En-Gedi qadimiy varag'ining sirlari raqamli tarzda ochilgan

En-Gedi qadimiy varag'ining sirlari raqamli tarzda ochilgan


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Kentukki universiteti professori Brent Seales va uning jamoasi qadimgi En-Gedi varag'ida yana ochilgan yozuvlarni ochishdi-bu birinchi marta shikastlangan, siyohga asoslangan o'ralgan va o'ralgan holda aniqlangan. Virtual ochish orqali ular Muqaddas Sandiqdan topilgan "Pentateuchal" kitobining birinchi nusxasi - Levilar kitobi ekanligini aniqladilar.

Seales va uning jamoasi hayvon terisining beshta o'ralgan varag'idagi matnni topdi va qayta tikladi, bu ob'ekt hech qachon tekshirish uchun jismonan ochilmaydi. 21-sentabr kuni "Science Advances" jurnalida chop etilgan tadqiqotda Seales va hammualliflar bu jarayonni tasvirlab berishadi va 35 ta matndan iborat deyarli o'ralmagan o'ramning asosiy tasvirini o'z ichiga olgan topilmalarni taqdim etishadi, ulardan 18 tasi saqlanib qolgan, yana 17 tasi rekonstruksiya qilindi.

En-Gedi-dan yonib ketgan varaq. Rasm Leon Levi O'lik Dengiz Raqamli kutubxonasi, IAA tomonidan berilgan. (Surat: S. Halevi | biling.uky.edu)

"Bu ish yangi oyna ochadi, u orqali biz vaqt o'tmishiga nazar tashlab, buzilgan va parchalanib ketgan deb o'ylagan materiallarni o'qiy olamiz", dedi Seales, Buyuk Britaniyaning kompyuter fanlari kafedrasi professori. "Boshqa juda ko'p noyob va hayajonli materiallar bor, ular hali sirlaridan voz kechishi mumkin - biz faqat ular nimalarga ega bo'lishi mumkinligini kashf qila boshlaymiz.

"Biz barcha ma'lumotlarni En-Gedi-dan aylantirish uchun chiqaramiz: skanerlar, geometrik tahlilimiz, yakuniy to'qimalar. O'ylaymizki, ilmiy jamoaga ma'lumotlar va jarayon, shuningdek bizning natijalarimiz qiziqadi", dedi u. .

  • Arxeologlar Bosh suyagi g'oridan O'lik dengizning oxirgi varaqlarini qidirishadi
  • O'lik dengizlar varaqlari Nuh kemasi piramida kabi shakllanganligini ko'rsatadi

"Virtual ochish" deb nomlangan dasturiy ta'minot liniyasi shikastlangan ob'ektlar ichidagi matnni 3 o'lchamli ob'ektning ichki tuzilishini aks ettiruvchi yuqori aniqlikdagi skanerlash ma'lumotlarini raqamli segmentlarga ajratish, tekstura qilish va tekislash uchun ishlatadi.

Videodan virtual ochish qanday ishlashini bilib oling:

2015 yilda Seales va uning jamoasi Levit kitobining birinchi sakkiz oyatini o'ramda ochdilar, ular kamida 1500 yoshda va bir paytlar qattiq yoqib yuborilgan. Kuygan holati tufayli uni saqlab qolish ham, hal qilish ham mumkin emas edi. Biroq, yuqori aniqlikdagi skanerlash va virtual ochish Sealsga siyohga asoslangan katta hajmdagi matnni shunday yuqori sifatda tiklash imkonini berdi, endi Quddus Ibroniy universiteti olimlari tanqidiy matn tahlilini o'tkaza oladilar.

Qisman transkripsiya va tiklangan matnni tarjima qilish. (1-ustun) En-Gedi siljishining 5-7-qatorlari. (Kredit: Brent Seales | biling.uky.edu)

"Ajoyib tomografiya texnologiyasi yordamida biz hozir Injil matnining dastlabki tarixini yo'q qila olamiz, chunki En-Gedi kitobi umumiy davrning birinchi asrlariga to'g'ri keladi",-deydi Ibroniy universiteti professori Emanuel Tov. ibroniy va yunon kitoblarini matn tanqid qilish bo'yicha hammuallif va etakchi olim. Ivrit universitetidan Maykl Segal ham Tov bilan matnli tanqid ustida ishlagan.

  • Herkulaneumning 2000 yillik kuygan o'ramlarining sirlari yangi texnologiyalar yordamida ochiladi
  • Noma'lum tilda yozilgan qadimiy kumush varaqdan topilgan sehrli sehr

Bu varaq 1970 yilda Isroilning En -Gedi ibodatxonasida arxeologik qazishmalar paytida topilgan bo'lib, ular Ivrit universiteti Arxeologiya institutidan Dan Barag va Exud Netzer boshchiligida va Isroil qadimiy yodgorliklari idorasi vakili Yosef Porat tomonidan topilgan. O'lik dengiz varaqlarini saqlash va hujjatlashtirish uchun zamonaviy va ilg'or texnologiyalardan foydalanadigan Isroil qadimiy yodgorliklari idorasining (IAA) Lunder oilasi O'lik dengiz o'ramlarini saqlash markazi bu muhim topilmani topishga imkon berdi.

En Gedi aylanishi. ( zwingliusredivivus.wordpress.com)

"En-Gedi varag'idagi matnning topilishi bizni juda hayratda qoldirdi; biz qorong'uda o'q otilganiga amin edik, lekin eng ilg'or texnologiyalar bu madaniy xazinani hayotga qaytardi", dedi hammualliflardan biri Pnina Shor. Isroil qadimiy yodgorliklar idorasining O'lik dengiz varaqlari loyihasi direktori. "Endi, kelajak avlodlar uchun O'lik dengiz varaqlarini saqlashdan tashqari, biz 1500 yillik sinagogadagi Muqaddas sandiqdan Injilning bir qismini vasiyat qilishimiz mumkin!"


En -Gedi qadimiy varag'ining sirlari raqamli tarzda ochilgan - tarix

Olmos nur manbai/Raqamli qayta tiklash tashabbusi/Kentukki universiteti Kentukki universiteti jamoasi 900 ta ochilgan Gerkulanum varaqlaridan birini deyarli ochishga umid qilmoqda.

Miloddan avvalgi 79 yilda Vezuvi tog'ining otilishi Pompey va Gerkulanum shaharlarini vayron qildi. Hamma narsa, shu jumladan o'ramlarning bebaho kutubxonasi, jahannamga yo'qolgan. Ga binoan Guardianammo, sun'iy intellekt va yuqori energiyali rentgen nurlari bu hujjatlarni yana bir bor o'qiy oladigan qilib qo'yishi mumkin edi.

Garchi siz papirusning har bir bo'lagida yozuv borligini ko'rsangiz -da, uni ochish uchun papirus chindan ham yumshoq va egiluvchan bo'lishi kerak bo'ladi - va bu boshqa emas, - dedi etakchi tadqiqotchi professor Brent Seales. Kentukki universitetining informatika bo'limiga kafedra.

Seales va uning jamoasi o'z loyihasida foydalanadigan ikkita ochilgan varaq Parijdagi Frans institutiga tegishli. 1752 yilda Vesuviusning g'arbida va Pompeydan 10 mil narida joylashgan qirg'oq shahri Herculaneumda 1800 ta karbonli o'ralgan ajoyib to'plam topildi.

Tarixiy ahamiyatga ega bo'lgan holda, bu to'plam qadimgi davrdagi yagona buzilmagan kutubxonani o'z ichiga oladi. Uning katta qismi Neapoldagi Milliy arxeologiya muzeyida saqlangan. Ba'zi arxeologlarning fikriga ko'ra, o'ramlar topilgan tuzilma-"Papiriylar villasi" deb nomlangan-Yuliy Tsezarning qaynotasiga tegishli.

