Gannibal Hamlin

Gannibal Hamlin


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Gannibal Xamlin 1809 yil 27 -avgustda Meyn shtatining Oksford okrugida tug'ilgan. U bosmaxonada bastakor sifatida ishga joylashishdan oldin oilaviy fermada ishlagan. U, shuningdek, 1833 yilda huquqshunoslik fakultetiga o'qishga kirgandan so'ng, o'qituvchi va maktab o'qituvchisi bo'lib ishlagan.

Demokratik partiya a'zosi, Hamlin 1836 yilda Meyn Vakillar palatasiga saylangan va 1837, 1839 va 1840 yillarda spiker bo'lib ishlagan. Hamlin 1842 yilda 28 -Kongressga va 1844 yilda 29 -Kongressga saylangan. Saylov komissiyasi.

Demokratik partiyaning qullikka qarshi qanoti a'zosi, Hamlin 1846 yilda mag'lubiyatga uchradi, lekin 1848 yilda qaytib keldi va u erda Savdo qo'mitasi va Matbaa qo'mitasi raisi bo'lib ishladi.

Partiyasining qullik haqidagi qarashlaridan norozi va Kanzas-Nebraska qonuni qabul qilingandan so'ng, Hamlin Respublikachilar partiyasiga qo'shildi. Meyn gubernatori bo'lgan qisqa vaqtdan so'ng, Hamlin 1857 yil mart oyida Senatga qaytdi. 1860 yilda Respublikachilar partiyasi Avraam Linkolnni prezidentlikka nomzod qilib ko'rsatdi. Hamlin uning yordamchisi sifatida tanlandi.

Linkoln prezidentlik saylovlarida 1.866.462 ovoz (18 ta erkin shtat) bilan g'alaba qozondi va Stiven A. Duglas (1.375.157 - 1 ta qullik shtati), Jon Bekkenridj (847.953 - 13 ta qul shtati) va Jon Bellni (589.581 - 3 ta qul shtati) ustidan g'alaba qozondi. 1860 yil noyabr oyida bo'lib o'tgan saylovlar va keyingi mart oyining inauguratsiyasi o'rtasida Ittifoqdan ajralib chiqqan etti shtat: Janubiy Karolina, Missisipi, Florida, Alabama, Jorjiya, Luiziana va Texas.

Amerika fuqarolar urushi paytida Hamlin Avraam Linkolnni sodiq qo'llab -quvvatlagan. Biroq, 1864 yilda Respublikachilar partiyasining etakchi a'zolari Linkolnni prezidentlik saylovlarida Gamlinni uning sherigi sifatida almashtirishni taklif qila boshladilar. Hamlin radikal respublikachi edi va Linkoln bu siyosiy guruh tomonidan qo'llab -quvvatlanishiga ishongan edi. Ta'kidlanishicha, Linkolnga ilgari Shimoldagi Demokratik partiyani qo'llab -quvvatlaganlarning ovozlari kerak edi.

Tennessi shtati gubernatori Endryu Jonson vitse -prezidentlikka eng yaxshi nomzodni tanlashga qaror qilindi. Tennessi gubernatorini tanlab, Linkoln janubiy shtatlar maqomi hali ham Ittifoq tarkibida ekanligini ta'kidlardi. U, shuningdek, urush demokratlarining katta fraktsiyasini qo'llab -quvvatlaydi. 1864 yil 8 -iyulda Respublikachilar partiyasining qurultoyida Jonson Hamlinning 150 ovoziga 200 ta ovoz oldi va Linkolnning sherigiga aylandi. Bu radikal respublikalarni xafa qildi, chunki Jonson ilgari qullikning tarafdori ekanligini aniq ko'rsatgan edi.

Hamlin 1869 yilda Senatga qaytdi va Kolumbiya okrugi qo'mitasi (41 -Kongress), ishlab chiqarish qo'mitasi (42 -Kongress), konlar va konchilik qo'mitasi (42- va 43 -Kongresslar), pochta bo'limlari va pochta qo'mitasi raisi bo'lib ishladi. Yo'llar (44 va 45 -Kongresslar) va Tashqi aloqalar qo'mitasi (45 -Kongress). Gannibal Hamlin 1891 yil 4 -iyulda Meyn shtatining Bangor shahrida vafot etdi.

Janob Linkolnning ishonchini qozongan Saymon Kameron meni Monro qal'asida ko'rishga keldi. U qat'iyat bilan gapirdi. "Prezident, siz bilganingizdek, qayta saylanish uchun nomzod bo'lishni niyat qilmoqda va uning do'stlari janob Hamlin endi vitse-prezidentlikka nomzod bo'lmasligi kerakligini ko'rsatib turibdi, va u Yangi Angliyadan bo'lgani kabi, Prezident ham o'z fikricha joyni o'sha bo'limdan kimdir to'ldirishi kerak, shaxsiy do'stlik sabablaridan tashqari, siz u bilan bo'lish yoqimli bo'lardi, siz urushga ko'ngilli bo'lgan birinchi taniqli demokrat bo'lganingiz uchun, sizning nomzodingiz chiptaga kuch qo'shadi, deb hisoblaydi. Ayniqsa, urush demokratlari bilan, va u sizni do'stlaringizga u lavozimga joylashtirish uchun u bilan hamkorlik qilishga ruxsat berasiz deb umid qiladi ".

"Iltimos, janob Linkolnga ayting, - javob berdim men, - men uning do'stlik harakatini va menga ko'rsatayotgan yuksak iltifotini to'la -to'kis his qilsam -da, men rad etishim kerak. Unga ayting -chi, men kulgili tarzda aytdim. Mening oldimdagi kampaniya, men o'zimni prezident sifatida ham vitse-prezident bo'lish uchun maydonni tark etmagan bo'lardim, agar u menga to'rt yillik maoshining to'liq miqdorida kafillik bermasa, u inauguratsiyadan keyin uch oy ichida ishdan bo'shatiladi.


Vitse -prezident haqida | Gannibal Hamlin, 15-vitse-prezident (1861-1865)

1850-yillar davomida qullikning emotsional muammosi Amerika siyosiy tizimini vayron qildi: Vig partiyasi demokratlarni parchalab tashladi, Erkin tuproq va Amerika (yoki hech narsani bilmaydigan) partiyalari qisqa vaqt ichida gullab-yashnadi va vafot etdi. Eski tuzum vayronalaridan kelib chiqqan holda, 1856 yilda birinchi prezidentlik kampaniyasini o'tkazgan Respublikachilar partiyasi bu partiyalarning barchasidan dinini qabul qildi. Yangi partiya tarkibida turli siyosiy bayroqlar ostida yillar davomida bir -biri bilan jang qilgan erkaklar paydo bo'ldi. 1860 yilda prezidentlik chiptasini tuzishda respublikachilarga murakkab tuzilishini aks ettiradigan va yangi birligini mustahkamlaydigan nomzodlar kerak edi. Ular prezidentlikka nomzod Avraam Linkolnni tanladilar, u nafaqat g'arblik, balki Uig, Genri Kleyni o'zining siyosiy namunasi deb da'vo qilgan. Linkolnni muvozanatlash uchun respublikachilar vitse-prezidentlikka nomzod Gannibal Xemlinni tanladilar, u o'zining siyosiy faoliyatining asosiy qismini demokrat sifatida o'tkazgan va Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari Senatida birga xizmat qilgan paytda Genri Kley bilan jang qilgan sharqlik. O'zaro farqlarga qaramay, Linkoln va Xemlin abolitsionist bo'lmasdan, g'arbiy hududlarga qullikning kengayishiga qarshi bo'lgan.

Gannibal Xamlin o'zining klassik ismini bobosi Eleazer Hamlinga qarzdor edi, u tarixda yaxshi o'qilgan odam edi, u o'zining birinchi o'g'liga Rim generali Skipio Afrikaning ismini qo'ydi (hamma o'g'ilni Afrika deb atashardi) va egizak o'g'illari Kirni buyuk fors zabt etuvchisi deb atashdi, va Gannibal, Rimga qarshi yurishlarida fil ustida Alp tog'larini kesib o'tgan Karfagen generalidan keyin. Cyrus Garvardda o'qigan tibbiyot shifokori bo'ldi va Peyn-Xill qishlog'iga ko'chib o'tdi, u erda 1809 yil 27-avgustda o'g'li tug'ilgan, unga akasi Gannibal nomi berilgan. Bola farovon oilada o'sgan, uch qavatli oq uyda yashagan. Tengdoshlari orasida etakchi, jismonan baquvvat va sportchi Gannibal ham mutolaachi edi. U mahalliy davlat maktablariga, so'ngra Xevron akademiyasiga yuborilgan.

Gannibalning advokat bo'lish orzusi deyarli chetga surildi, birinchi navbatda akasi kasal bo'lib, maktabni oilaviy xo'jalikni boshqarishga majbur qildi, keyin otasi vafot etgach, otasining irodasiga binoan uyda qolishni talab qildi. va yigirma bir yoshga to'lgunga qadar onasiga g'amxo'rlik qiling. Ammo voyaga etganida, Gannibal uydan chiqib, Fessenden va Deblois ofislarida qonun o'qish uchun, Samuel C. Fessenden, Hamlinning bo'lajak siyosiy raqibi Uilyam Pitt Fessendenning otasi. Uyushma Hamlinni qullikka qarshi odamga aylantirdi va uni yangi kasbiga boshladi. U o'z advokatlik amaliyotini yo'lga qo'ydi va Meyn shtatining Xempden shahrida advokat bo'ldi.

