqida hayrat bilan gapirdi. "Standard Oil" kompaniyasi rahbari dunyoga sovuq naqd pulni qayerdan olganini faxr bilan aytgan bo'lsa -da, u har doim tafsilotlarni istisno qilgan: otasining pullari qayerdan kelgan.
Darhaqiqat, Uilyamning pullari, kar va ko'r sotuvchi bo'lib ko'rsatilishidan, patentli dori -darmonlarni sotish uchun o'zlarini shifokor sifatida ko'rsatishdan tortib, ko'plab tijorat korxonalaridan kelgan. Ammo Stratosferada "Oltin asr" biznesining yuqori cho'qqisiga ko'tarilgandan so'ng, Jon D. Rokfeller ota -onasining ekspluatatsiyasini pasaytirish uchun qo'lidan kelganini qildi. U oltmish yoshda edi va otasining axloqiy bo'lmagan ish amaliyoti va mumkin bo'lgan jinoiy xatti -harakatlar haqidagi ayblovlar unga qaytib keldi va Rokfellerning otasi haqidagi haqiqatni bilish poygasiga sabab bo'ldi.
Ayblovlar Standard Oil ’sning maxfiy biznes amaliyotini fosh qilgan, o'z raqobatchilarini siqib chiqarish uchun maxfiy bitimlarni kesishni o'z ichiga olgan, jirkanch jurnalist Ida Tarbell tomonidan berilgan. Uning ko'p qismli ekspozitsiyalari uchun asosiy tosh sifatida McClure va#x2019s jurnalida u 1905 yilda Jon D. Rokfellerning ikki qismli tadqiqotini nashr etdi.
Ida M Tarbell 1900-yillar boshidagi Progressiv davrning taniqli yozuvchisi va taniqli yozuvchisi edi.
Maqolalarda pulga befarq odamning portreti tasvirlangan va uning shaxsiyati shuhratparastlik bilan buzilgan, qo'rqinchli va yashirin shaxs. Ammo uning otasi haqida yozganlari Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlarining eng mashhur erkaklaridan birining portreti kabi dahshatli edi. Tarbell Uilyam Averi Rokfellerni o'zini tabib sifatida ko'rsatishda va boshqalarni moliyaviy manfaatlar uchun ekspluatatsiya qilishda ayblab, unga qarshi ot o'g'rilik va o'g'irlik haqidagi ayblovlarni oshkor qildi.
Jon D.ning bolaligida, u yozganidek, uning otasi jamiyatda beparvo va vahshiy bo'lgan hamma narsada etakchi bo'lgan va hurmatli va qat'iyatli, xavfli xarakter sifatida tasniflangan. Uilyam Jon D.ning bolaligida uzoq vaqt yo'qolgan edi, deb yozdi u oilasini qashshoq qilib, ularni shahardan shaharga ko'chishga majbur qildi.
Jon D. butun umrini qarindoshi haqidagi haqiqatni ko'mishga urinib ko'rdi, uning harakatlari butun imperiyani barpo etish uchun xavf tug'dirdi. Garchi u o'z karerasini ota -onasining saboqlari asosida qurganini da'vo qilgan bo'lsa -da, u haqiqatan ham o'zini qattiq onasi Elizaga o'xshatdi. U isloh qila olmagan xiyonatkor eri Uilyam Everi Rokfeller tomonidan anchadan buyon tashlab ketilgan edi.
1849 yilda ot o'g'irlashda gumon qilingan va hatto zo'rlashda ayblangan Uilyam otasi beqaror odam bo'lgan. Ammo Tarbell qidirganicha, uni "Jon Devil" laqabli odam qidirib topa olmadi, u uni Jon D. va uning balog'at yoshidan keyin kuzatolmadi.
Neft magnati otasini haqorat qilganini ko'rib g'azablandi. U odatda qo'riqchini qo'yib yuborishdan bosh tortgan bo'lsa -da, unga Tarbell ’s hikoyasini ko'rsatgan bir jurnalist o'zining mashhur qoplamasida nodir yoriqni ko'rgan. Bu zaharli ayolning zaharli tili, ” dedi u. “What a wretched utterance from one calling herself a historian.”