Bugungi kunga kelib, varaqlarni o'qish juda qiyin bo'lib chiqdi. Olimlar ularni ochishga urinishganida, ular asosan ajralib ketadi va qolgan siyoh havoga tushgandan keyin so'nib ketadi.

Shunday qilib, Seales va uning jamoasi qimmatbaho varaqlarni yo'q qilish xavfi bo'lmagan zamonaviy texnologiyalarni qo'llagan usulni ishlab chiqdilar.

Endryu Bruks/Olmos nur manbai. Miloddan avvalgi 79 yilda Vezuvi tog'ining otilishi paytida karbonlangan ko'plab varaqlardan biri.

Seales va uning jamoasi En-Gedi shahridagi Isroil ibodatxonasining muqaddas sandig'idan topilgan, 1700 yillik yahudiy pergamentini yuqori energiyali rentgen nurlaridan foydalanib, yuqori quvvatli rentgen nurlaridan foydalanganlarida allaqachon o'z qobiliyatlarini isbotlashgan. Unda Levilar kitobidan matn borligi aniqlandi.

En-Gedi varag'idan farqli o'laroq, Herculaneum matnlarining ko'pchiligi metallga asoslangan siyoh bilan yozilmagan. Shunday qilib, rentgen tekshiruvlarida ko'mir yoki kuyikka asoslangan yozuv va papirusning o'zi o'rtasida hech qanday farq yo'q.

Bu erda Buyuk Britaniyaning rivojlangan sinxrotroni, u quyoshdan ko'ra yorqinroq nurni yoritishga qodir.

Qurilma elektronlardan foydalanib, hayratlanarli darajada yorqin nurni ishlab chiqaradi, uning yordamida fotoalbom va samolyot dvigatellaridan tortib, vaktsinalar va viruslarga qadar hamma narsani o'rganish mumkin.

Sealesning fikricha, "Olmos nur manbai" deb nomlangan ob'ekt Herculaneum o'ramlari haqida asosiy ma'lumotlarni beradi. U erdan u va uning jamoasi qadimiy yozuvlarning aniq bo'lmagan qismlarini aniqlash uchun mashinasozlik deb nomlangan sun'iy intellektdan foydalanadi.

Olmosli yorug'lik manbai Jamoa o'z mashinasini o'rganish algoritmlarini yashirin siyohni aniqlash usullarini o'rgatmoqda. Bu jarayon takomillashtirilgach, Seales yana yuzlab skanerlashni rejalashtirmoqda.

“ biz ultra-yorug 'yorug'lik bilan, o'ramlarning ichki tuzilishini har qachongidan ko'ra aniqroq ko'rinishda ko'ramiz, ” tushuntirdi Seales.

“Biz ishlab chiqarayotgan mashina o'rganish vositasi, bu murakkab signalni, kompyuterning algoritmini tanib olish uchun o'rgatish orqali-piksel-piksel-ochilgan bo'laklarning fotosuratlaridan, siyoh qaerda ekanligini aniq ko'rsatib beradi-voksel-by-voksel parchalarning tegishli tomografik ma'lumotlari. ”

Ular xuddi shu mantiqni haligacha o'ralgan varaqlarga qo'llaydilar, bu esa mashinaga ko'zga ko'rinmas siyohni aniqlash imkonini beradi.

Seales ’s jamoasi rentgen ma'lumotlarini yig'ishni tugatdi va endi tizimni algoritmlarini takomillashtirishga e'tibor qaratmoqda-keyingi bir necha oy ichida dastur kutilmoqda.

“Biz umid qiladigan birinchi narsa - bu texnologiyani takomillashtirish, shuning uchun biz uni [o'ralmagan] qolgan 900 o'ramda takrorlashimiz mumkin, ” dedi Seales. Yozuvlarning ko'p qismi [ochilgan varaqlarda] o'sha davr falsafasi bo'lgan epikurizm atrofida yunon falsafasi. ”

Bu 900 ochilmagan varaqlarning ba'zilari lotin matnini o'z ichiga olishi ehtimoli katta. Klassik kutubxonalarda yunon va lotin bo'limlari bo'lgan deb taxmin qilinadi, lekin tahlil qilingan Gerkulanum varaqlarining faqat bir qismi lotin tilida yozilgan.

Oksford universiteti papirologi va klassitsisti doktor Dirk Obbink, aylantiruvchi guruh bilan ishlagan, yaqinda qanday qadimiy adabiy mo''jizalar kashf qilinishini kutib o'tira olmaydi.

Seneka oqsoqolning yangi tarixiy asari o'tgan yili noma'lum Herculaneum papiruslari orasida topilgan va shu tariqa u erda o'ylanmagan nodir nodir narsalar topilganligini ko'rsatgan.

Obbink umid qilamanki, yaqinda ochiladigan ba'zi matnlar abadiy yo'qolib ketishi mumkin bo'lgan asarlarni o'z ichiga oladi. Qadimgi to'plamga, masalan, Sapfoning she'rlari yoki Mark Atonining mastligi haqida yozgan risolalari kirishi mumkin. Obbink, hech bo'lmaganda, aniq natijaga intilmoqda.

Men buni o'qishni juda xohlardim. ”

Sun'iy intellekt va mashinani o'rganish bilan Vesuvius tog'ining qadimiy varaqlari o'rganilgan va#8221 bo'lganini bilib, Pompeyda boshsiz skelet topilgani haqida o'qing. Keyin, Hadrian devorida topilgan qadimgi Rim boks qo'lqoplarini ko'rib chiqing.


En-Gedi-dan aylantirish: yuqori texnologiyali tiklash vazifasi

LEXINGTON, Ky. (2016 yil 21 sentyabr) Kentukki universiteti professori Brent Seales va uning jamoasi qadimgi En-Gedi varag'idagi yozuvlarni ochdilar-bu birinchi marta shikastlangan, siyohga asoslangan o'ralgan va o'ralgan holda aniqlangan. Virtual o'rash orqali ular Muqaddas Sandiqdan topilgan "Pentateuchal" kitobining birinchi nusxasi - Levilar kitobi ekanligini aniqladilar.

Seales va uning jamoasi hayvon terisining beshta o'ralgan varag'idagi matnni topdi va qayta tikladi, bu ob'ekt hech qachon tekshirish uchun jismonan ochilmaydi. 21-sentabr kuni "Science Advances" jurnalida chop etilgan tadqiqotda Seales va hammualliflar bu jarayonni tasvirlab berishadi va 35 ta matndan iborat deyarli o'ralmagan o'ramning asosiy tasvirini o'z ichiga olgan topilmalarni taqdim etishadi, ulardan 18 tasi saqlanib qolgan, yana 17 tasi rekonstruksiya qilindi.

Bu yutuq chorshanba kuni BBC News, The New York Times, The Washington Post, Wall Street Journal, Associated Press, Fox News, The Guardian, The Economist va boshqa ko'plab maqolalar bilan xalqaro miqyosda namoyish etildi.

"Bu ish yangi oyna ochadi, u orqali biz vaqt o'tishi bilan orqaga qaray olamiz, shikastlangan va parchalanib ketgan deb o'ylagan materiallarni o'qiymiz", - deydi Seales, Buyuk Britaniyaning kompyuter fanlari kafedrasi professori. "Hali ham sirlaridan voz kechishi mumkin bo'lgan juda ko'p noyob va hayajonli materiallar bor - biz ular nimani saqlay olishini endi kashf qila boshlaymiz.

"Biz barcha ma'lumotlarni En-Gedi-dan ko'chirma uchun chiqaramiz: skanerlar, geometrik tahlilimiz, yakuniy to'qimalar. O'ylaymizki, ilmiy jamoatchilik ma'lumotlarga va jarayonga, shuningdek bizning natijalarga qiziqadi", dedi u. .

"Virtual ochish" deb nomlangan dasturiy ta'minot quvur liniyasi raqamli segment, to'qimalar va tekislikni tekislash uchun 3 o'lchamli ob'ektning ichki tuzilishini ifodalovchi yuqori aniqlikdagi skanerlash ma'lumotlari yordamida shikastlangan ob'ektlar ichidagi matnni ochib beradi.