Veyn va Meyndagi demokratik siyosat

Siyosiy nuqtai nazardan, 1830-1950 yillar mobaynida Meyn demokratik davlat bo'lib, siyosiy ambitsiyali Hamlin Demokratik partiyaga qo'shildi. 1835 yilda u davlat vakillar uyiga saylandi. "Uzun bo'yli va xushbichim, qora, nayzali ko'zlari, terisi deyarli zaytun rangidagi, sochlari silliq, qalin va jingalak, har doim xushmuomala va xushmuomala" deb ta'riflangan, u qonun chiqaruvchi siyosatga osonlikcha mos tushdi va mashhur odamga aylandi. uy, va tez orada uning spikeri etib saylandi. Uning eng ko'zga ko'ringan qonunchilik yutug'i Meynda o'lim jazosini bekor qilish harakatiga rahbarlik qilish edi. 1840 yilda u AQSh Vakillar palatasi uchun poygada yutqazdi, lekin 1843 yilda (keyingi saylov tumanlar qayta taqsimlanmaguncha kechiktirilgandan keyin) Kongressda o'rin oldi. U erda u Genri Kleyning iqtisodiy dasturlarini qoraladi va Jekson demokratiga juda ko'p ovoz berdi. U Saylov qo'mitasining raisi bo'ldi va Vakillar palatasi Qoidalari qo'mitasida munosib o'rin egalladi. Xamlin o'z karerasida katta omadga ega bo'ldi, ayniqsa 1844 yil fevralda, u AQSh qurolli kuchlarining Princeton frigatida suzishni o'tkazib yubordi, u yangi qurollarini namoyish qilmoqchi edi. Qurollardan biri portlab, davlat kotibi Abel Upshur va yana bir qancha odam o'lgan.

Hududlarda qullikning kengaytirilishi Hamlinning uy va senatdagi uzoq faoliyati davomida Kongress oldida turgan eng murakkab masala edi. Uning Meyn shtati Missuri shtati kelishuvi natijasida Ittifoqqa kirdi, bu har bir qul davlati uchun bitta erkin davlatni tan oldi. Ammo 1846 yilda Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari Meksika bilan urushga kirganida, Missuri murosasi chizig'ining janubida, bosib olingan yangi hududlarning istiqboli qullik parametrlari haqida savol tug'dirdi. Hamlin uydagi boshqa radikal qullikka qarshi odamlar bilan birlashib, urush natijasida Meksikadan tortib olingan har qanday hududga qullikni kiritishni taqiqlovchi o'zgartirish kiritdi. Pensilvaniya shtatining vakili Devid Vilmot Wilmot Proviso nomi bilan tanilgan chorani joriy etish uchun tanlangan. Hamlin Demokratik prezident Jeyms K. Polkning g'azabiga sabab bo'lgan, armiya mablag'larini ajratish to'g'risidagi qonun loyihasining o'z versiyasini taqdim etdi. "Xamlin janob o'zini demokrat deb ataydi, - deb yozdi prezident o'z kundaligida, - lekin hozirgi sessiyada u norozi ekanini va qullik masalasida yomon yo'l tutayotganini ko'rsatdi." Prezident Hamlinning pozitsiyasini ma'muriyat bilan bo'lgan patronajlik janjaliga bog'ladi, lekin Hamlin printsipial asosda turdi. "Men qabul qilgan pozitsiyaga butun Shimoliy kelishiga shubha qilmayman", dedi u. "O'zimni tashlab yuborishni xohlaydigan ba'zi jinnilar, abolitsionizm haqida pichirlaydilar va qichqiradilar, lekin men ularning barmog'im bilan urishimga ahamiyat bermayman."

Uyda Hamlin o'zi bilan xizmat qiladigan va umrining oxirigacha unga qarshi kurashadigan ko'plab erkaklarni uchratdi. U, Illinoys shtatidan Avraam Linkoln, Tennessi shtatidan Endryu Jonson va Missisipi shtatidan Jefferson Devis bilan uchrashdi. U va Devis uy va Senatda qullik masalasida tez -tez uchrashib turishardi. Ikkala odam o'rtasidagi janjal shu darajaga ko'tarildiki, Hamlin umr bo'yi o'zini himoya qilish uchun to'pponcha olib yurishni oqilona deb hisoblardi. Senator Jon Feyrfildning malakasiz vrachning noto'g'ri xatti -harakatidan kutilmagan o'limi Meyndan Senat o'rindig'ini ochdi, uni Xamlin 1848 yilda to'ldirishga sayladi. O'sha yili qullikka qarshi vigs va demokratlar birlashib, Erkin tuproq partiyasini tuzdilar va Martin Van Buren nomzodini ko'rsatdilar. Prezident. Garchi Hamlin ularning qullikka qarshi platformasini ma'qullagan va Van Burenni ilgari qo'llab -quvvatlagan bo'lsa -da, u Senatdagi qarzdor bo'lgan partiyasi va mdashtosidan voz kechishga jur'at eta olmadi. Hamlin demokrat senator sifatida Genri Kley taklif qilgan 1850 yildagi kelishuvga keskin qarshi chiqdi. Agar qonun loyihasi qullikni G'arbga tarqatgan bo'lsa, "bu mening ovozim bilan bo'lmaydi", deb e'lon qildi.

Senator Xamlin o'zini tuta biladigan odam sifatida, hamkasblarining ichkilikbozliklaridan aziyat chekardi. U Nyu -York senatori Silas Rayt hech qachon hushyor bo'lmaganini va hatto Senatda so'zlaganida viski ichganini kuzatdi. Hamlinning aytishicha, senatorlarning uchdan bir qismi kundalik mashg'ulot oxirigacha mast bo'lgan va uzoq davom etgan ijro sessiyasidan so'ng (yopiq eshiklar ortida o'tkazilgan) a'zolarning uchdan ikki qismi mast holda qolgan. U ba'zi senatorlarning g'ayriinsoniy moyilligi va fe'l -atvorini ma'qullamadi. Senator Tomas Xart Benton va Genri S.Fut o'rtasidagi tortishuvdan so'ng, Fut Senat pallasida to'pponchani tortdi, Hamlin do'stiga jirkanch tarzda shunday yozdi: "Amerika Senatini obro'li organ deb o'ylamaysizmi".

Woolheads yovvoyi mushuklarga qarshi

Qullik muammosi Meyn Demokratik partiyasini ikkiga bo'lindi. Hamlin qullikka qarshi fraktsiyasi raqiblaridan "Woolheads" nomini oldi. Woolheads, o'z navbatida, Wilmot Proviso -ga qarshi bo'lgan raqiblarini "yovvoyi mushuklar" deb belgilashdi. Qullik muammosiga qo'shimcha ravishda, sabr -toqat ikkala guruhni ham ajratdi, Hamlinning "Woolheads" taqiq qonunlarini qo'llab -quvvatladi va "Wildcats" ularga qarshi chiqdi. 1854 yilda Xamlin senator Stiven Duglasning Kanzas-Nebraska qonunini qabul qilish va Missuri murosasini bekor qilish harakatlarini qoraladi. "Erkinlikni bekor qilib qullik qilaylikmi?" - deb so'radi u. "Bu shunday bo'ladi." Qonun loyihasi Senat tomonidan 37 ovoz bilan 14 ovoz bilan qabul qilinganida, Hamlin unga qarshi ovoz bergan to'rt demokrat orasida edi.

Siyosiy tartibsizliklar hukm surar ekan, Xamlinning e'tiborini uning rafiqasi Sara Jeyn Xemlin kasalligi chalg'itdi. Gannibal ham, Sara Hamlin ham Vashingtondagi raqslar, ziyofatlar, karta o'ynash va teatrda yurishni yaxshi ko'rar edilar. Senator, u o'z o'g'liga uyida yozganidek, "haftasiga o'nga yaqin kechki ovqatga taklifnoma bor edi va u ularga juda yoqadi, bilasanmi, u qanday yaxshi kechki ovqatni yaxshi ko'radi". Ammo 1855 yilda Sara sog'lig'i shunchalik yomonlashdiki, u bir muddat Senat a'zosini iste'foga chiqardi. Sara Jeyn Xemlin 1856 yil aprelda sil kasalligidan vafot etdi. O'sha yilning sentyabr oyida Hamlin xotinining singlisi Ellenga uylandi, u o'g'illaridan tengi edi. Oddiy, ammo aqlli va samimiy xarakterli u yana ikkita bolasini tug'di va umrining oxirigacha unga do'stlikni taklif qildi.