Now the world knew the truth about William Rockefeller𠅋ut nobody knew where he was. His whereabouts were only exposed thanks to another news legend who despised Rockefeller and his business practices. Joseph Pulitzer, the news magnate who owned the World, sensed that exposing Rockefeller’s roots would not just humiliate the man, but sell more papers. Beginning in 1901, he offered an $8,000 reward—the equivalent of over $240,000 in modern dollars𠅏or anyone who could reveal the whereabouts of Rockefeller’s mysterious father.
Pulitzer sent star reporters across the country to try to track down William, but they came back empty-handed. Seven years later, in 1908, a World reporter named A.B. Macdonald finally got the scoop. But he was too late: William Rockefeller had died six months earlier.
That didn’t stop him from fleshing out the story of William Rockefeller in print. The article had even more bombshells about the magnates’ father: For years, he had lived under assumed names and was known as Dr. Levingston before his death. He “had a big jug of medicine and [he] treated all diseases from the same jug,” an associate recalled, remembering that the supposed doctor would laugh about his concoction magically being able to cure anyone willing to give him money.
The article also claimed that William Rockefeller had been a bigamist. During John D. Rockefeller’s childhood, he had lived with John D.’s mother, Eliza, but a mistress had lived under the same roof as a housekeeper. Eventually, he had remarried without obtaining a divorce, living a double life and splitting his time between two families. His new wife, Margaret Allen, ended up staying married to him for 50 years and did not realize he had not legally married her until after his death.
The accusations of quackery, rape and bigamy all flew in the face of the thrifty, wholesome image John D. Rockefeller had carefully crafted for years. They also represented serious moral outrages during a conservative era. But perhaps the most shocking accusation of all was that his sons had known his whereabouts for 25 years, and had been quietly supporting him.
This claim was vigorously denied by Frank Rockefeller, who called the story an “unqualified lie” in a statement. He stated that his father had been forced into seclusion “precisely to protect himself from being hounded by cranks and others who would break in upon the peace and quiet of his retired life.”
The story was true, however. The Rockefellers had known their father’s location for years and had been sending him money, perhaps in an effort to buy his silence. As for John D. Rockefeller, he ignored Pulitzer’s exposé and tried to move on—presumably eager for the public to forget his connection to𠅊nd similarities with𠅊 father who had no qualms about cheating others in the name of profit. He had spent a lifetime trying to escape his roots, and wasn’t about to stop now.
What Really Happened to Michael Rockefeller
Asmat is, in its way, a perfect place. Everything you could possibly need is here. It’s teeming with shrimp and crabs and fish and clams. In the jungle there are wild pig, the furry, opossumlike cuscus, and the ostrichlike cassowary. And sago palm, whose pith can be pounded into a white starch and which hosts the larvae of the Capricorn beetle, both key sources of nutrition. The rivers are navigable highways. Crocodiles 15 feet long prowl their banks, and jet-black iguanas sun on uprooted trees. There are flocks of brilliant red-and-green parrots. Hornbills with five-inch beaks and blue necks.
And secrets, spirits, laws and customs, born of men and women who have been walled off by ocean, mountains, mud and jungle for longer than anyone knows.
Until 50 years ago, there were no wheels here. No steel or iron, not even any paper. There’s still not a single road or automobile. In its 10,000 square miles, there is but one airstrip, and outside of the main “city” of Agats, there isn’t a single cell tower. Here it’s hard to know where the water begins and the land ends, as the Arafura Sea’s 15-foot tides inundate the coast of southwest New Guinea, an invisible swelling that daily slides into this flat swamp and pushes hard against great outflowing rivers. It is a world of satiny, knee-deep mud and mangrove swamps stretching inland, a great hydroponic terrarium.
We were crossing the mouth of the Betsj River, a turbulent place of incoming tide and outrushing water, when the waves slammed and our 30-foot longboat rolled. I crawled forward, reached under a plastic tarp and fumbled blindly in my duffel for the Ziploc bag holding my satellite phone, and slipped it into my pocket. I hadn’t wanted to bring the phone, but at the last minute I’d thought how stupid it would be to die for want of a call. If Michael Rockefeller had had a radio when his catamaran overturned in this exact spot in 1961, he never would have disappeared.