Yuqoridagi videodan virtual ochish qanday ishlashini bilib oling, shuningdek https://youtu.be/GduCExxB0vw saytida ham mavjud.

2015 yilda Seales va uning jamoasi Levit kitobining birinchi sakkiz oyatini o'ramda ochdilar, ular kamida 1500 yoshda va bir paytlar qattiq yoqib yuborilgan. Kuygan holati tufayli uni saqlab qolish ham, hal qilish ham mumkin emas edi. Biroq, yuqori aniqlikdagi skanerlash va virtual ochish Sealsga siyohga asoslangan matnni shunday yuqori sifatda tiklash imkonini berdi, Quddus Ibroniy universiteti olimlari endi tanqidiy matn tahlilini o'tkaza oladilar.

"Ajoyib tomografiya texnologiyasi yordamida biz hozir Injil matnining dastlabki tarixini yo'q qila olamiz, chunki En-Gedi kitobi umumiy davrning birinchi asrlariga to'g'ri keladi",-deydi Ibroniy universiteti professori Emanuel Tov. ibroniy va yunon bibliyalarini matn tanqid qilish bo'yicha hammuallif va etakchi olim. Ivrit universitetidan Maykl Segal ham Tov bilan matnli tanqid ustida ishlagan.

Bu varaq 1970 yilda Isroilning En -Gedi ibodatxonasida arxeologik qazishmalar paytida topilgan bo'lib, ular Ivrit universiteti Arxeologiya institutidan Dan Barag va Exud Netzer boshchiligida va Isroil qadimiy yodgorliklari idorasi vakili Yosef Porat tomonidan topilgan. Isroil qadimiy yodgorliklari idorasining (IAA) Lunder oilasi O'lik dengiz varaqlarini saqlash markazi, zamonaviy va ilg'or texnologiyalardan foydalanib, O'lik dengiz varaqlarini saqlash va hujjatlashtirish, bu muhim topilmani topishga imkon berdi.

"En-Gedi varaqchasidagi matnning topilishi bizni juda hayratda qoldirdi, biz uning qorong'uda otilganiga amin edik, lekin eng ilg'or texnologiyalar bu madaniy xazinani hayotga qaytardi", dedi hammualliflardan biri Pnina Shor, kurator va rejissyor. Isroil qadimiy yodgorliklar ma'muriyatining O'lik dengiz varaqlari loyihasi. "Endi, biz O'lik dengiz o'ramlarini kelajak avlodlarga saqlashdan tashqari, 1500 yillik sinagogadagi Muqaddas sandiqdan Muqaddas Kitobning bir qismini meros qilib olamiz!"

Hamma mualliflardan tashqari, Seales bu ishni amalga oshirish uchun o'z shogirdlari, hamkasblari va tarafdorlarini minnatdorchilik bildiradi:

Milliy fan jamg'armasi IIS-0535003 va IIS-1422039 mukofotlari ostida

Kentukki universiteti - Kompyuter fanlari bo'limi, Vizualizatsiya markazi va muhandislik kolleji


Erta kopt qo'lyozmasi sirlarini ochish – Morgan kutubxonasi MS M.910

M. 910

M.910 asl nusxasini Pierpont Morgan kutubxonasida ko'rish Pierpont Morgan kutubxonasidan [MS M.910], o'z ichiga olgan Havoriylarning ishlari, V asrdan bir muncha vaqt o'tgach, sahodiy kopt tilida yozilgan [koptlar Misr nasroniylari]. Asl qo'lyozma, Brent Seales, Kentukki universiteti raqamli ochish gurusi va filolog va dinshunos Pol Dilli [U. Ayova shtati] va kitob konservatori Mariya Frederik (Perpont Morgan kutubxonasi). Loyiha haqida New York Times maqolasi. Uch tomonlama hamkorlik o'tgan yilning boshida, Ayova shtat universitetida o'tkazilgan Mellon Soyer seminari bilan o'tkazilgan uchrashuvlardan, men madaniy va matn almashinuvi: "Zamonaviy Evroosiyo bo'ylab qo'lyozma" va#8217 da o'tkazilgan uchrashuvlardan boshlandi.

Mening qo'limda 2000 yil eski, yonib ketgan modelni ushlab turadigan "En-Gedi" kichkina narsa! rasm: M. Moreton

Seales 2017 yil fevral oyida Ayovaga tashrif buyurib, qadimgi ibroniycha En-Gedi varag'ini [milodiy 50-100 yillar] raqamli ochish bo'yicha tadqiqotini va 1-asr o'rtalariga to'g'ri keladigan qadimgi Rim Herculaneum papiruslari bo'yicha dastlabki ishini taqdim etdi. Idoralar yoki undan oldin. Ularning ikkalasi ham papirusga yozilgan [qamish o'simlikidan tayyorlangan varaq] va saqlash uchun o'ralgan, faqat 2000 yil oldin yonib, birlashtirilgan. Bu qadimgi yozilgan varaqlarni doimiy shikastlanmagan holda ochib bo'lmaydi [ko'pchilik Herculaneum va#8217s kutubxonalaridagi varaqlarni sinab ko'rishgan] va ularni yalang'och ko'z bilan o'qib bo'lmaydi (ular ko'mir qora, loyqa o'xshash narsalar). Seales bu ob'ektlarni tasvirlashga inqilobiy yondashuvni 2016 yilgi NY Times maqolasida tasvirlangan va ularni rentgen tomografiyasi yordamida skanerlashni va murakkab kompyuterlashtirilgan algoritm yordamida ma'lumotlarni qayta ishlashni o'z ichiga oladi. [Seales ’ Volume Cartography software] qo'ng'iroqlar ‘digital ochish ’. Bu jarayonni ko'rish uchun Seales Mellon Soyerning ma'ruzasiga qarang.

En-Gedi aylantirgichi, raqamli o'ralgan [rasm: https://nyti.ms/2k4etJp] 2000 yillik En-Gedi varag'ini skanerlash bu tizimni sinab ko'rishning birinchi urinishi edi va juda muvaffaqiyatli bo'lib, o'qish mumkin bo'lgan aylantirish qismini ochib berdi. Levilar kitobining eng qadimiy nusxasi! O'tkazmalar / rulolar odatda faqat bir tomonda yoziladi, bu Sealsga varaq materialining har ikki tomonidagi siyohni ajratish muammosiz skanerlash va ma'lumotlarni qayta ishlashni takomillashtirishga imkon beradi. Seales jamoasi so'nggi bir necha yil ichida ushbu tizimni takomillashtirdi va uni keyingi bosqichga olib chiqishga tayyor edi, u har ikki tomonga yozilgan varaqli materiallarni o'z ichiga olgan kodeksni tasvirlashni murakkablashtirdi.

Pol Dilli, filolog va kopt va manixey qo'lyozmalari bo'yicha olim, Morgan M.910 buning uchun yaxshi nomzod bo'lishi mumkinligini aytdi. Morgan Drue Heinz kitob konservatori Mariya Frederik loyihani ko'rib chiqishga va surishtiruv jarayonini boshlashga rozi bo'ldi. Qo'lyozma 2017 yil dekabr oyida Morganda skanerlanadi va keyingi oylarda ma'lumotlar qayta ishlanadi. Rasmlar tugagandan so'ng, men bu haqda ko'proq ma'lumot beraman.

M.910 avvalgi kuygan papirus varaqlaridan farqli o'laroq, pergamentga [hayvon terisiga] yozilgan va ma'lum matnni o'z ichiga oladi. Havoriylarning ishlari [Luqo Xushxabarining sherigi], birinchi asr oxirida yozilgan va koptlar tomonidan ko'chirilgan matn. Qo'lyozma ochilmaydigan darajada mo'rt va suv va issiqlik shikastlanishi tufayli o'qilmaydi. Qo'lyozma, shuningdek, varaqlarning to'lqinga o'xshash shakli bilan, suv va issiqlik bilan shikastlangan pergamentga juda o'xshash. Bu omillarning barchasi uni pergament kodeksi uchun ma'lumotlarni qayta ishlashni takomillashtirish va har bir foliodagi yozuvni raqamli tarzda ajratish va ‘flatten ’ ni ishlab chiqish uchun yaxshi sinov holatiga aylantiradi.