Qaysidir ma'noda, Saraning kasalligi Gannibal Xamlinni siyosiy bosim bilan ta'minladi, chunki u kuchli bosim ostida, demokratlardan yangi tuzilgan respublikachilar partiyasi foydasiga voz kechdi. Respublikachilar rahbarlari mashhur Hamlin o'z partiyasiga qo'shilib, nazoratni qo'lga kiritish bilan tahdid qilgan radikallarni muvozanatlashi uchun tashvishlanardi. "Bizning partiyamizda juda ko'p erkaklar bor", deb yozadi yosh muharrir va siyosatchi Jeyms G. Bleyn. "Ularni dvigatelga emas, balki mashinaning orqa qismiga minishga majbur qilish kerak, aks holda biz yo'ldan haydash xavfi ostida qolamiz." 1856 yilda respublikachilar Gamlinni respublikachi Meyn gubernatorligiga nomzod sifatida o'z chiptasini boshqarishni xohlashdi. Hamlin iloji boricha eski partiyasiga yopishib oldi va Senatni tark etishni xohlamadi. Ammo respublikachilar uni gubernatorlikka nomzod bo'lishdan bosh tortish uning Senatga qaytarilish ehtimolini tugatishi haqida ogohlantirdi. Hamlin gubernatorlikka nomzod bo'lishga rozi bo'ldi, lekin agar qonun chiqaruvchi uni imkon qadar tezroq Senatga qaytarsa. Samarali targ'ibotchi, Hamlin davlatni o'rganib chiqdi. Respublikachilar ham viklar, ham demokratlar ustidan yirik g'alabaga erishdilar, Kongressning olti tumanini qamrab oldilar va qonun chiqaruvchi hokimiyatga ega bo'ldilar. Sentyabr oyida Meyn saylovlari o'tkazilganligi sababli (shtatda qishda ob -havo qattiq bo'lgani uchun), erta g'alaba o'sha yili respublikachilarning milliy kampaniyasini ruhiy jihatdan kuchaytirdi. Hamlin respublikachilarga saylov bazasini kengaytirishda yordam bergani uchun keng kredit oldi.

1857 yil 8 yanvarda gubernator lavozimini egallagan Hamlin 25 -fevralda iste'foga chiqdi va senatorlik muddatini uchinchi marta boshladi. Vashingtonda u respublikachilarga Jeyms Buchanan ma'muriyatining "xamir" siyosatiga qarshi kuchli ovoz berdi. (Bu Meynning "Sharqdan pastga" ovozi edi, Xamlin "hozir" ni "ne-a-ow" deb talaffuz qilardi.) Vashingtondagi "Sent-Charlz" mehmonxonasida o'tirganida, Hamlin yana tanishdi va Endryu bilan yaxshi taassurot qoldirdi. Tennessi shtatining Jonson, u bilan birga palatada xizmat qilgan va endigina Senatga saylangan. 1860 yilgi saylovlar yaqinlashar ekan, Meyn respublikachilarining bir qismi, Hamlinni sevimli o'g'li nomzod sifatida ko'rdi, agar peshqadam, Nyu-York senatori Uilyam Seward yiqilib tushsa. Ammo Jeyms G. Bleyn Meyn delegatsiyasini respublikachilar milliy qurultoyida Avraam Linkoln nomzodi foydasiga ishladi. Chikagoga poezdda ketayotganda, Bleyn gubernator Lot Morillni va boshqa delegatlarni Linkolnga yordam berishga ishontirdi. Linkoln Sewardni xafa qilganida, vitse-prezidentlikka nomzod birinchi navbatda Seward lageriga taklif qilindi. Ko'ngli qolgan Seward erkaklar ikkinchi o'rin uchun hech kimni oldinga surishmadi. Delegatlar orasida Kentukki shtatining abolitsionisti Kassius M. Kleyni kuchli qo'llab -quvvatlashi bor edi, lekin respublikachilar partiyasi rahbarlari uni o'ta radikal deb hisoblashdi. Bundan farqli o'laroq, Hamlin ancha "tabiiy", mo''tadil, ammo qullikka qarshi beg'ubor rekord va Senatda Sewardning do'sti bo'lib tuyuldi. Hamlin ikkinchi ovoz berishda nominatsiyani qo'lga kiritdi.

Bu nomzod Gannibal Xamlinni hayratda qoldirdi. Hamlin Vashingtondagi mehmonxona xonasida karta o'ynayotganda yo'lakda raketka ovozini eshitdi. Eshik ochilib, xona hayajonlangan erkaklar bilan to'ldi, ular Indiana Kongress a'zosi Shuyler Kolfaks boshchiligida qurultoy telegrammasini o'qib, unga "janob vitse-prezident" deb murojaat qilishdi. Hayron bo'lib, Hamlin ofisni xohlamasligini aytdi, lekin Ogayo shtati senatori Ben Veyd uni rad etish faqat demokratlarga o'q -dorilar berishini ogohlantirdi, bu esa yutqazilgan chiptaga yugurishdan qo'rqqanini ko'rsatdi. Hamlin rozi bo'ldi va Ueyd va Kolfaksga pichirladi: "Sizlar men tutgan yolg'iz qo'limni buzgansizlar". Shundan so'ng, Xamlin xotiniga xat yozib: "Men buni kutmagan edim va xohlamadim. Lekin bu amalga oshdi va sodiq odam sifatida, buni qabul qilishdan boshqa ilojim yo'q", dedi. Hech bo'lmaganda, u tan oldi, ofis vazifalari "qiyin yoki yoqimsiz bo'lmaydi". Kartalarda bo'ladimi yoki siyosatda, Hamlinning omadli seriyasi bor edi. Bleyn kuzatganidek: "U har doim g'olib tomonda bo'ladi".

Kampaniya davomida Linkoln ham, Hamlin ham hech qanday ma'ruzalar qilmaslikni oqilona deb hisoblashgan. Biroq, Hamlin Linkolnni ishontirdi: "Men indamagan bo'lsam -da, men hech qachon matbuotda shuncha band bo'lmaganman va shaxsiy kuchim bilan butun chiziq bo'ylab zaif tomonlarini kuchaytirishga harakat qilganman". Sentyabr saylovlarida Meyn respublikachilari g'olib chiqqanidan so'ng, Hamlin oktyabr oyida Bostonga, mash'ala paradida qatnashish uchun Meyn yog'ochchilari, Penobskot hindulari va partiya boshliqlari hamrohligida yo'l oldi. Sevimli belgilaridan biri chiptani bitta nomga birlashtirdi: "Abra/Hamlin/coln". Kamroq samimiylik bilan janubliklar Linkoln va Xamlinni radikal abolitsionistlar deb qoraladilar. Bundan ham uzoqqa borib, Charleston [S.C.] Merkuriy muharriri Robert Barnuell Rhet "Hamlin - biz mulat deymiz. Uning ichida qora qon bor" deb yozgan. Nyu -Yorklik, jozibali Jorj Templeton Strong, Hamlin "sof Yanki tipidagi baquvvat namuna bo'lib tuyuldi. Uning yuzi shunchalik mo''tadilki, men uni mullotiga ishonganim uchun aqldan ozgan janubga hayron bo'lolmayman".

Saylovda g'alaba qozonganidan so'ng, Linkoln 22 noyabr kuni Hamlinni Chikagoga uchrashishga chaqirdi. Biroz suhbatdan so'ng, mdashHamlin, Linkolnning soqolini o'stira boshlaganini va ikkala erkak bir -birlarining nutqlarini eshitganlarini, uyida birga bo'lganlarini eslashdi. Vakillar va mdash ular ishga kirishdi. Linkoln o'z kabinetining tarkibini muhokama qilmoqchi edi va bildiki, Xamlin senator sifatida u tayinlash uchun o'ylagan odamlarning ko'plari bilan ishlagan va ularning choralarini ko'rgan. Linkoln, xususan, sobiq raqibi Uilyam Sewardni kabinetga davlat kotibi sifatida jalb qilishdan xavotirda edi. Senat dekabr oyida chaqirilganda, senator Xemlin Linkolndan Sewardga yozib olib, hamkasbini taklifni qabul qilishga undadi. Hamlin, shuningdek, Konnektikut shtatidan Jidon Uellsni Yangi Angliya kabinetiga nomzod sifatida flot kotibi lavozimiga muvaffaqiyatli ko'tardi. Bu dastlabki muomalalar Gamlin boshqaruvda avvalgi vitse -prezidentlarga qaraganda faolroq rol o'ynashi mumkinligini ko'rsatdi. Ko'p o'tmay, Hamlinning Linkoln uchun foydasi asosan katta senatorlik vazifasiga bog'liq bo'lib, u Senatdagi o'rinbosarlik lavozimini bo'shatishi bilan deyarli susayib ketdi.

Linkoln-Xemlin g'alabasi janubiy shtatlarning ajralib chiqishiga sabab bo'ldi. Meynlik do'stimdan kelajakda nima bo'lishini so'rashganida, yangi vitse-prezident shunday javob berdi: "Urush bo'ladi va dahshatli urush bo'ladi, xuddi ertangi quyosh chiqqandek bo'ladi". Konfederatsiyalar Fort Sumterni o'qqa tutdi, degan xabar kelganda Kongress sessiyadan tashqarida edi va Hamlin Meynda edi. Vitse -prezident o'zini Ittifoq uchun kurashish uchun Meyn polkini ko'tarishga bag'ishladi. Vashingtonga qaytayotganda, Hamlin Nyu -Yorkda to'xtadi va u erda prezident Linkolnning har kuni Nyu -Yorkdan qaysi qo'shinlar poytaxtni himoya qilish uchun ketayotgani to'g'risida maslahat berishini so'radi.