The Rockefeller family (top: Michael is standing at the right). (Keystone / Hulton Archive / Getty Images) Michael Rockefeller’s travels to New Guinea ultimately took him beyond the reach of his famous family. (AP Images) Sauer is the son of Samut, whom colonial authorities killed in a 1958 raid—a prelude to the events that would ensnare Rockefeller. (Carl Hoffman) After he disappeared, ships, helicopters and airplanes were mobilized to search the swamps of the Asmat region. (Eliot Elisofon / Time Life Pictures /Getty Images) Kokai, the former head man of Pirien village, vividly recalled events before and after Rockefeller’s disappearance but maintained he knew nothing about it. (Carl Hoffman) An Asmat ancestor skull, often used as a pillow to keep the spirits at bay, has the lower jaw intact—unlike the skulls of those who have been headhunted. (Musee du Quai Branly / Scala / Art Resource, NY) In Pirien, Kokai dons traditional Asmat gear: Cuscus fur headband, nose-bone ornament, feathered bag and a bow and arrows. (Carl Hoffman) Family album: Men from Otsjanep and Pirien examine copies of photographs Michael Rockefeller took in the area in 1961. (Carl Hoffman) Michael's father, Nelson, faced the press. (Photo by Eliot Elisofon//Time Life Pictures/Getty Images) On the Arafura Sea (from rear): the author’s boat pilot, Wilem Wilem’s assistant, Manu and the author’s interpreter, Amates. (Carl Hoffman) In Pirien: The author kneels (center) with members of the family of former head man Kokai (behind the author, in striped shirt). (Carl Hoffman) Custom revived: Villagers in Pirien and Jisar complete the roof on the new jeu, or men’s house, the government allowed them to build. (Carl Hoffman) Rockefeller was most impressed by the Asmat people’s ancestor poles, or bisj—elaborate, sexually suggestive signs that a death had yet to be avenged. (© The Metropolitan Museum of Art / Art Resource, NY)
He was 23 years old, the privileged son of New York Gov. Nelson Rockefeller, seven months into the adventure of a lifetime that had transformed him from clean-cut student to bearded photographer and art collector. One moment his boat was being tossed by the waves, just as ours was, and the next he and his Dutch companion were clinging to an overturned hull. And then Rockefeller had swum for shore and vanished. No trace of him was ever found, despite a two-week search involving ships, airplanes, helicopters and thousands of locals prowling the coasts and jungle swamps. The fact that such a simple, banal thing had happened to him made what was happening to us feel all the more real. There would be no foreboding music. One bad wave and I’d be clinging to a boat in the middle of nowhere.
The official cause of Michael’s death was drowning, but there had long been a multitude of rumors. He’d been kidnapped and kept prisoner. He’d gone native and was hiding out in the jungle. He’d been consumed by sharks. He’d made it to shore, only to be killed and eaten by the local Asmat headhunters. The story had grown, become mythical. There had been an off-Broadway play about him, a novel, a rock song, even a television show in the 1980s hosted by Leonard Nimoy.
I’d been fascinated with the story ever since I first saw a photo of Michael on his first trip to what was then called Netherlands New Guinea. In it he is kneeling, holding his 35-millimeter camera under the close eyes of natives. He was working on a documentary film in the highlands of the Great Baliem Valley. That film, Dead Birds, was a groundbreaking ethnographic examination of a barely contacted, stone-age culture that engaged in constant ritual warfare. The mountains, the mist, the naked men yelling and screaming and attacking one another with spears and bow and arrow, had fascinated and entranced me, as had the whole idea of contact between people from dramatically different worlds. In my 20s, I’d tried to get there, but it was too expensive for my young budget, so instead I’d ended up, briefly, in Borneo.
I spent hours looking at that photo, wondering what Michael had seen and felt, wondering what had really happened to him, wondering if I might be able to solve the mystery. That he had been kidnapped or had run away didn’t make sense. If he had drowned, well, that was that. Except he’d been attached to flotation aids. As for sharks, they rarely attacked men in these waters and no trace of him had been found. Which meant that if he hadn’t perished during his swim, there had to be more.
There had to have been some collision, some colossal misunderstanding. The Asmat people were warriors drenched in blood, but Dutch colonial authorities and missionaries had already been in the area for almost a decade by the time Michael disappeared, and the Asmat had never killed a white. If he had been murdered, it struck to the heart of a clash between Westerners and Others that had been ongoing ever since Columbus first sailed to the New World. I found it compelling that in this remote corner of the world the Rockefellers and their power and money had been impotent, had come up with nothing. How was that even possible?