Asl qo'lyozmani skanerlashdan oldin, Seales guruhi qo'lyozma moslashtirilgan stendga mos kelishini va skaner ishlashini tekshirish uchun prototip modeliga muhtoj edi va bu men yangi pergament yordamida ishlab chiqarilgan va temir o'tli siyoh bilan yozilgan model. Rentgen tomografiyasi temir o'tining siyohida temir borligini aniqlaydi, shuning uchun men o'z modelim uchun temir o'tini siyohini olishim va Sahid kopt alifbosi yordamida qadimgi kopt tilida yozishni o'rganishim kerak edi!

Jessi Meyerdan olingan juda nozik pergament terilari echki, kiyik, buzoq aralashmasidan iborat.

Asl qo'lyozmani qayta tiklashda ko'p narsani taxmin qilish kerak edi, chunki u suvga shikastlangan va Misr cho'lining issiqligidan aziyat chekkan [menimcha, asl jildda hali ham qum bo'lishi mumkin!]. Qo'lyozma ko'p o'lchovli [mukammal blok emas], shuning uchun men 5,5 mm uzunlikdagi umurtqa pog'onasining eng katta o'lchami 12,5 x 14,5 ga bordim. Odatda, men tarixiy kitob tuzilmalari modellarini yaratganimda, men aniq so'rovlar tuzilishini yoki taqqoslashni takrorlamoqchi emasman [yig'ish/ so'rov uchun bi-folia soni], shuning uchun bu juda qiyin mashq edi, chunki buni amalga oshirish mumkin emas. varaq materialining qalinligini takrorlang va qanchalik qalin bo'lishini yoki uni yig'ib tikilganidan keyin o'zini qanday tutishini taxmin qiling. Biz pergamenalik Jessi Meyerdan juda nozik pergamentga buyurtma berdik, iloji boricha qalinligi .13 mm. Men ish, echki, kiyik va buzoq uchun turli xil terilarni so'radim. Ularning har biri turlicha ko'rinishga ega. Men katta pergament terisini o'lchamiga qarab kesib oldim va har bir teridan olinadigan bi-foliya sonini ko'paytirishga harakat qildim. Menga 13 ta so'rov kerak edi, shuning uchun pergament tugagach, kitob blokini qalin qog'oz bilan tugatdim. Men 4 ta tikuv stantsiyalarini [tikish uchun teshiklarni] har bir so'rov uchun jig, musht beshik va avl yordamida teshdim va men yozayotganda so'rovni bir joyda ushlab turish uchun har bir ipni oddiy tayoq bilan tikdim.

Oddiy [keyingi o'rta asrlarda] skriptor amaliyotida, yozuvchi bog'lanmagan pergament varaqlariga yozar edi [keyin yig'ilib, bog'lab qo'yiladi]. Ba'zi kitoblar, shuningdek, bo'sh so'rovlar/yig'ilishlar bilan ishlab chiqarilgan, so'ngra yozilgan. Bu loyiha bo'yicha yig'ish va yozish ishlarining murakkabligi sababli, men to'g'ridan -to'g'ri yig'ilgan va yopilgan so'rovlarni yozishga qaror qildim, so'ngra so'rovlarni majburiy qilib qayta o'rnatdim. yozish ishlari tugallandi.

Sahodiy koptada M.910 tafsilotlari

Endi yozish uchun. Allaqachon murakkab vazifani murakkablashtirish uchun men uni nusxa ko'chirdim Havoriylarning ishlari, kompyuterda Sahidiy Coptic yozuvidan. Bu xattotlik bo'lmagan xat shakllari, shuning uchun ular qalam yoki qalam va siyoh yordamida tayyorlanadigan shakllarga tarjima qilinmaydi. Men harflarni xattotlik alifbosiga [o'z makr varag'i bilan] tarjima qilishim kerak edi, keyin uni qo'lyozmaning markazida bitta qatorga yozishim kerak edi. Asl nusxaning to'liq kalligrafik nusxasini yaratishning o'rniga [juda katta vazifa], tasvirlash guruhi kitobning orqa miya chizig'iga parallel ravishda markazdan pastga bitta chiziq qo'yishni xohlashdi, shuning uchun ular temir o't siyohini bir nuqtada aniqlashni sinab ko'rishlari mumkin edi. qo'lyozmaning [markazi].

Mening skriptdagi bo'sh joyim va#8211 Havoriylar Havoriylarini kompyuterda chop etilgan bosma qog'ozdan ikki xil qalam va qalamli temir o'tli siyoh yordamida pergamentga ikki nusxa ko'chirish. Sahodiy kopt alifbosi [bencrowder.net] Sahidiy koptni temir o'tli siyoh yordamida yozish bo'yicha birinchi urinishim – asl nusxadagi harflar balandligiga yaqin. Unda shunday deyilgan: "Havoriylarning ishi" va men aytgan birinchi so'z, ey Teofil, Iso boshlagan va ularda o'rgatadigan har bir narsa haqida …

Bir marta men zetas va horis, upsilons va kyima -ni oldim, men ketdim va tezda skribali truba ichiga kirib oldim. Bu kontsentratsiya va yengillik o'rtasidagi zenga o'xshash muvozanatni talab qildi. Men qo'lyozmaga bitta satr yozdim, faqat bitta noto'g'ri qadam qo'yilgan, bu pergamentda muammo emas, chunki uni palimpsesting deb nomlangan jarayonda terining sirtini qirib tashlash orqali yozish mumkin. ishlov berilmagan qog'oz!]. Bu qoniqarli edi.

Pol Dilli, ‘B yozing ’

Pol Dilli hatto 104 foliodan birini yozishda qo'lini sinab ko'rdi. Men unga ‘Scribe B ’ – ni uning o'qimagan qo'li haqidagi bayonot sifatida emas, balki qo'lyozmaning ikkinchi kotibi bo'lgani uchun aytaman.

Yozuv ishlari tugagandan so'ng [bir necha kun davom etdi], men majburiy bo'ldim. Kitob muhofazasi mutaxassisi, kitob konservatori Yuliya Miller bilan maslahatlashganimdan so'ng, men Sirmai -da tasvirlangan tikuv uslublaridan birini tanladim. O'rta asrlar kitob bog'lash arxeologiyasi. Men umurtqa pog'onasining kengligi 5 mm bo'lgan talabni qondirish uchun bog'lamali tikuvni erkin tikishim kerak edi (asl umurtqa pog'onasi ancha torroq, lekin uning eng katta o'lchamidagi kitob bloki 5 mm, shuning uchun men unga mos kelishim kerak edi).

Men kitobni kopt kitoblarini ishlab chiqarishda keng qo'llaniladigan tikuv uslubi bo'lgan tikuv bilan tikdim. Aloqa tikuvi ajoyib tarixga ega, chunki bu tikuv texnologiyasi Afrikaning shimoli -sharqida [Misr, Efiopiya], yaqin sharqda [Suriya, Gruziya, Vizantiya, Armaniston] va xristian qo'lyozmalari ishlab chiqarishda paydo bo'lgan. 8-asrda misol sifatida. Yuhannoning Stonyhurst Xushxabari. Bu texnologiya kitoblar sayohat qilgani sayyohatlar bo'ylab tarqalishi mantiqan to'g'ri, lekin u nasroniylik qo'lyozmalari uchun tikuv uslubiga aylandi, demak, hunarmandchilik texnologiyalari diniy lagerlarda saqlanmagan. kitob ishlab chiqaruvchilar kitob ishlab chiqarishda qo'llanilgan hunarmandchilik texnologiyalaridan foydalanishganini ko'rsatadi. Jorjios Boudalis, Salonikidagi Vizantiya madaniyati muzeyining kitob va qog'oz muhofazasi bo'limi boshlig'i, kitob texnologiyalarining kelib chiqishi, "Kodeks va qo'l san'atlari kech antik davrda" mavzusidagi ko'rgazmasida buning misolini taqdim etadi. Galereya, NYC]. Qanday bo'lmasin, har bir madaniyat – xristian va musulmon – havola tikuvini o'z maqsadlariga moslashtirdi.