Senat 1861 yil 4 -iyulda Ittifoq qo'shinini kuchaytirish va moliyalashtirish uchun zarur bo'lgan qonuniy choralarni ko'rish uchun yig'ilganda, vitse -prezident Xamlin, senatorlikdan ko'ra, vitse -prezidentlik vakolatlari va homiyligi ancha past ekanligini aniqladi. Homiylik yo'qotilishi, ayniqsa, "siyosiy do'stlariga sodiqligi bilan mashhur bo'lgan" Hamlinni xafa qildi. U, shuningdek, voqealarning faol bo'lmagan kuzatuvchisi sifatida xizmat qilganidan o'zini baxtsiz his qildi. Hamlin o'zini Vashingtonda ma'muriyat va senatorlar birdek e'tiborsiz qoldiradigan eng ahamiyatsiz odam deb hisoblardi. U o'z ishini "murabbiyning beshinchi g'ildiragi" deb atadi va vitse -prezidentni "kontingent kimdir" deb atadi. Jessi Benton Fr & eacutemont Hamlindan eriga yangi harbiy qo'mondonlik qilishiga aralashishni so'raganida, vitse -prezident: "Men nima qila olaman? Hukumatning sekin va qoniqarsiz harakatlari mening ma'qullashimga to'g'ri kelmaydi va bu ma'lum. va, albatta, men bilan maslahatlashishmaydi, va menimcha, har qanday chorakda, agar ko'p maslahat beradigan bo'lsam, juda ko'p e'tibor bera olaman ".

Xamlin o'z kabineti haqida o'ylab, suhbatdoshiga shunday dedi:

Vitse -prezident aslida hukumatning nafaqat martabali, balki kuch va ta'sirdagi ikkinchi ofitseridir, degan mashhur taassurot bor. Bu xato. Respublikaning ilk kunlarida u qandaydir tarzda prezidentlik merosxo'ri edi. Lekin bu o'zgardi. U Senatga raislik qiladi-agar ovozlar teng bo'lsa, u hal qiluvchi ovozga ega-va u o'zining shaxsiy kotibini tayinlaydi. Ammo bu unga harakat qilish uchun kuch va ta'sir ko'rsatmaydi. Saylov okrugiga ega bo'lgan har bir a'zosi va shtat vakili bo'lgan har bir senator o'z joyida ko'proq narsani o'ylaydi va ijro etuvchi hokimiyat bilan birgalikda o'z ofisining vazifalarini bajarishi kerak, uning atrofiga yig'iladi va o'z mehrini saqlab qoladi. kim Kongressda ovoz bera oladi va o'z uylarida jamoatchilikning kayfiyati bilan to'g'ridan -to'g'ri ishlay oladi ".

Hamlin tushuntirdi, tez orada uning idorasi Vashingtondagi "null" ekanligini ko'rdi. U prezidentga aralashmaslikka harakat qildi, lekin har doim Linkolnga o'z nuqtai nazarini va so'ralganda maslahatini berardi.

Bundan tashqari, Hamlin Senat raisligini shunchalik zerikarli deb topdiki, u tez -tez yo'q edi. Senatorlik xizmatidan farqli o'laroq, u kamdan -kam hollarda sessiyaning bir kunini o'tkazib yuborganida, vitse -prezident sifatida sessiya tugashidan ancha oldin o'z vazifalarini prezidentga topshirgan. Hamlin Senat ishiga beparvo qarashi Delaver shtatidan demokrat Uillard Soulberi prezident Linkolnga "zaif va beg'ubor odam" sifatida vahshiyona hujum uyushtirganida, sharmandalikka aylandi. Respublikachi senatorlar bu so'zlar tartibli emasligiga e'tiroz bildirishdi, lekin vitse -prezident Xemlin "[u] raisi Delaver shtatidan senatorning gapiga quloq solmayotganini va so'zlarni eshitmaganini" tan olishi kerak edi. Bunga Saulsberi javob berdi: "Bu kafedrada ayblangan, senatorga emas, kafedraga". Xamlin nihoyat, e'tiroz bildirgan senatorlarning sabablarini so'roq qilish uchun, Solsberiga o'tirishni buyurdi, va Saulsberi bajarishdan bosh tortganida, vitse -prezident serjantga senatorni hibsga olishni buyurdi. Qisqa suhbatdan so'ng, Saulsberi serjant yordamchisiga palatadan chiqdi.

Hamlin, Solsberining urushganligini uning ichkilikbozligi bilan izohlagan. "U juda mast edi-tranzaktsiya kechasi,-deb yozdi vitse-prezident. "Bu eng sharmandali sahna edi." Xamlin xushmuomala odam sifatida Senat palatasi va qo'mita xonalaridan spirtli ichimliklarni chiqarib yuborishga qaror qildi. Senat restoranida spirtli ichimliklar savdosini taqiqlash va ajralishdan keyin janubdagi senatorlarning ketishini taqiqlovchi uning qoidalarining kombinatsiyasi institutni hayratda qoldirdi. Kapitoliyga tashrif buyurganlardan birining ta'kidlashicha: "Bir nechta senatorlar kiyim xonasidan ish stoliga beqaror yurishganini ko'rishdi, lekin Gannibal Xamlinning qat'iyatliligi tufayli Senat u erda yashashga majbur bo'lgan hushyor odamlar uchun yoqimli joyga aylandi. "

Urush davomida Hamlin, prezident Linkolndan ko'ra ehtiyotkorroq Kongress radikallarini aniqladi. Linkoln atrofidagilar, vitse -prezident prezident bilan yaqin hamdard emasligini, lekin "Linkolnga va uning umumiy siyosatiga tajovuzkor dushmanlik qilishda respublikachilar rahbarlarining qudratli kabinasini faol ravishda kuchaytirishdan ko'ra passiv sifatida tanilgan" degan xulosaga kelishdi. Linkoln buni Hamlinga qarshi o'tkazmagan ko'rinadi. O'sha davr gazetasi muxbirlaridan biri aytganidek: "Linkoln o'zi haqida erkaklarni bahosi bilan baholadi. U ularning qadr -qimmatini, sodiqligini bilar edi va hech qanday ma'noda ularga ishonmasdi". U odamdan foydalanish uchun mutlaq sadoqatni talab qilmagan. Masalan, Xamlin Linkolnga ozodlik e'lonini berishga qattiq bosim o'tkazganlardan edi. Avvaliga bunday choralar Shimolni ikkiga bo'linib ketishidan qo'rqib, Linkoln bu masalani harbiy maqsad sifatida ishlatib, urushga oliy maqsad qo'yishga ishonguncha qarshilik ko'rsatdi. Linkoln birinchi marta deklaratsiya tayyorlaganida, u Hamlinni kechki ovqatga taklif qildi va uning takliflarini so'rab, hujjatni birinchi bo'lib ko'rishiga ruxsat berdi. Keyinchalik Hamlin Linkolnni "u tashlagan qadamdan juda ta'sirlangan" deb ta'riflagan.

Xamlin vitse-prezidentlik ojizligi haqida qichqirganiga qaramay, u 1864 yilda qayta saylanish uchun tayyor edi. Hamlin Linkoln uning nomzodini qo'llab-quvvatladi deb o'yladi, lekin prezident va mdashan mutlaqo pragmatik siyosatchi va Hamlin chiptaga katta kuch qo'shishiga ishonishdi. millatning omon qolishi xavf ostida bo'lgan, qayta saylov kampaniyasi qiyin bo'lishi mumkin. Meyn Hamlin chiptada bo'ladimi yoki yo'qmi, respublikachilarga ovoz berar edi va u boshqa shtatda ozgina og'irlik qilardi. Linkoln bir nechta taniqli urush demokratlarini, shu jumladan Tennessi shtatining gubernatori Endryu Jonsonni ovoz chiqarib yuborish uchun o'z elchilarini yubordi. O'ylashicha, janublik Jonson kabi nomzodni ko'rsatish "respublikachilar partiyasini milliylashtirish" usuli bo'ladi. Kongressda, Hamlin tarafdorlarini hayratda qoldirgan holda, Tennessi gubernatori birinchi ovoz berishda vitse -prezidentdan ustun keldi va ikkinchi ovoz berishda nomzodlikni qo'lga kiritdi. "Vitse -prezident bo'lish - bu aks ettirilgan buyuklikdan boshqa narsa emas", - deb yozadi Senat kotibi Jon V. Forni Xamlinni tasalli berish uchun. "Bilasizmi, Uels shahzodasi yoki vorisning ahvoli qanday. U kimdir o'lishini kutmoqda, hammasi shu." Hamlin munosib sukut saqladi, lekin mag'lubiyatidan g'azablandi. Yillar o'tib, u shunday deb yozgan edi: "Meni istagimga qarshi Senatdan sudrab olib ketishdi va o'z burchimni bajarishga majburlashdi, keyin esa tantanali ravishda" shamolni hushtak chalib "ketishdi. Men hech qachon hech kimga shikoyat qilmagan bo'lsam -da, menga qanday munosabatda bo'lishganini bilmayman.