I started poking around in Dutch colonial archives and the records of Dutch missionaries, and I found more than I’d ever imagined. After the ships and planes and helicopters had gone home, a series of new investigations took place. There were pages and pages of reports, cables and letters discussing the case, sent by the Dutch government, Asmat-speaking missionaries on the ground and Catholic Church authorities—and most of it had never been made public. Men who had been key participants in those investigations had remained silent for 50 years, but they were still alive and finally willing to talk.
On February 20, 1957, in a city of concrete and steel 6,000 times bigger than the largest hamlet in Asmat, Nelson Rockefeller introduced the world to a new kind of seeing. He was 49 years old, square-jawed and ambitious, the grandson of Standard Oil founder John D. Rockefeller. At the time of Nelson’s birth, which was announced on the front page of the New York Times, John D. was the richest man on earth, with a fortune estimated at $900 million. In two years, Nelson would become the governor of New York. In 1960, he would run for the presidency. In 1974, he would become vice president of the United States.
Inside a family-owned, four-story townhouse with elegantly curving bay windows at 15 West 54th Street—just around the corner from the Museum of Modern Art, which his mother, Abby Aldrich Rockefeller, had helped found—guests began arriving at 8:30 p.m. to a private reception heralding the first exhibit of the Museum of Primitive Art, which would open to the public the following day. The things they were celebrating came from a world away. A carved paddle from Easter Island. The elongated, exaggerated face of a wooden mask from Nigeria. Pre-Columbian Aztec and Mayan stone figures from Mexico. Around these objects were no ethnographic dioramas, no depictions of African huts or canoes and fishing nets. They rested atop stark white cylinders and cubes, illuminated by track lighting against white walls. They were to be viewed as works of art.
Nelson was dressed in the height of New York tribal finery: black tie. As the guests nibbled canapés and sipped wine, he told them that his new museum was “the first. of its kind in the world”—dedicated exclusively to primitive art. “We do not want to establish primitive art as a separate kind of category,” he said, “but rather to integrate it, with all its missing variety, into what is already known to the arts of man. Our aim will always be to select objects of outstanding beauty whose rare quality is the equal of works shown in other museums of art throughout the world, and to exhibit them so that everyone may enjoy them in the fullest measure.”
Michael Rockefeller was just 18 years old that night, and it’s easy to imagine the power the event had for him. His father’s pride over the new museum, the exotic beauty and pull of the objects, the cream of New York’s elite admiring them. Michael was tall and slender, clean-shaven and square-jawed like his father, with thick, black-rimmed glasses. He’d grown up with his two sisters and two brothers in the family townhouse in Manhattan and on the Rockefeller estate in Westchester County. As Abby Rockefeller had done with Nelson, so Nelson did with Michael, schooling him in art the way other boys were schooled in baseball, taking him to art dealers on Saturday afternoons. His twin sister, Mary, remembered how they loved to watch their father rearrange his art.
As he neared the end of his four years at Harvard, Michael was, in the words of a friend, “a quiet, artistic spirit.” And he was torn. His father expected his son to be like him—to pursue a career in one of the family enterprises, banking or finance, and indulge his artistic passions on the side. Michael graduated cum laude from Harvard with a B.A. in history and economics, but he yearned for something else. He’d traveled widely, working on his father’s ranch in Venezuela for a summer, visiting Japan in 1957, and he’d been surrounded not just by art, but by primitive art. And how could he make his “primitive art”-collecting father prouder than by going to its source and plunging in deeper than the forceful governor and presidential candidate had ever dreamed?
At Harvard he met the filmmaker Robert Gardner, who was beginning work on Dead Birds, and signed on as the sound engineer. “Mike was very quiet and very modest,” said Karl Heider, who as a Harvard graduate student in anthropology had shared a tent on the 1961 film expedition with him. In the evenings, Heider was astonished to see the wealthiest member of the team darning his socks.