Men kitobni shu davrda tikilgan va kopt qo'lyozmalarining ko'plab tikuv uslublaridan foydalanganman. Szirmai, O'rta asrlar kitob bog'lash arxeologiyasi.

Men kitobni shu bog'lamali tikuv yordamida tikdim [ikki juft stantsiyalarda], kitobning o'lchami Seales guruhi skanerlash stendiga to'g'ri kelishi uchun bo'shashmasdan tikib qo'ydim. Asl nusxaning hozirgi holatiga o'xshab, mening modelimda muqovalar yo'q edi. Men kitobni jo'natib yubordim va Morganda M.910 ni skanerlash natijalari haqida eshitishni orziqib kutaman. Tarixiy kitob yig'ish - bu majburiy tuzilmalar va kitob harakatlarini tushunish uchun muntazam ravishda bajaradigan ishim, lekin bu raqamli tasvirlash loyihasining bir qismi ekanligini bilib, bu model ustida ishlash juda hayajonli edi!


Sun'iy intellekt va tarixiy tadqiqotlar: qadimiy sirlarni ochish

Sun'iy intellekt tarixiy tadqiqotlarni tubdan o'zgartiradi, ko'p asrlik hujjatlarning sirlarini ochib beradi va texnologik va tarixiy tahlilni ilgari tasavvur qilib bo'lmaydigan darajada bajarishga imkon beradi.

Buyuk Ishayo kitobi

O'lik dengiz varaqlari miloddan avvalgi 4 -asrga tegishli bo'lgan ibroniycha Injilning eng qadimiy qo'lyozmalari hisoblanadi. O'ramlarning birinchi kashfiyoti 1947 yilda, yosh badaviy cho'pon ularga O'lik dengiz yaqinidagi Qumran g'orlarida, hozirgi G'arbiy Sohilda qoqilib tushganda topilgan. Qo'shimcha varaqlar paydo bo'lishda davom etdi, shu jumladan bir necha oy oldin topilgan. Yozuvlar imzo qo'yilmagan va sanasi yo'q, bu ularning kelib chiqishi haqidagi tushunarli taxminlar va tadqiqotlarga olib keladi.

1947 yilda topilgan eng uzun (etti metrdan ortiq) va eng to'liq varaqlardan biri Buyuk Ishayo o'rami edi. Qo'l yozuvining vizual tahlili deyarli hamma narsani bitta yozuvchining ishi degan xulosaga keldi, har qanday kichik farqlar charchagan qo'l yoki qalamning o'zgarishi bilan bog'liq. Endi Groninger universiteti Gollandiyalik tadqiqotchilari kompyuter texnikasi va sun'iy intellektdan (AI) foydalanib, Buyuk Ishayo kitobi ikki xil ulamo tomonidan yozilgan bo'lishi mumkin degan xulosaga kelishdi. O'zgartirish varaqning o'rtasida, matnning ozgina uzilishi va mazmunining o'zgarishi bilan sodir bo'ladi.

Tadqiqotda bitta harf - alif - ibroniy alifbosining birinchi harfi tahlil qilindi, u matnda 5000 martadan ko'proq uchraydi. Jarayon, tasvirlardan tafsilotlarni ajratish uchun chuqur o'rganish yordamida o'rgatilgan sun'iy neyron tarmoqni o'z ichiga oladi.

Ushbu topilmaning oqibatlari juda muhim:

  • Qo'l yozuvi deyarli bir xil bo'lgani uchun, bu ikki ulamo bir xil ta'lim olganini yoki boshqa yo'l bilan hamkorlik qilganini ko'rsatadi.
  • Qo'shimcha varaqlarning tahlili aniq ulamolar va ularning uslubiy farqlarga ega bo'lgan turli yozuvchilar jamoalariga mansubligini isbotlashi mumkin.

Tadqiqotning qisqacha mazmunida aytilganidek:

Buyuk Ishayo kitobi uchun har biri har xil yozuv namunalarini ko'rsatgan ikkita asosiy yozuvchi javobgar ekanini ko'rsatib, bu tadqiqot qadimgi Injil matnlarini faqat bitta kotib tomonidan nusxa ko'chirilmaganligini ko'rsatuvchi yangi dalillarni keltirib, Bibliyaning qadimgi yozma madaniyatiga yangi nur bag'ishlaydi. bir qancha ulamolar boshqa yozuvchining yozish uslubini diqqat bilan aks ettirgan holda, bitta qo'lyozma ustida yaqindan hamkorlik qilishlari mumkin edi.

Yo'qotilgan tillarni hal qilish

AI ham yo'qolgan tillarni shifrlash uchun ishlatilgan. MIT Kompyuter fanlari va sun'iy intellekt laboratoriyasi (CSAIL) tadqiqotchilari, yo'qolgan tilni ma'lum tillar bilan aloqasi to'g'risida oldindan bilmasdan, uni hal qila oladigan tizimni ishlab chiqdilar, bu avvalgi tadqiqotlar noma'lum alifboni ma'lum alifboga moslashtirishga asoslangan. Tizim matnlarni ma'lum tilda bog'liq so'zlar bilan bog'lash uchun tarixiy tilshunoslik tamoyillaridan kelib chiqqan holda shifrni ochish algoritmiga tayanadi.

Yuragi zaif bo'lganlar uchun bu jarayon emas. Namunalar soni cheklanganligi sababli, algoritmni yaratish uchun katta ma'lumotlar to'plami yo'q va yozma hujjatlar qoldirilmagan yo'qolgan tillarga kirish mumkin emas. Bundan tashqari, amaliy nuqtai nazardan, bu tillarni tushunishga talab katta emas, shuning uchun tadqiqotni moliyalashtirish cheklangan.

Noqulay hujjatlarni o'rganish

Bundan tashqari, "virtual ochish" mavjud. Hujjatlar shunchalik nozik bo'ladiki, ularni tekislash yoki ochish halokatli bo'lar edi, endi ular raqamli ravishda ochilishi va to'liq ochilishi mumkin. Bu usul yillar davomida Kentukki universiteti informatika professori Brent Seales tomonidan ishlab chiqilgan bo'lib, u tibbiy tomografiyani hujjatlarni ichki ko'rinishga moslashtirish g'oyasiga ega edi. U bu jarayonni 2009 yilda miloddan avvalgi 79 yilda Vezuvi tog'ining otilishi natijasida qo'shni Pompey bilan birga vayron bo'lgan Herkulaneum kutubxonasidagi varaqlarni ko'rib chiqish uchun ishlatgan. Umid shu bo'ldiki, aylananing to'liq ko'rinishi paydo bo'lganda, belgilar fondan farqlanishi mumkin edi. Kam miqdordagi iz metallar va siyoh tarkibidagi uglerodni papirusdagi ugleroddan ajrata olmaslik bilan bog'liq turli sabablarga ko'ra, bunday bo'lmadi. Biroq, 2014 yilda u bu jarayonni O'lik dengizdan boshqa ibroniy tilidagi eng qadimgi Levil kitobining birinchi ikki bobini o'z ichiga olgan En-Gedi Scroll, uchinchi yoki to'rtinchi asrdagi pergament varag'iga qo'llay oldi. O'tkazmalar. Seales sun'iy intellektdan foydalanib, o'z dasturiy ta'minotini takomillashtirib, oxir -oqibat Herculaneum o'ramlarini tushunishga qodir bo'ladi.