1864 yilning yozida cho'loq o'rdak vitse-prezidenti Ittifoq armiyasida qisqa vaqt xizmat qildi. 1861 yilda urush boshlanganda, Hamlin Meyn Sohil Xavfsizligiga oddiy askar sifatida qo'shildi. Uning bo'linmasi 1864 yilda navbatchilikka chaqirilgan va Meyn shtatining Kittery shahridagi Fort Makklariga xabar berishni buyurgan. Garchi Hamlin rolikdagi faxriy o'rinni egallashi mumkin bo'lsa -da, u faol xizmat qilishni talab qildi. "Men Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari vitse-prezidentiman, lekin men ham shaxsiy fuqaroman va sizning kompaniyangizga a'zo bo'lganim uchun o'z burchimni bajarishga majburman." U qo'shimcha qildi: "Men faqat orqa saflarda yuqori darajali oddiy askar bo'lishni xohlayman va ko'k rangdagi bolalar bilan qadam tashlayman". Xeylin kapitan lavozimiga ko'tarildi, 7 -iyul kuni hisobot berdi, burg'ulash ishlarini olib bordi va qolgan askarlar bilan birga qo'riqchilik va oshxonada patrullik qildi. Ammo vitse -prezident sifatida u ofitserlar xonasiga tayinlangan. Sentyabr oyida xizmat safari tugagach, u kompaniyani respublikachi chiptasi uchun kampaniya qilish uchun tark etdi, avval Meynda, keyin Nyu -Angliya orqali Nyu -York va Pensilvaniyaga, Linkolnning qayta saylanishiga yordam berish uchun qo'lidan kelganini qildi.

Kapitoliydagi vitse -prezident xonasida inauguratsiya kuni Hamlinning vorisi Endryu Jonson unga iltimos bilan murojaat qildi. "Janob Hamlin, mening ahvolim yaxshi emas va menga stimulyator kerak", dedi u. - Sizda viski bormi? Hamlin Kapitoliyda spirtli ichimliklar sotishni taqiqlaganini tushuntirdi, lekin Jonson uning talabini bosganida, bir shisha sotib olish uchun xabarchi yuborildi. Jonson stakanni quydi va pastga tushirdi, keyin yana ikki marta ichdi, Senat maydoniga borishdan oldin, xijolat bo'lib, ochilish manzilini berdi. Voqeani keyinroq hikoya qilib, Xamlin, agar Jonson odatdagidek shunday ichsa, "u juda bardoshli bo'lishi kerak", deb alohida izoh berdi.

Hamlin Meynga qaytib kelganidan bir necha hafta o'tgach, 1865 yil 15 -aprel kuni ertalab Bangor ko'chasida qayg'uli bir guruh odamni uchratdi, ular unga Linkoln o'ldirilgani haqida xabar berishdi. Hamlin prezident dafn marosimida qatnashish uchun Vashingtonga paroxodga o'tirdi. Oq uyda u Linkolnning qutisida Endryu Jonson bilan yonma -yon turdi, bu ularni ko'rganlarga Hamlinning bir necha hafta ichida prezidentlik lavozimini o'tkazib yuborgan istehzosiga e'tibor qaratdi. Agar Linkoln o'rniga janubni radikal qayta qurish tarafdori bo'lgan Hamlin o'rnini egallaganida, millat tarixi qanchalik boshqacha rivojlanishi mumkinligini hech kim tushuna olmasdi, bunga qarshi bo'lgan Jonson emas.

Vitse-prezidentdan keyingi siyosiy martaba

Xamlin vitse -prezidentlikka nomzodini mag'lubiyatga uchratganidan so'ng, Linkoln uni xazina kotibi etib tayinlashni o'ylab ko'rdi, lekin "Hamlinning miyasida Senat bor va uni davolaydigan hech narsa yo'q" degan xulosaga keldi. Biroq, Hamlin Senatdagi o'rni uchun Respublikachilar partiyasidan raqibi Uilyam Pitt Fessendendan ustun keldi. Massachusets shtati senatori Charlz Sumner o'rniga Hamlinni Boston portining kollektori etib tayinlashni tavsiya qildi va prezident Jonson nomzod qilib ko'rsatdi. Vaqt o'tib, Hamlin Jonsonning qayta qurish siyosatidan va uning ozodlik huquqlaridan voz kechganidan xafa bo'ldi. Boshqa respublikachi ofis vakillari norozilik sifatida iste'foga chiqqanda, ko'pchilik Xamlinni ularga qo'shilishni so'radi, lekin u o'z kollektsiyasini saqlab qoldi. Nihoyat, Meyn gubernatori Xamlinga yozishicha, uning iste'fosi "yuksak nishonga aylanadi" va printsiplar uchun qurbonlikning "yuqori namunasi" bo'ladi. Siyosiy kelajagi Jonsondan uzoqlashish bilan bog'liqligini tushunib, Hamlin prezidentni portlatib, idorani tark etdi.

1868 yilda, uning xohishiga qarshi, Hamlinning ismi AQSh Grant boshchiligidagi chiptada vitse-prezidentlikka nomzod sifatida ko'rsatildi, ammo nomzodlar palatasi spikeri Shuyler Kolfaksga berildi. Nihoyat 1869 yilda Hamlin Senatning boshqa muddatiga saylandi. U hurmatli oqsoqol davlat arbobi sifatida qaytib keldi va ikki muddat xizmat qildi. One journalist who met Senator Hamlin in 1871 described him as attired in an antique blue swallow-tailed coat with big brass buttons, the type worn by antebellum statesmen. Hamlin mistook the journalist for a resident of Maine "and with the amiable humbug habit of many years wrung my hand warmly and affectionately inquired for the folks at the farm." The journalist took no offense, recognizing that "this trick of pretending remembrance is a venial sin with politicians and head waiters, great and small." Still, the incident gave an indication of how Hamlin had survived in politics for so long.

In 1877, Hamlin fainted in the Senate Republican cloakroom, the first signs of his heart disease. He chose not to stand for reelection in 1880. The election that year of James Garfield as president made Maine's James G. Blaine, secretary of state. Garfield and Blaine appointed Hamlin minister to Spain, a post that carried few duties and allowed him to make an extended tour of the European continent. The most amusing part of his brief diplomatic tenure was that the various foreign ministers he met "seemed to regard as of great importance" the fact that he had served as vice president. Hamlin retired from public service in 1882. He made his last public appearance at a Republican Club dinner at Delmonico's in honor of Lincoln's birthday in February 1891. There he was toasted as "The Surviving Standard-Bearer of 1860," to thunderous applause. A few months later, on the Fourth of July in 1891, thirty years to the day after he convened the Senate at the start of the Civil War, Hannibal Hamlin walked from his home to the Tarratine Club of Bangor, Maine. He had founded the social club, served as its president, and went there every afternoon (except Sunday) to play cards. While seated at the card table, Hamlin collapsed and fell unconscious, dying that night at the age of eighty-one.


Hannibal Hamlin

Hannibal's grandfather, Eleazer Hamlin, was a Revolutionary War hero and was well read on the history of war. When his twin sons were born in 1769 he named them Hannibal and Cyrus in honor of the Carthaginian and Persian generals. Hannibal, son of Hannibal and subject of this essay, was born January 30, 1809. Hannibal, son of Cyrus, was born 8 months later. Throughout their childhoods the two families lived only a few miles apart in southwestern Maine. The cousins met frequently. Hannibal, son of Cyrus, went into politics, served many years in the U.S. Congress and was chosen as President Lincoln's first Vice President.

Hannibal, son of Hannibal was just 2 years old when his father died. Hannibal (sr.) left his wife and 4 surviving children a comfortable house and a small farm. Susannah, his wife, managed the farm well, and expected much of her children both in academics and labor on the farm. As soon as he was old enough, Hannibal took over managing the farm which he did until his mother died in 1840. At that time he moved his young family to Union, Maine where he set up shop as a merchant. In 1842 he removed to Boston where he remained until 1861. He continued in business as a merchant for several years. The 1850 census lists his occupation as Provisions . The city directories of 1852 and 1853 list him as a clerk in the Post Office, and from 1855 to 1861 he is listed as an agent for the American and then the New England Mutual Life Insurance Co.

Little is known of Hannibal's middle years other than the information found in the census and city directories. In his autobiography, Cyrus, Hannibal's brother, wrote that in 1830 he and his brother played a leading role in establishing the Total Abstinence Society of Waterford. Cyrus wrote of his brother: He was very conscientious and independent. He dared to do right. It is known that the family was deeply religious and devout Congregationalists. Hannibal is remembered in a family history as a man of exemplary Christian character, with literary tastes and modest nature. . The obituary that appeared in the Boston Recorder adds that He was an occasional contributor to the Recorder.

Hannibal's duties in managing the farm prevented his obtaining a college education, but he was well read. Rev. Lyman Abbott wrote of his father-in-law: He was a man of fine literary taste and good literary judgment, and was a natural but kindly and sympathetic critic. With a literary education, he would have admirably filled an editorial position on a weekly or monthly publication.