But Michael was ambitious, too. “Michael’s father had put him on the board of his museum,” Heider told me, “and Michael said he wanted to do something that hadn’t been done before and to bring a major collection to New York.” He had already corresponded with Adrian Gerbrands, deputy director of the Dutch National Museum of Ethnology, who’d recently begun fieldwork in Asmat. The region was home to people who lived as hunter-gatherers and yet produced carvings of astounding beauty. “Asmat,” Heider said, “was the obvious choice.”
Michael made a scouting trip there during a mid-May break in filming. Only in the mid-1950s had a few Dutch missionaries and government officials begun pacifying the Asmat, but even by 1961 many had never seen a Westerner, and inter-village warfare and headhunting remained common. “Now this is wild and somehow more remote country than what I have ever seen before,” Michael wrote. In many ways, the Asmat world at the time was a mirror image of every taboo of the West. In some areas, men had sex with each other. They occasionally shared wives. In bonding rituals, they sometimes drank one another’s urine. They killed their neighbors, and they hunted human heads and ate human flesh.
They weren’t savages, however, but biologically modern men with all the brainpower and manual dexterity necessary to fly a 747, with a language so complex it had 17 tenses, whose isolated universe of trees, ocean, river and swamp constituted their whole experience. They were pure subsistence hunter-gatherers who lived in a world of spirits—spirits in the rattan and in the mangrove and sago trees, in the whirlpools, in their own fingers and noses. Every villager could see them, talk to them. There was their world, and there was the kingdom of the ancestors across the seas, known as Safan, and an in-between world, and all were equally real. No death just happened even sickness came at the hand of the spirits because the spirits of the dead person were jealous of the living and wanted to linger and cause mischief. The Asmat lived in a dualistic world of extremes, of life and death, where one balanced the other. Only through elaborate sacred feasts and ceremonies and reciprocal violence could sickness and death be kept in check by appeasing and chasing those ancestors back to Safan, back to the land beyond the sea.
Expert woodcarvers in a land without stone, the Asmat crafted ornate shields, paddles, drums, canoes and ancestor poles, called bisj, embodying the spirit of an ancestor. The bisj poles were 20-foot-high masterpieces of stacked men interwoven with crocodiles and praying mantises and other symbols of headhunting. The poles were haunting, expressive, alive, and each carried an ancestor’s name. The carvings were memorial signs to the dead, and to the living, that their deaths had not been forgotten, that the responsibility to avenge them was still alive.
Map of the Asmat Cultural Region. (Guilbert Gates)
The Asmat saw themselves in the trees—just as a man had feet and legs and arms and a head, so did the sago tree, which had roots and branches and a fruit, a seed on top. Just as the fruit of the sago tree nourished new trees, so the fruit of men, their heads, nourished young men. They all knew some version of the story of the first brothers in the world, one of the Asmat creation myths, in which the older brother cajoles the younger into killing him and placing his head against the groin of a young man. The skull nourishes the initiate’s growth, even as he takes the victim’s name and becomes him. It was through that story that men learned how to headhunt and how to butcher a human body and how to use that skull to make new men from boys and to keep life flowing into the world.
The completion of a bisj pole usually unleashed a new round of raids revenge was taken and balance restored, new heads obtained—new seeds to nourish the growth of boys into men—and the blood of the victims rubbed into the pole. The spirit in the pole was made complete. The villagers then engaged in sex, and the poles were left to rot in the sago fields, fertilizing the sago and completing the cycle.
Anything outside of the tangible immediacy of what the Asmats could see had to come from that spirit world—it was the only comprehensible explanation. An airplane was opndettaji—a passing-over-canoe-of-the-spirits. White men came from the land beyond the sea, the same place the spirits lived, and so must be super beings.
Michael did not plunge into this realm a lone adventurer he was a Rockefeller, not to mention a trustee of the Museum of Primitive Art. His traveling party included, among others, Gerbrands and René Wassing, a government anthropologist assigned to him from the Dutch New Guinea Department of Native Affairs.
Michael’s field notes from his first trip to Asmat and the letters he wrote reveal a deepening seriousness regarding his collecting. Before his second expedition, he laid out “objectives themes of investigation criterion for stylistic variation.” He wanted to produce books and mount the biggest exhibition of Asmat art ever.