Tarixiy qahramonlarni hayotga qaytarish

Yana munozarali bo'lishi mumkin bo'lgan yana bir rivojlanish - bu tarixiy qahramonlarni "hayotga qaytarish" uchun sun'iy intellektdan foydalanish. Hindistonning Bangalor shahridagi San'at va fotografiya muzeyi (Hindistonning Silikon vodiysi nomi bilan tanilgan) rassom M.F.ning "suhbatli raqamli personaji" ni yaratish uchun yuzni aniqlash va boshqa chuqur o'rganish usullaridan foydalangan. 2011 yilda vafot etgan Husayn. Raqamli egizak Husaynning hayoti va ijodi haqidagi savollarga javob berishi mumkin. Ishonch bilan aytishimiz mumkinki, raqamli Husaynning javoblari malakali tadqiqotlarga asoslangan va ta'lim maqsadlarida ishlatilgan, biroq ularga sun'iy intellektdan foydalanib, tarixni buzish mumkin. Darhaqiqat, biz ilgari dezinformatsiya tarqatadigan chuqur feyklar bilan bog'liq huquqiy muammolarni ko'rib chiqdik.

Boshqa ko'plab AI ilovalari singari, bu texnologiyalar ham ikki qirrali qilich bo'lishi mumkin, ammo tarixchilarning foydasi beqiyosdir.


The Herculaneum Papyri are among the most iconic — and inaccessible — items in the “invisible library” of irreparably damaged manuscripts. Buried and carbonized into chunks of charcoal by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 CE, the approximately 1,100 papyrus rolls offer us a unique window into the classical world. The collection was excavated from the ancient city of Herculaneum in the late 18th century. It was found in a luxurious home believed to belong to the family of Julius Caesar’s father-in-law. Known as the Villa dei Papyri, this site produced the only large-scale library to have survived from Greco-Roman antiquity and the only classical one to have been found in situ. Unfortunately, the contents of this highly unique and valuable library remain largely unknown to this day.

Opened Fragments

Since the scrolls’ discovery, people have tried various physical efforts to ferret out their contents. The results were largely disastrous. The most successful attempts were made in the 19th century, when about 300 of them were peeled apart by machine. This endeavor resulted in fragmented, layered sheets of brittle papyrus with visible, but largely illegible, writing on the black-as-charcoal surface.

These fragments are uneven and warped, which obscures and distorts the text even further. In addition, it’s practically impossible to tell where one layer of a papyrus wrap ends and another begins. This creates a jumbled mass of letters and words that is difficult to unscramble and understand. Finally, the top layers can hide three, four, or five — no one really knows how many — underlying sheets of writing. Thus, a non-invasive method for extracting the hidden text is needed.

Painstaking efforts to piece together meaning from these open fragments have resulted in limited success. Papyrologists have identified some texts as important works by Epicurus and his followers, including the poet and philosopher Philodemus of Gadara (see Oxford Bibliographies), and a recent laboriously analyzed papyrus turned out to be a Latin text by Seneca the Elder. In 2008 the Institut de France granted Dr. Seales and his team permission to study a fragment in their collection. The investigation led to the discovery of lead and other trace elements in the ink and represented the first ever instance of reported heavy metals in Herculaneum writings. The complete results were published in 2009 in the proceedings of the Academy’s annual program Lire Sans Détruire les Papyrus Carbonisés d’Herculanum. Although the quantities were very small, the presence of metal-based ink, a surprising discovery that Dr. Seales was first to report, suggested that imaging methods based on absorption, such as micro-CT scans, could produce contrast at the site of the writing. As a result of the knowledge gained from the fragment study, the Institut de France granted Dr. Seales permission to scan two intact Herculaneum scrolls on site using a micro-CT machine.

Digital Restoration of PHerc.118

One of the intact scrolls unpeeled by machine in the 19th century is known as PHerc.118 and resides at the Bodleian library at Oxford University. The physical unfurling of the scroll essentially shredded the document into a set of 12 “pezzos” (Italian for “pieces”) that were in turn made up of several smaller fragments. Over the years, various efforts were made to create a visually accessible facsimile of PHerc.118, but the result was an image record as fragmentary as the scroll itself. From 19th-century hand-drawn renderings made by artists when the scroll was first opened (called disegni), to analog film photographs taken in the late 1990s, to digital multispectral images captured in 2005, every venture created yet another version of each pezzo, without any link or reference to prior images. While advances in technology made some of the text clearer with every iteration, each image collection nonetheless posed its own set of problems and there was no method to view the images as a composite whole so that analysis and understanding of the text could be improved. In addition, these images were still two-dimensional, which prevented scholars from being able to see all of the surface layers, ridges, holes, and contours that, although they represent deformations, can provide clues for navigating the landscape of the text on fragmented, torn papyrus.

But in the summer of 2017, Dr. Seales and his team created a new digital compilation of PHerc.118. They scanned all 12 pezzos in 3D and created a detailed and accurate digital shape model of each one. New hyperspectral 2D images were also taken showing the barely-visible text under 370 different wavelengths of light (such multi-wavelength imaging can reveal text otherwise not visible to the naked eye). These high-resolution, enhanced 2D images were then aligned, or registered, onto the 3D shape models, revealing the writing on and within the fragments in ways never before seen. By allowing the best textual representations from each facsimile to be viewed at the same time and in 3D, this compilation of all images into one unified data set successfully created a comprehensive, more robust version of PHerc.118 that enhances the readability of the text and enables new scholarly study. Oxford papyrologists have already uncovered new details in our composite 3D version, such as the name Pythocles, a young follower of Epicurus and they have discerned the 17 character-per-line column structure of the text, which will be crucial to re-assembling the various fragments so the entire scroll can be read.

Closed Scrolls

Following the fragment study, Dr. Seales and his team traveled to the Institut de France in 2009 to perform the first-ever micro-CT scans of completely closed Herculaneum scrolls. These micro-CT images revealed much that was previously unknown about Herculaneum papyri and definitively proved it was possible to see, without physically opening the scrolls, every papyrus strand and fiber inside them, even the grains of sand trapped in tiny creases. This study provided the first ever volumetric images of a Herculaneum scroll, revealing the complexity of the internal structure and the utter scale of the task at hand. The scrolls were so tightly wrapped that in many places the scans showed little to no separation between layers, and the team learned much in their attempt to process the images.

First, naive application of existing segmentation techniques does not address the unique problems that Herculaneum scroll strata and that of other ancient manuscripts present. Depending on the type of material being scanned, scroll strata can appear fuzzy or almost indistinguishable due to time-induced distortion, disintegration, or other deformations of the writing medium. Some commonly used writing surfaces like papyrus can fray easily over time, while others like parchment made from animal hide often bubble or suffer holes. Such local defects in the surface make it difficult to visually follow a layer through the volume across the CT slices. Furthermore, undulations in and fusions of the scroll strata can cause the separations between layers to disappear and reappear at random, and tracking a single stratum through an entire scan becomes even more difficult as layers seem to merge together and then separate later on in the scan. The ink used to pen Herculaneum texts poses another challenge. Ancient writers used a mixture called “carbon black” which, when exposed to micro-CT scans, attenuates the x-rays the same way the carbonized papyrus, an carbon-based material on which it sits, does. Therefore, the ink of Herculaneum texts does not show up as readily in CT-scan data as that found in medieval texts, which usually contains metallic elements that are much denser than the writing surface and attenuate x-rays differently. In addition to these material-specific problems, micro-CT introduces its own anomalies and deformities into scan results, such as beam hardening, streaking, and ring artifacts, that must be compensated for in the final raw CT slices. These extra artifacts can make image processing much more difficult on scroll CT data and are heavily dependent upon the parameters selected at the time of the scan.