No direct evidence has as yet been found to show that Hannibal participated in the anti-slavery movement in Boston, but a tribute at his death refers to his well known sympathy with the oppressed colored race, and . . . his extensive acquaintance with those who are interested in their welfare. The death notice that appeared in the Boston Herald states that he was well known in Boston. His family was clearly anti-slavery and well connected with others of the same sentiment. His younger brother, Cyrus, as a theological student at Bowdoin, was well informed on current trends in the anti-slavery movement. Cyrus and Benjamin Tappan, jr., second cousin of Arthur and Lewis Tappan, chose to share a room during their final years at the seminary. Hannibal's cousin, the future Vice President, had been a prominent opponent of the extension of slavery from the time he was first elected to Congress. As VP he had little authority but he urged the Emancipation Proclamation and the enlistment of African Americans in the military. Hannibal's son-in-law, Rev. Lyman Abbott was a protege and successor of Henry Ward Beecher and expressed his anti-slavery feelings in his autobiograhy. Later he served as general secretary of the American Freedmen's Union Commission.

By 1861, Hannibal no longer had any strong family ties in Boston. His wife had died in 1857, his daughter had married Rev. Abbott in the same year and was living in Indiana, and his son, who was studying to be a minister of the Congregational church, was also residing in Indiana. His financial condition was poor as evidenced by his son-in-law who wrote of his wedding day that we were married on the 14th day of October, 1857, at her home in Waverley, Massachusetts. . . . The house was heavily encumbered and was to be sold. Later he wrote: he [Hannibal] was not fitted for a business life in the fierce competition of his time.

In March 1861, Hannibal Hamlin of Maine was inaugurated Vice President of the United States. It is likely he used his influence with Salmon P. Chase to obtain a position for his cousin, Hannibal of Boston, in the Treasury Department which, under Secretary of the Treasury Chase, had become a hotbed of republican sentiment. Hannibal is listed in the U.S. Official Register (vol. 1861) as a clerk working in the 3rd Auditor's Office, earning $1,400 per year.

By early April 1862 it was generally believed that President Lincoln would sign the bill to emancipate the slaves living in the District. Already freedom seekers from Virginia and Maryland were arriving in large numbers in the hope of obtaining freedom and seeking work in the military units occupying the city. Republican citizens began discussing means for providing food and clothing to the refugees and preparing them for freedom. In late March/early April Hannibal Hamlin served as chairman of a committee to discuss the formation of the National Freedman's Relief Association (NFRA) of D.C. The group met on April 9th to formalize the organization. They elected Hannibal as its first President. Given his literary talents, Hannibal most likely wrote the document declaring the objectives of the association. It states, in part:

A new state of things exists in this community, and important events seen to be rapidly approaching. The blessings of freedom are springing up in the path of a war of rebellion and treason. The contrabands in this District are already numerous, and their numbers are constantly increasing, as others come in from the adjacent rebel State of Virginia, some fleeing from rebel masters to avoid being sent further South others escaping from the want and privation now being so severely felt on those portions of the country devastated by the rebels themselves, or by contending armies.
They are of both sexes and of all ages, from the tender infant to men and women grown gray and feeble in Slavery. They flee to this District in all the wretchedness and poverty incident to their former condition as chattels, hungry and in rags, their whole appearance piteously appealing for succor. Ignorant of the world, long trained to concealment and deception, they are fearful of every white face until assured of sympathy and kindness.
It is a work of true philanthropy and christian benevolence to relieve the wants and educate the minds of this people children of that God who 'hath made of one blood all nations of men' and for this purpose this Association has been formed.

The executive committee, consisting of the 4 officers and 5 managers, met weekly to transact business and set priorities. In the first year the Association raised $1,830.42, $500 of which was received from the Education Commission of Boston. This contribution may well have been the result of Hannibal calling upon his friends in Boston. In addition to his position at the Treasury, Hannibal found time to visit Fortress Monroe in late summer of 1862 to see what could be done for the contrabands situated there. As a result of what he observed there and in Washington, he contacted other acquaintances to request assistance. Two such letters are documented in Quaker periodicals.

In the letter to the Women's Aid Committee of Friends of Philadelphia in May 1862, he wrote:

The sick have as yet, had no cotton sheets or clothing. The heat of the weather absolutely requires it, and our physicians say it must be supplied. We have already done something and are still doing. Among other articles, we need as soon as possible 100 plain cotton sheets, 50 shirts for the sick, 50 pair of drawers, 50 night-gowns for women, girls and children, 50 cotton pillow cases. The articles named are but a small part of what we need, but our benevolent friends in other cities are aiding us, and we ask you to join with them.
I visited our hospital last evening and saw a poor man dying, whom his master had beaten nearly to death. Some good Samaritan found him, put him in a wagon and brought him to this city and to our rooms. His flesh wounds were terrible, but he was injured internally about the chest . . . I presume he died during the night.


Hannibal Hamlin - History

1836. 1 letter. Concerns a revival in Topsham, Maine.


Boston Public Library
Boston, MA


Columbia University
Rare Book and Manuscript Library
Nyu -York, Nyu -York

9 microfilm reels of originals (1829-1909) at Columbia and other repositories including the University of Maine.


Dartmut kolleji
Hanover, NH

1 letter (December 14, 1854) from George Mifflin Dallas concerning a mission to search for Elisha Kent Lane correspondence in Elizabeth Goodwin collection, 1758-1891 and 2 letters (1864) in Susan Lord Hayes correspondence concerning release of her son, Brig. Gen. Joseph Hayes, from Confederate military prison.


Henry E. Huntington Library
San Marino, CA

10 items in William Jones Rhees papers, 1744-1906.


Knox College
Seymour Library
Galesburg, IL

1 letter (October 6, 1882) in Bookfellow Foundation autograph collection.


Kongress kutubxonasi
Qo'lyozma bo'limi
Vashington, Kolumbiya okrugi

1834-1882. 10 items. Also 9 microfilm reels of originals (1829-1909) at Columbia University and other repositories. Finding aid.


Maine Historical Society
Portland, ME

Correspondence in Aurestus S. Perham papers, 1865-1928 and miscellaneous political and personal papers.


Maine State Archives
Augusta, ME

In Civil War collections, correspondence between Vice President Hamlin and Senator Lot Morrill.


Massachusetts Historical Society
Boston, MA

11 items (1852-1870) in various collections. Finding aid.


Massachusetts State Archives
Boston, MA

Correspondence (1846) in Land Office records, 1782-1849, relating to the eastern boundary of the U.S.


New-York Historical Society
Nyu -York, Nyu -York

1844-1881. 15 items. Personal and official correspondence. Finding aid.


New York State Library
Manuscripts and Special Collections
Albany, NY

December 20, 1883. 1 letter (3 pages). To E.S. March concerning Spain.


Pierpont Morgan Library
Nyu -York, Nyu -York

6 items (1850-1872) and 5 letters (1847-1891), chiefly regarding politics, in the Gilder Lehrman collection. Finding aid.


Stanford University Libraries
Special Collections
Stanford, CA

In Elmer E. Robinson collection, 1764-1982.


University of Maine
Fogler Library Special Collections
Orono, ME

In Hamlin family papers, 1828-1891. 11 feet. Correspondence, letters of condolence, speeches, newspaper clippings, and bust. Available on microfilm, negative at Columbia University. Finding aid.


University of Michigan
Bentley Historical Library
Ann Arbor, MI

Letters by Hamlin in Louis Charles Karpinski papers, 1878-1956.


Rochester universiteti
Rush Rhees Library
Rochester, NY

14 letters by and 3 to Hamlin (1852-1862) in various collections. Finding aid.


Washburn-Norlands Library
Livermore Falls, ME

1 letter in the Israel Washburn papers, 1841-1883. Finding aid.


Yale University Libraries
Manuscripts and Archives
New Haven, CT

In James Watson Webb papers, 1819-1967 and S. Griswold Flagg collection, 1825-1938.


Hannibal Hamlin

Erected 1927 by Concerned Citizens and Organizations.

Mavzular. This historical marker is listed in this topic list: Government & Politics. A significant historical year for this entry is 1927.

Manzil. 44° 48.133′ N, 68° 46.237′ W. Marker is in Bangor, Maine, in Penobscot County. Marker is at the intersection of Hammond Street/State Street and Kenduskeag Stream (U.S. 2), on the left when traveling east on Hammond Street/State Street. Xarita uchun bosing. Marker is at or near this postal address: Kenduskeag Stream Park, Bangor ME 04401, United States of America. Yo'nalish uchun bosing.

Yaqin atrofdagi boshqa belgilar. Kamida 8 ta boshqa marker bu markerdan masofada joylashgan. Saltonstall's Naval Fleet Gun (a few steps from this marker) A Place of Meeting (within shouting distance of this marker) Spanish Bronze Cannon (within shouting distance of this marker) Samuel de Champlain (within shouting distance of this marker) Hersey Memorial Building (Old Bangor City Hall) Bell (about 400 feet away, measured in a direct line) Norumbega Parkway (about 400 feet away) War Memorial

(about 400 feet away) Bangor Victory Platoon (approx. 0.4 miles away). Touch for a list and map of all markers in Bangor.

Shuningdek qarang. . . Hannibal Hamlin Bio. (Submitted on November 25, 2017, by William Fischer, Jr. of Scranton, Pennsylvania.)


Hannibal Hamlin (1809 - 1891)

HAMLIN, Hannibal, a Representative and a Senator from Maine and the 15th Vice President of the United States.

Born at Paris Hill, Oxford County, Maine, August 27, 1809 to Cyrus and Anna Livermore Hamlin, he attended the district schools and Hebron Academy.