Michael returned to Asmat in October 1961. Wassing joined him again and in Agats he badgered a Dutch patrol officer into selling him his homemade catamaran, into which Michael stuffed a wealth of barter goods—steel axes, fishing hooks and line, cloth and tobacco, to which the Asmats had become addicted. He and Wassing, accompanied by two Asmat teenagers, visited 13 villages over three weeks.
Michael collected everywhere he went and in quantity, loading up on drums, bowls, bamboo horns, spears, paddles, shields. He was most impressed by the bisj poles. With no sense of irony, he wrote: “This was one kind of object that seemed to me inviolate for the encroachment of western commercialism upon Asmat art.” In the southern village of Omadesep he’d bought a set of four on his first trip they now stand in the Michael C. Rockefeller Wing of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, which absorbed the collections of the Museum of Primitive Art after it closed in 1976.
David Rockefeller Auction Preview: A Personal History of My Grandfather's Table
This week the historic Peggy & David Rockefeller Collection will be sold at Christie's. The collection, comprised of over 1500 works of masterpiece paintings, decorative objects, porcelain and furniture, is predicted to bring in over 600 million with the proceeds donated entirely to 12 charities the family has chosen over decades. The sale will be a tribute to American philanthropy, as well as a testament to DR's love of beauty, life and time with family and friends, which often centered around a gorgeous dining table set with flowers, Italian linen and 18th century silver.
A great collector, but also a great believer of making such treasures a part of daily life, my grandfather would enjoy meals with friends and family on 18th century sets of china, with beautiful linens, flower arrangements and of course pieces of silver that bear a history just as lovely as the pieces themselves, shining on a dinner table. DR was quite close to his Aunt Lucy Aldrich (sister of his mother Abby Aldrich Rockefeller), and frequently recounted stories of her intrepid spirit, feisty nature and her great love of porcelain and silver. Many of these treasures are from Lucy's estate, and it is fair to say that DR inherited the adoration of a beautiful table setting from her.
A George II Silver dish from the David & Peggy Rockefeller Collection
A particularly charming artificat in David's collection, inherited from Aunt Lucy, is a shallow circular dish which is based on a Chinese Export service. Made in London in 1741 by silversmith Isabel Pero, the bowl was from the Lucy Aldrich estate and played a significant part of weekly meals. It often held ice cream for Sunday lunch or Floating Island desert made by his wonderful staff, (who were like family themselves). The importance of the bowl became even more enhanced as the history unfolded.
Not just a valuable piece from a beloved and influential Aunt Lucy, the fact that the piece was crafted by a female silversmith is revelatory as d uring the 18th century there were very few women in the business. The 3rd wife of John Pero, Isabel Pero took up the enterprise after her husband passed away and carried on with a flourishing shop. Isabel's work proved to stand the test of time to be sure. "I have always thought this dish, which we acquired from Aunt Lucy's estate, to be one of the most beautiful silver pieces we own. The fluting is especially appealing, and it is a very good size for serving dessert." - David Rockefeller. (D. Fennimore va boshqalar. p. 402).
A George III Silver Teapot from the David & Peggy Rockefeller Collection
Teatime was often a daily essential on the calendar for DR, and strong earl grey tea would be served around 4pm in a George III silver teapot, along with oatmeal cookies. The teapot was crafted by another female silversmith by the name of Hester Bateman, who was dubbed 'Queen of Silversmithing' and ran a prolific silver workshop in the 18th century. Inheriting the business from her husband, Hester created one of the first ‘mass market’ business of the time. The venture stayed in the family as it was handed down to her son and daughter in law Anne Bateman carried on the tradition of women in business. The George III silver teapot with the Bateman mark in the collection is a stunning yet understated piece.
During the 18 th century, there were four prominent female silversmiths and two are represented in the sale with pieces from the workshops of Hester and Isabel. It seems fitting to have such a strong representation of women in business as David was always surrounded by strong women. His mother founded the Museum of Modern Art, his Aunt Lucy was known for being a fearless world traveler as a single woman, and his wife Peggy started a cattle breeding business. The representation of female entrepreneurs in the collection is certainly no surprise.
The wonderful lesson that DR instilled in his family was that life is to be enjoyed, family cherished and to whom much is given, much must be given back. This auction of beautiful art, objects and furniture will be a testament to these lessons, and certainly a visually beautiful one.