This confluence of challenges makes Herculaneum scrolls the most difficult digital restoration case encountered by Seales and his team. Following the 2009 micro-CT scans, the team spent the next few years prototyping a step-by-step computational approach for processing micro-CT data that would produce a digital representation of unseen text rich enough to enable textual scholarship, a process called “virtual unwrapping.” These advances address most, if not all, of the segmentation challenges presented by Herculaneum materials. Most recently, the team successfully developed and deployed a machine learning algorithm that is powerful enough to reveal the carbon ink that has proven so stubborn to researchers.

The Digital Restoration Initiative at the University of Kentucky is made possible through the help of generous donations. Funding for projects is highly competitive, and gaps in funding delay progress and limit student opportunities. Partnerships allow this cutting-edge research to continue at the University of Kentucky with UK students at the helm. Please consider partnering with us through any of our many funding opportunities.


Virtually Unwrapping the En-Gedi Scroll

University of Kentucky Professor Brent Seales and his team have further unlocked writings in the ancient En-Gedi scroll &mdash the first severely damaged, ink-based scroll to be unrolled and identified noninvasively. Through virtual unwrapping, they have revealed it to be the earliest copy of a Pentateuchal book &mdash Leviticus &mdash ever found in a Holy Ark.

Seales and his team have discovered and restored text on five complete wraps of the animal skin scroll, an object that likely will never be physically opened for inspection. In a study published Sept. 21 in Science Advances, Seales and co-authors describe the process and present their findings, which include a master image of the virtually unrolled scroll containing 35 lines of text, of which 18 have been preserved and another 17 have been reconstructed.

"This work opens a new window through which we can look back through time by reading materials that were thought lost through damage and decay," said Seales, who is professor and chair of theUK Department of Computer Science. "There are so many other unique and exciting materials that may yet give up their secrets &mdash we are only beginning to discover what they may hold.

"We are releasing all our data for the scroll from En-Gedi: the scans, our geometric analysis, the final texture. We think that the scholarly community will have interest in the data and the process as well as our results," he said.

The software pipeline, referred to as "virtual unwrapping," reveals text within damaged objects by using data from high resolution scanning, which represents the internal structure of the 3-D object, to digitally segment, texture and flatten the scroll.

Learn how virtual unwrapping works in the video above, also available at https://youtu.be/GduCExxB0vw.

In 2015, Seales and his team revealed the first eight verses of the Book of Leviticus in the scroll, which is at least 1,500 years old and was badly burned at some point. Due to its charred condition, it was not possible to either preserve or decipher it. However, high resolution scanning and virtual unwrapping has allowed Seales to recover substantial ink-based text at such high quality that Hebrew University of Jerusalem scholars can now conduct critical textual analysis.

"With the aid of the amazing tomography technology we are now able to zero in on the early history of the biblical text, as the En-Gedi scroll has been dated to the first centuries of the common era," said Hebrew University's Emanuel Tov, co-author and leading scholar on textual criticism of Hebrew and Greek Bibles. Hebrew University's Michael Segal also worked with Tov on the textual criticism.

The scroll was unearthed in 1970 in archaeological excavations in the synagogue at En Gedi in Israel, headed by Dan Barag and Ehud Netzer of the Institute of Archaeology at Hebrew University, and Yosef Porath of the Israel Antiquities Authority. The Lunder Family Dead Sea Scrolls Conservation Center of the Israel Antiquities Authority (IAA), which uses state-of-the-art and advanced technologies to preserve and document the Dead Sea scrolls, enabled the discovery of this important find.

&ldquoThe discovery of text in the En-Gedi scroll absolutely astonished us we were certain it was a shot in the dark, but the most advanced technologies have brought this cultural treasure back to life," said co-author Pnina Shor, curator and director of the Israel Antiquities Authority's Dead Sea Scrolls Project. "Now, in addition to preserving the Dead Sea Scrolls for future generations, we can bequeath part of the Bible from a Holy Ark of a 1,500-year-old synagogue!&rdquo

In addition to his co-authors, Seales credits his students, collaborators and supporters for making this work possible:

The National Science Foundation under awards IIS-0535003 and IIS-1422039

University of Kentucky - Department of Computer Science, Center for Visualization, and College of Engineering

  • Seth Parker, co-author and project manager
  • Zack Anderson, undergraduate research assistant
  • Jack Bandy, undergraduate research assistant
  • Andy Conway, undergraduate research assistant
  • Hannah Hatch, undergraduate research assistant
  • Sean Karlage, research assistant
  • Michael Royal, undergraduate research assistant
  • Melissa Shankle, undergraduate research assistant
  • Kendall Weihe, undergradaute research assistant
  • Christy Chapman
  • Chad Crouch, the Cre8tive Group
  • Daniel Delattre, emeritus director of research, CNRS-IRHT - Institut de Recherche et d'Histoire des Textes
  • Roger Macfarlane, Brigham Young University
  • Dirk Obbink, Oxford University

Learn more about Brent Seales and his research through the "People Behind our Research: Brent Seales" video and by listening to his podcast "Imaging with Brent Seales".


Marc Brettler talks with USA Today about the Ein Gedi Torah scroll

A small, seemingly unremarkable burned parchment fragment found 45 years ago during excavations on the western shore of the Dead Sea has emerged after hi-tech sequencing as part of the Book of Leviticus from a 1,500-year-old Torah scroll. USA TODAY

For decades, an object much like a burnt stick sat in storage in Israel, awaiting the day when its secrets could be divined. Now researchers have revealed that the blackened object is the one of the oldest known copies of a text fundamental to both Jews and Christians.

Hidden within the charred manuscript are verses from the sacred text called the Five Books of Moses. Also known collectively as the Torah, they are the foundation of Judaism and also integral to Christianity’s Old Testament. To scholars’ astonishment, the newly divulged text is exactly the same, in both letters and format, as text in modern Torah scrolls read by most Jews now.

The burnt manuscript dates to the 3rd or 4th century, according to chemical dating. The only older known Torah passages are found in the famed Dead Sea Scrolls. They date from the 2nd century and earlier and deviate slightly from the version of the Torah read today, indicating they were written before the Torah was completely standardized.

The scroll from En-Gedi. The seemingly unremarkable burned parchment fragment found 45 years ago during excavations on the western shore of the Dead Sea has emerged after hi-tech sequencing as part of the Book of Leviticus from a 1,500-year-old Torah scroll. (Photo: B. Seales)

Researchers considered analysis of the charred scroll “a shot in the dark,” Pnina Shor of the Israel Antiquities Authority said at a news conference. “And so when this came back as a … flattened piece of material (that) looked like a scroll, you can’t imagine the joy in the lab.” Shor and her colleagues report their findings in a study published Wednesday in Science Advances.

The scroll was discovered in 1970 in a Jewish village called En-Gedi, which was destroyed by fire around 600. Inside the community’s synagogue, archaeologists discovered a Holy Ark, the cabinet where Torahs are stored. The En-Gedi ark held charred debris that had once been sacred scrolls.

One of those chunks of debris, now known as the En-Gedi scroll, was given a high-resolution version of a CT scan. Researchers created a digital 3D model of the scroll and looked on every surface for bright spots indicating inked letters. The images were digitally flattened and then pieced together, unveiling the text of five complete wraps of the scroll.

“Sometimes you can absolutely pull a text back from the brink of loss,” said Brent Seales of the University of Kentucky, another author of the new study.

The text, from the first and second chapters of Leviticus, includes 20 verses in all, says study co-author Michael Segal of Israel’s Hebrew University of Jerusalem. The verses describe the proper procedure for making sacrifices, reading in part, “The Lord summoned Moses and spoke to him from the tent of meeting, saying: Speak to the people of Israel.”

The En-Gedi scroll is the oldest known Torah text to be found in an ark, the study’s authors say.

Partial transcription and translation of recovered text. Lines 5 to 7 from the En-Gedi scroll. (Photo: B. Seales)

The researchers’ method for peering inside the scroll should be useful for other old texts as well, such as the many fragile old manuscripts in the Vatican Library, says Vito Mocella of Italy’s National Research Council, who was not involved with the study.