Married twice: first to Sarah Jane Emery of Paris Hill in 1833, and second, in 1856, to Sarah Jane's younger half sister, Ellen Vesta Emery. He had six children who lived past their infancy: George (who died in his late childhood), Charles, Cyrus, Sarah, Hannibal Emery and Frank Hamlin.

Studied law admitted to the bar in 1833 and practiced in Hampden, Penobscot County, Maine until 1848.

Member, State house of representatives 1836-1841, 1847, and served as speaker in 1837, 1839, and 1840.

Elected as a Democrat to the Twenty-eighth and Twenty-ninth Congresses (March 4, 1843-March 3, 1847).

Elected as a Democrat to the United States Senate in 1848 by the anti-slavery wing of the Democratic party to fill the vacancy caused by the death of John Fairfield reelected in 1850 and served from June 8, 1848, to January 7, 1857, when he resigned to become Governor and left the Democratic Party in 1856.

Governor of Maine January to February 1857, when he resigned elected to the United States Senate as a Republican and served from March 4, 1857, until his resignation, effective January 17, 1861, to become vice president.

Elected Vice President of the United States on the ticket with Abraham Lincoln 1861-1865.

Appointed collector of the port of Boston in 1865 but resigned in 1866 again elected to the United States Senate in 1869 reelected in 1875 and served from March 4, 1869, until March 3, 1881.

United States Minister to Spain from 1881 to 1882, when he resigned devoted the remainder of his life to agricultural pursuits.

Judged by TIME Magazine as one of the 15 worst Vice Presidents in American History. He was considered a do-nothing politician. MJ Stephey, TIME Magazine, 2008.


Maine History Online

Hannibal Hamlin's boyhood in the Oxford County shire town of Paris Hill probably was similar to childhoods of innumerable other boys in small, rural communities.

He loved to fish, hunt, farm, read, and engage in practical jokes.

Hamlin also developed an interest in the law and politics and, in 1860, he became Abraham Lincoln's vice president.

Dr. Cyrus Hamlin Portrait, ca. 1810

Hamlin was named after his uncle, the twin brother of his father, Cyrus Hamlin.

The twins were born in Harvard, Massachusetts, in 1769. Cyrus studied medicine at Harvard College, then followed three of his brothers to Maine, settling in Livermore.

Besides serving as town physician, Hamlin was town clerk and moderator, and representative from Livermore to the Massachusetts General Court.

In 1806, he was appointed Clerk of Courts in the newly formed Oxford County and moved to Paris with his wife and three children.

He also was probate judge and sheriff of Oxford County for many years.

Portrait of Anna Livermore Hamlin, ca. 1820

Hamlin's mother, Anna Livermore, was the daughter of Deacon Elijah Livermore and Hannah Clark Livermore, both descendants of early New England settlers and founders of the town of Livermore.

Anna Hamlin is said to have stopped a jailbreak when her husband, the sheriff, was away.

She often had been seen to "place one hand on the back of a horse and vault with ease into the saddle."

On August 27, 1809, Anna gave birth to her fifth child, the second born in the home in Paris. Anna and Cyrus named him Hannibal after his uncle.

Residence of Hannibal Hamlin, Paris, ca. 1900

Dr. Hamlin built a three-story white house with high square rooms and large windows that look out over the New Hampshire mountains on one side and the Paris Hill Common and Baptist Meeting house on the other.

The home became a center of activity and hospitality in the village of Paris, from the time the Hamlins welcomed the traveling Pequawket Indian woman Molly Ockett, to the boarding of a future governor of the state, Enoch Lincoln.

The Hamlins also provided space for village theater productions and many quilts were stitched together by the ladies of Paris in the spacious rooms.

Purse with fabric twined by Molly Ockett, ca. 1785

The winter after Hannibal Hamlin was born, during a period of severe weather, an elderly Native American woman named Marie Agathe, known to the English settlers as Molly Ockett, came to the Hamlin homestead looking for shelter.

She had a reputation as a healer, and when she was welcomed into the home, she discovered that the infant Hannibal was ill.

She is credited with nursing the baby back to health and predicting his future success.

Paris Hill Common as it looked ca. 1822

Hannibal grew up in the large white farmhouse, attended a local school, shared in the farm work with his siblings and played in the shadow of the jail and courthouse.

His father was both local doctor and sheriff, his mother took food to the prisoners, and lawyers and judges were guests in his home.

One of his earliest memories, as reported by his grandson Charles in the biography Life and Times of Hannibal Hamlin, was seeing a company of soldiers gathered on the Common in front of his house in 1812, then seeing them march away.

Hamlin reportedly preferred being outside to being confined indoors at his studies. His grandson also reported that Hamlin was a leader among the town's boys.

First Baptist Church, Paris Hill, ca. 1990

One story about Hamlin's youth lived on for several generations.

The Baptist Church by the town common installed a bell in 1821, which was an important means of communication. It rang for the court summons, it rang for evening curfew, it rang for Sunday services and it tolled mournfully for funerals, one stroke for each year the deceased had lived.

On the fourth of July, the boys of Paris Hill worked in relays to keep the bell ringing all day.

One spring Sunday, a group of revival converts was gathered at a local brook for baptism. Just as the first candidate was being lowered into the water, the funeral toll rang.

Those gathered wondered who had died, but went on with what were to be 17 baptisms.

As the next candidate was taken to the water's edge, the funeral bell rang again, and again for the third candidate.

Finally someone in the crowd noticed a boy on the bank waving a red bandana behind his back. Looking to see whom he might be waving at, a boy was spotted in the tallest tree on the high bank also signaling with a red bandana.

As these two boys were close companions of Hannibal Hamlin, it did not take long to figure out who was in the bell tower.

Oxford County Jail, ca. 1890

As a result of this or perhaps another similar incident, Hannibal found himself temporarily incarcerated in the jail that bordered his father's land.

His mother was horrified and humiliated but his father accepted the sentence and let Hannibal spend a night in the cell.

Smith's Brook, Paris, ca. 1880

Farming, fishing and hunting were the ruling passions of Hannibal's teenage years.

He scoured the mountains and countryside for game and fish, and when he found a secluded trout brook, he revealed the location selectively.

Years later, he returned to Paris Hill to fish, and people on the Hill said he again went to his secret fishing spots for peace and a few good fish.

Mineral covered box, ca. 1820

In 1820 Elijah Hamlin, Hannibal's older brother, and Ezekiel Holmes discovered some interesting crystals that turned out to be tourmaline.

Mining soon began in Maine's -- and the country's -- first gem mine.

Many interesting rocks and minerals could be found around Mt. Mica, which was located less than a mile from Paris Hill.

This box, found in Hamlin's attic, is decorated with many rocks and gems that probably came from the area.

Thespian Club, Paris Hill, 1864

The large Hamlin parlor often was used for social gatherings.

Dr. Hamlin enjoyed amateur theatrics and helped form a Thespian club. The parlor became the theater.

Local residents, including the Hamlins, were the actors and actresses.

During a visit to Boston in 1827, Hannibal discovered the old Boston Theater and was "seized with the desire to become an actor." His father urged him to "make use of your talents in a sensible calling," and Hannibal returned home to prepare for college.

Enoch Lincoln, Paris

Between 1819 and 1826, Enoch Lincoln, a lawyer and legislator, boarded with the Hamlins.

Lincoln's friendship and counsel and extensive library were a great comfort to young Hannibal.

In the several years before Maine became a state, Lincoln was the U.S. Representative from the 7th District of Massachusetts then a U.S. Representative from Maine, 1821-26.

Lincoln was elected Governor of Maine in 1826 and soon moved to Augusta, but while he was in the Hamlin home he shared his library and his views on many important issues of the time, including slavery.

Lincoln died in 1829 while serving as governor.

The Hebron Semester, 1881

Hannibal entered Hebron Academy in 1826 where he studied the classics, mathematics, history and biology.

His eventual choice of a profession however, was encouraged by an event that happened outside of the classroom.

Hamlin and several of his friends were involved in a scrape with an intoxicated neighbor at a "Husking Party," which resulted in an accusation of "assault and battery" against the schoolboys.

Hamlin had followed local trials and had enough knowledge of the language to serve as defense attorney.

The old Justice of the Peace who had limited knowledge of the law was reportedly confused by Hannibal's arguments and technical terms and soon dismissed him, fined his friends a dollar each, and adjourned the court.

Before his year at Hebron was completed, however, Hamlin had to return home because his brother Cyrus had tuberculosis and Hannibal was needed to help with the farm.

Hannibal Hamlin, ca. 1850

Hamlin wanted to continue his education, but he also loved farming and accepted his responsibilities at home.

In the fall of 1827, Hannibal applied for the teaching vacancy at his old school at Paris Hill.

He drew on his diplomatic skills to teach the youngsters in his charge and handle the older students who came to school in the winter and early spring when they were not needed on the farm.

His grandson wrote, "He found his experience of value to him, and often advised young men to spend a winter teaching, to learn how to impart their knowledge and also how to exercise power in fact he enforced these ideas on several of his sons at different times . "

Hannibal Hamlin, 1860

In 1829, released from his farm duties, Hannibal went to live with his brother, Elijah, who had a law practice in Columbia.

He read law and helped with his brother's practice.

In the spring Hannibal's father contracted pneumonia and died within a few days. Again, Hamlin returned home to mourn his father and help support his mother and sisters.