I’m an equestrian athlete, designer and New Yorker. I travel internationally as a competitive show jumper and am passionate about the sport. I graduated from Columbia…
I’m an equestrian athlete, designer and New Yorker. I travel internationally as a competitive show jumper and am passionate about the sport. I graduated from Columbia University with a degree in political science and launched a brand of clothing and equestrian inspired handbags in 2011. Glad to share my views and observations here as a Forbes Contributor.
From a China Traveler
Given China's vastness, it was only due to the remarkable thoughtfulness of our hosts that the six members of our Chase group were able to see and experience so much during just ten days in Peking, Sian, Shanghai and Canton. In terms of simple geographic expanse, a week and a half visit to China is something equivalent to trying to see New York City in less than one and a half minutes.
One is impressed immediately by the sense of national harmony. From the loud patriotic music at the border onward, there is very real and pervasive dedication to Chairman Mao and Maoist principles. Whatever the price of the Chinese Revolution, it has obviously succeeded not only in producing more efficient and dedicated administration, but also in fostering high morale and community of purpose.
General economic and social progress is no less impressive. Only 25 years ago, starvation and abject poverty are said to have been more the rule than the exception in China. Today, almost everyone seems to enjoy adequate, if Spartan, food, clothing and housing. Streets and homes are spotlessly clean, and medical care greatly improved. Crime, drug addiction, prostitution and venereal disease have been virtually eliminated. Doors are routinely left unlocked. Rapid strides are being made in agriculture, reforestation, industry and education. Eighty per cent of school‐age children now attend primary school, compared with 20 per cent just twenty years ago.
Each step of the trip was choreographed precisely by our hosts and, though virtually all our requests were granted, we clearly saw what they wanted us to. Still, there was little sense of the constant security found in some other Communist countries. Issues such as Taiwan and Cambodia evoke strong positions, but conversation does not founder on ideological shoals. The Chinese seem so totally convinced of the correctness of their own world view that they do not feel they have to push it aggressively.
Despite the constant impressions of progress, however, some gray areas and basic contradictions also emerged. Three major questions remain in my own mind.
First, can individuality and creativity continue to be contained to the degree they are now in a nation with such a rich cultural heritage?
The enormous social advances of China have benefited greatly from the singleness of ideology and purpose. But a stiff price has been paid in terms of cultural and intellectual constraint. There are only eight different theatrical productions in the entire country. The universities are rigorously politicized, with little room for inquiry unrelated to Chairman Mao's thought. Freedom to travel or change jobs is restricted. When asked about personal creativity, one ceramics craftsman answered only that there was not time for individual art if the masses were to be served.
Second, will the highly decentralized Chinese economy be able to adapt successfully to expanded foreign trade and technological improvements?
Considering the problems to be overcome, economic growth in China over the last 25 years has been quite remarkable, with an annual average rise in gross national product of 4 to 5 per cent. For the 1971–75 period, this growth should range between 5.5 and 7.5 per cent a year. These results have depended largely on a wise emphasis on agriculture and a nationwide policy of decentralized, balanced industrial development. The industrial spread reflects strategic factors, the laborabundant nature of the country and inadequate transportation. There are, for instance, now only a handful of commercial jet airplanes in China, and flights are entirely dependent on weather conditions owing to limited guidance facilities common in most parts of the world.
Third, are we and the Chinese prepared to accept our very real differences and still proceed toward the closer mutual understanding that must be the basis of substantive future contact?
I fear that too often the true significance and potential of our new relationship with China has been obscured by the novelty of it all. Pandas and Ping‐Pong, gymnastics and elaborate dinners have captivated our imaginations, and I suspect the Chinese are equally intrigued by some of our more novel captitalistic ways.
In fact, of course, we are experiencing a much more fundamental phenomenon. The Chinese, for their part, are faced with altering a primarily inward focus that they have pursued for a quarter century under their current leadership. We, for our part, are faced with the realization that we have largely ignored a country with one‐fourth of the world's population. When one considers the profound differences in our cultural heritages and our social and economic systems, this is certain to be a long task with much accommodation necessary on both sides.
The social experiment in China under. Chairman Mao's leadership is one of the most important and successful in human history. How extensively China opens up and how the world interprets and reacts to the social innovations and life styles she has developed is certain to have a profound impact on the future of many nations.