“Finding a Biblical text from this particular period is very, very rare,” says Marc Brettler of Duke University says. Though the scroll “offers good and welcome confirmation” that the text of the Hebrew Bible “stabilized” by the 3rd or 4th century, it doesn’t significantly change scholars’ understanding of the text’s development, he added.

The study’s authors say they hope to see more of the verses from the scroll. But what they have so far are “just like modern paragraphs,” study co-author Emanuel Tov of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem said. “This is quite amazing for us, that in 2,000 years, this text has not changed.”


Related

The Next Pompeii

Dead Sea Scroll Detectives

Experts Investigate Dead Sea Scroll Forgeries

Unveiling the innards of a scroll

Nowadays, the 1,700-year-old En-Gedi Scroll—one of the most ancient snippets of the Old Testament ever uncovered—isn’t much to look at. Ravaged by a fire that consumed a Jewish synagogue around 600 CE, the document transformed from a supple scroll into a charred, brittle cylinder of charcoal. The artifact is so delicate that, for decades, scholars dared not even attempt to peel back its layers for fear of destroying it for good.

But several years ago, a team of computer scientists led by University of Kentucky’s Brent Seales managed to crack the scroll’s contents without physically unfurling it. The non-invasive method, called “virtual unwrapping,” extracted intel from the burnt scroll with a combination of scans and image-processing algorithms.

The scroll itself made only a brief cameo in the team’s investigation, when X-rays were shot through its layers from several angles to visualize what was inside. These computerized tomography (CT) scans, Seales says, are the same ones radiologists perform on human patients with internal injuries—only instead of searching for bone breaks and tissue damage, researchers hunt for hidden text.

“Tomography is really powerful,” Seales says. “It gives you the ability to infer what’s inside something by taking views from all the way around, with a signal that goes all the way through.”

The charred En-Gedi Scroll. Image courtesy of the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library, IAA. Photo: S. Halevi. Pictured in Seales et al. Science Advances 2016

After the document was imaged, it went back into storage, and the team switched to a computational approach. What’s produced by a CT scan, Seales says, isn’t the type of picture you’d get from a typical camera. Instead, these machines generate cross sections—2-D “slices” of the inside of an object, like a front-on view of a cut loaf of bread. After collecting a series of these images, the team fed them into an algorithm that determined where one layer of the animal-skin scroll ended and another began.

Accomplishing this is especially difficult when a document’s pages have been warped, deformed, and smashed up against each other, says Yukun Lai, a visual computing expert at Cardiff University who, together with his colleagues, has published a series of papers that have digitally recovered the contents of other damaged historic texts. One way to deal with this, he says, is to use the typical thickness of parchment and other materials as a guide to digitally peel pages apart.

Interpreting (almost) invisible ink

Piecing together a page isn’t the same as reading what’s on it—and it’s not always easy to identify where ink has been laid down.

Relatively speaking, the text of the En-Gedi Scroll was fairly straightforward to detect, Seales says. Different materials block X-rays to different extents, and dense, metal-rich inks tend to pop when they’re printed on something carbon-based, like plant fibers or, in the case of the scrolls, the skin of an animal.

A cross section of the En-Gedi Scroll, as imaged by a CT scanner. Image Credit: Seales et al. Science Advances 2016

Things get more complicated when you’re dealing with a document that’s carbon on carbon, as in the case of the Herculaneum scrolls—a trove of papyrus that survived the fateful eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 CE. The scrolls’ scribes used a substance called carbon black as their ink of choice, which, from an X-ray’s perspective, is just as dense as the stuff on which it sits, Seales says.

But subtle differences still exist between material that’s been written on and material that hasn’t. For instance, the addition of carbon ink alters the shape of plant fibers, creating tiny bumps on the surface of a sheet of papyrus. Though these mini-mountains can’t be picked out by human eyes, Seales says, they can be made obvious to a well-trained machine. For the past few months, Seales and his team have been training an algorithm to search for the structural signatures of ink in data produced from CT scans of scrolls.

The researchers have yet to apply the method to the Herculaneum papyri. But ideally, that’s where this research is headed, Seales says. With a bit more tinkering, he says, the “lost” texts of Herculaneum might soon be found.

Even with CT scans, Herculaneum scrolls are particularly challenging to analyze because the ink and paper block X-rays to the same extent. Image Credit: The Digital Restoration Initiative, University of Kentucky

Reviving a dead language

The En-Gedi Scroll is emblazoned with Hebrew, and the Herculaneum papyri with Greek and occasionally Latin. But many other texts were inscribed in languages that have since disappeared from common use.

“Just because you can read the letters, that doesn’t mean you know what they mean,” says Regina Barzilay, a computer scientist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Barzilay, whose work in artificial intelligence has spanned applications from early cancer detection to drug discovery, is now working with her graduate student Jiaming Luo to decipher lost languages.

Their strategy hinges on the predictable way languages change over time—a process that’s similar to how species split on the tree of life. Like organisms, languages can be grouped into families that share common traits, including the way their alphabets, vocabularies, and grammar look and sound. Even if words manifest differently between languages, they often remain recognizable: the French terre and the Spanish tierra, for instance, share the Latin root for “earth."

These similarities aren’t coincidences, Barzilay explains. If two languages share a point of origin, there are only so many evolutionary paths they can take, even as they’re diverging away from each other.

Feeding these rules into a machine can give it a structured way to translate a language, as long as it’s given appropriate familial context, Barzilay says. So far, she and Luo have successfully tested out their strategy with two extinct languages: Ugaritic, an early form of Hebrew, and Linear B, which shares roots with ancient Greek.

The digitally unwrapped En-Gedi scroll. Image Credit: Seales et al. Science Advances 2016

These were proof-of-concept experiments, as both languages had already been meticulously deciphered by (human) linguists before any algorithms got involved, Barzilay says. Now, she and Luo are interested in teaching a machine to do what a person hasn’t: decode a totally lost language—perhaps even one with deeply contested evolutionary roots.

One example is Northeastern Iberian script, which has yet to be firmly classified into a language family. That means the algorithms will have to reverse engineer yet another piece of the puzzle, predicting the script’s origins before tackling its translation.

Once that’s possible, these techniques and more could even enhance the identification of ink in damaged texts, Barzilay says. “Even if letters are missing, or you don’t understand all of them, maybe you can complete it,” she says. “With all this technology. it’s about tying the whole process together.”

To learn more about how researchers are uncovering and analyzing ancient texts, watch “Dead Sea Scroll Detectives,” premiering on PBS at 9/8c on November 6.

Receive emails about upcoming NOVA programs and related content, as well as featured reporting about current events through a science lens.


Scientists Read Ancient Hebrew Scroll Without Opening It

The charred manuscript is too delicate and damaged to unfurl. So researchers figured out how to read it from the outside.

At first glance, you could easily mistake this scorched, 2,000-year-old scroll for a hunk of lump charcoal. It’s been burned and crushed, it crumbles at the touch, and it looks absolutely, hopelessly unreadable.

Yet a team of archaeologists and computer scientists led by Brent Seales, a computer imaging expert at the University of Kentucky, has digitally unwrapped it. The En-Gedi manuscript is the first heavily damaged ancient scroll to be virtually unraveled and read, line by line, without opening it.

The scroll, which now resembles a fist-sized glob of ash, was originally discovered in 1970 in Israel near the Dead Sea, in a damaged Holy Ark in an ancient Jewish synagogue. Until now it has been carefully preserved, but never read. Seales and his colleagues just described how the scroll was virtual read in a paper published in the journal Science Advances.

“Like many badly damaged materials in archives around the world, the En-Gedi scroll was shelved, leaving its potentially valuable contents hidden and effectively locked away by its own damaged condition,” writes Seales and his colleagues.


Videoni tomosha qiling: 92% Одам Бу Фаркни Сезмайди - Узингизни Синаб Куринг!