Conspiracies [ edit ]
World government [ edit ]
The Rockefellers have long been associated with the idea of a secret world government, New World Order, or One World Order, through institutions such as the Trilateral Commission, which was founded by David Rockefeller to facilitate international economic cooperation and having lots of fancy foreign conferences. Other secretive institutions like the Bilderberg Group are often implicated. Γ va#93
One of the first conspiracy theorists was Emanuel Josephson in Rockefeller: "Internationalist": The Man Who Misrules The World in 1952. ΐ] Gary Allen's 1976 book The Rockefeller File is a detailed attack on the family and their supposed internationalist conspiracy. Δ] He accuses the Rockefellers of manipulating tax law so they can donate money to trusts and avoid tax but retain control over it. Δ ]
They are also accused of being part of a Roman Catholic conspiracy against American Protestantism and freedom of religion, being supposedly the descendants of the Jesuit Roggenfelder family who fled Germany in one of the country's periodic outbursts of anti-Catholicism. Ε] This is despite the fact that most sources say William Sr. and his family were Protestant. Ώ] But theorists like to claim the Rockefellers lied about their religion. Ε ]
In 2015, David light-heartedly confirmed the conspiracy theories, saying he had indeed been working for increased international cooperation all his life. Α ]
Banking [ edit ]
They supposedly control American money through the Federal Reserve. Ε] In particular, they are in conspiracy with the Rothschild family (Evil Jewish bankers), Warburgs, Goldman Sachs, Lehmans, Kuhn Loeb, and other international financiers. Ζ]
The facts are these. In 1908 following various financial crises, Congress passed the Aldrich-Vreeland Act to examine banking, and Senate Republican leader Nelson Aldrich led the inquiry, meeting with representatives of prominent banks including J P Morgan, National City Bank of New York, and Kuhn Loeb & Co. The National City Bank of New York in particular was closely linked to the Rockefellers, but the Rockefellers also did a lot of business with J P Morgan (which also funded Cornelius Vanderbilt's New York Central Railroad), and John D. Rockefeller Jr was married to Aldrich's daughter Abigail. Aldrich's inquiry led to the Federal Reserve Act of 1913 and the subsequent establishment of regional Federal Reserve banks, of which the Federal Reserve Bank of New York was most powerful. The Rockefellers were also major shareholders of the Equitable Trust Company, which merged with Chase National Bank in 1930. Everything was quite closely interrelated.
Conspiracy theorist also point to the role of the Rockefellers in the Bank for International Settlements in Basel, Switzerland, which was initially founded to handle Germany's World War I reparations, but now "fosters international monetary and financial cooperation and serves as a bank for central banks" Η] ⎖] . Gates McGarrah formerly of Chase Manhattan/Chase National Bank and the Federal Reserve was its first President. By the way, McGarrah's grandson Richard McGarrah Helms was a senior official at the CIA at the time of John F. Kennedy's assassination. Needless to say, the Rockefellers have also been linked vaguely to amorphous Kennedy assassination conspiracies. ⎗]
Alternative medicine [ edit ]
The Rockefellers have been accused of using their donations to medical charities such as the Institute for Medical Research (now the Rockefeller University in New York) to promote conventional (i.e., scientific, evidence-based) medicine, aid Big Pharma in world domination, and crush alternative medicine. ΐ] ⎘]
World Trade Center [ edit ]
David Rockefeller of the Chase National Bank was supposedly one of the earliest advocates of building the World Trade Center in New York. ⎗]
The two towers of the World Trade Centre, destroyed in the 9/11 attacks, were supposedly nicknamed David and Nelson after the Rockefeller brothers. Ε] And after the towers were destroyed they took revenge or something.
What does it all mean? Kim biladi? But it must mean something…
Business practices [ edit ]
The Rockefellers are often accused of corrupt business practices, abusing their monopoly position, etc. ΐ] This may have more merit than any of the other theories here, and it's clear that American business has often involved a small group of enormously powerful people scheming together to make as much money as possible. It's called capitalism.
Zika [ edit ]
And obviously the Rockefellers invented the Zika virus and are using it to kill people. Apparently the Rockefellers have provided funding to an organisation called the American Type Culture Collection which sells biological preparations and offers freeze-dried Zika virus agent to reputable researchers. ⎙] ⎚]