Realizing that college was no longer an option for him, he spent his days farming and his nights studying.

Hamlin was not old enough to vote in the election of 1829, but he campaigned for Andrew Jackson and shared in the exultation over his election.

Horatio King, Washington, D.C., ca. 1870

Horatio King and Hamlin were youthful companions on Paris Hill.

King got a job as a printer's devil on the Jeffersonian, a Jacksonian Democrat newspaper, and contemplated a career as a newspaper editor.

Hamlin and King bought the paper and on May 30, 1830, it appeared under the management of Hamlin and King.

They retained the editor, Joseph Cole, and King and Hamlin contributed news and did the printing.

After six months, Hamlin offered to sell his share to King, who eventually merged the paper with a Portland paper. King, then entered the Postal Service and made it his career, eventually becoming Postmaster General for a short time in 1861.

Judge Emery house, Paris

Hamlin's neighbor was Judge Stephen Emery and Hannibal was a frequent visitor in the Emery home. Judge Emery had a strong interest in Hannibal and encouraged him to get involved in politics.

Judge Emery's oldest daughter, Sarah, was a teenager in 1830, and Hannibal's attention to her was noticed though no formal commitment was made at that time.

Before he could marry, Hamlin needed to establish a career.

Samuel Fessenden, Portland

Hamlin saved enough money to spend a year studying with a law firm in Portland.

He chose the law firm of Fessenden & Deblois and they accepted him as a student in 1832. He participated in the legal work instead of just the menial tasks that often fell to students.

In addition, Samuel Fessenden was an ardent abolitionist and his views probably helped educate Hamlin.

When his year was complete, the firm returned to him the money he had given them to study there.

He returned to Paris Hill in the spring of 1833 and was admitted to the bar. On the same day he won his first court case in the court of Judge Stephen Emery.

His argument won praise and Judge Emery said of Hannibal ". . .a young man who was fortunate enough to begin his active career by winning his first case and his wife on the same day."

Sarah Emery and Hannibal Hamlin were married on December 10, 1833 and soon after they left Paris Hill for Lincoln, where Hamlin practiced briefly before moving to Hampden.

Hannibal and Sarah lived most of their adult lives in Bangor and Hannibal only returned to Paris Hill to visit family.

When Sarah died 23 years after they were married, Hamlin returned to the Emery house on Paris Hill to ask for the hand of Emery's youngest daughter, Ellen Vesta, who was 21.

Hamlin and Judge Emery remained close and exchanged many letters over the years.

Lincoln/Hamlin Campaign Flag, 1860

On July 11, 1860, a mass meeting was held on Paris Hill to endorse the nomination of Republicans Abraham Lincoln and Hannibal Hamlin for President and Vice President.

This festive event drew large crowds, and the principal speaker was Paris' own Hannibal Hamlin who delivered his speech from a stand erected in front of his birthplace and childhood home.

Hamlin, who had been a state and U.S. Representative, a U.S. Senator, and Governor of Maine, served one term as vice president. He later served as Ambassador to Spain.

Hamlin Memorial Exercises

Hamlin died on July 4, 1891 in Bangor.

On Friday, August 27, 1909, the centennial of Hamlin's birth, "all roads led to Paris Hill" as friends, family, neighbors, and dignitaries gathered to honor the memory of Hannibal Hamlin.

Hamlin boulder on the way to Paris Hill

A memorial in the form of a large boulder bearing a bronze tablet commemorating Hamlin's public service was placed on the Common in front of the house where he was born.

The Military Order of the Loyal Legion, and citizens of the town of Paris planned the events of the day.

The first speaker and honorary chairman was General Joshua L. Chamberlain of Brunswick.

The band of the National Soldiers' Home at Togus played for the crowd of almost 3,000 people, and granddaughter Louise Hamlin and grandniece Julia Carter unveiled the Memorial.

Birthplace of Hannibal Hamlin, Paris Hill, 1948

The Hannibal Hamlin Sesquicentennial was celebrated on August 22, 1959 with a parade, a Little League baseball game on the Common, lunch, historic house tours, and speakers including Senator Margaret Chase Smith.

The Paris Hill Golf course was open to all for the day and the celebration concluded with a lobster supper at the Old Academy building.

A special reprinting of The Jeffersonian, the newspaper Hamlin once owned and printed with Horatio King, contained stories of Paris Hill and Hamlin family history, and was sold to visitors for 25 cents a copy.

Sources Charles Eugene Hamlin, Life and Times of Hannibal Hamlin (1899)

H. Draper Hunt, Hannibal Hamlin of Maine: Lincoln's First Vice President (1969)

Una Taylor Mournian, "Hannibal Hamlin -- Maine's Only Vice President," in Lewiston Journal Magazine, May 9, 1936.


Early life

Hamlin was born to Cyrus Hamlin va Anna Livermore[1] on Paris Hill (now a National Register Historic District) in Paris, Maine, in Oxford County, a descendant of James Hamlin in the sixth generation, who had settled in the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1639. Hamlin was a great nephew of U.S. Senator Samuel Livermore II of New Hampshire, and a grandson of Stephen Emery, Maine's Attorney General in 1839-40.

Hamlin attended the district schools and Hebron Academy there, and later managed his father's farm. For the next few years he worked at several jobs: schoolmaster, cook, woodcutter, surveyor, manager of a weekly newspaper in Paris, and a compositor at a printer's office. He studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1833. He began practicing in Hampden, a suburb of Bangor, where he lived until 1848.

Hamlin's political career began in 1836, when he began a term in the Maine House of Representatives after being elected the year before. He served in the bloodless Aroostook War, which took place in 1839. Hamlin unsuccessfully ran for the United States House of Representatives in 1840 and left the State House in 1841. He later served two terms in the United States House of Representatives, from 1843-1847. He was elected to fill a U.S. Senate vacancy in 1848, and to a full term in 1851. A Democrat at the beginning of his career, Hamlin supported the candidacy of Franklin Pierce in 1852.

From the very beginning of his service in Congress he was prominent as an opponent of the extension of slavery he was a conspicuous supporter of the Wilmot Proviso, and spoke against the Compromise Measures of 1850. In 1854 he strongly opposed the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise. After the Democratic Party endorsed that repeal at the 1856 Democratic National Convention, on June 12, 1856 he withdrew from the Democratic Party and joined the newly organized Republican Party, causing a national sensation.

The Republicans nominated him for Governor of Maine in the same year, and having carried the election by a large majority he was inaugurated in this office on the January 8, 1857. In the latter part of February, however, he resigned the governorship, and was again a member of the United States Senate from 1857 to January 1861.


Maine History Online

Images from Hamlin Memorial Library and Museum and Maine Historical Society

Hannibal Hamlin, an important figure in Maine and national politics in the nineteenth century, was born and raised in Paris Hill.

During the 60 to 70 years after the small community became the county seat of Oxford County in 1805, Paris Hill boasted five Maine governors, three Maine senate presidents, three speakers of the Maine house, 12 representatives to the Congress, two U.S. Senators, one U.S. Postmaster General, and one Vice President of the United States.

Hannibal Hamlin falls into five of those categories. The vice president in Abraham Lincoln's first term, Hamlin spent most of his adult life in Bangor and Washington, D.C.

But his early life in the small farming village with lawyers, judges and politicians as neighbors, a home which became a center of activity in the community, and his frequent observations of the drama of the courtroom close by, helped form the statesman whose accomplishments are remembered 200 years later.

After 1833, he returned to Paris Hill as a visitor, to see family, announce his nomination for Vice President in 1860, and to present the town with a clock for the church bell tower in 1883.

A hundred years after his birth, thousands gathered on the common in front of his birthplace to honor his memory. Fifty years later another crowd gathered to watch a parade and listen to Margaret Chase Smith recount Hamlin’s significant accomplishments.

On August 22, 2009, residents of Paris again pulled out their bunting and mementos, invited history lovers and visitors to Paris’ historic district on the “Hill” and remembered Maine’s Vice President.


Hamlin, Hannibal, d. 1982

Hannibal Hamlin was an American neurosurgeon who traveled with the Whitney South Sea Expedition beginning in 1927. After original leader Rollo Beck retired, Hamlin was appointed leader of the expedition from March 1928 until January 1930. He left the project in August 1930. The AMNH Whitney South Sea Expedition was an ornithological expedition originated by Dr. Leonard C. Sanford and funded by Harry Payne Whitney, with the mission of systematically exploring Polynesia, Melanesia, and Micronesia for previously undiscovered or little-known bird specimens. It was the largest ornithological expedition ever conceived. Active field research was conducted from 1920 to 1941. Hamlin joined the WSSE team with Guy Richards after F.P. Drowne, who had only been a member for several months, fell ill and extra support for the group was required.

Hamlin was the great-grandson of Hannibal Hamlin, Vice President under Abraham Lincoln from 1861 to 1865. Dr. Hamlin joined the WSSE shortly after graduating Yale University in 1927. After returning to America, Hamlin attended Yale Medical School, graduating in 1936. He joined the Massachusetts General Hospital Neurosurgical Service in 1937. During World War II he served with the US Navy as a surgeon in the South Pacific. He remained affiliated with MGH until his death, being named honorary neurosurgeon upon retirement in 1979. His research focused on electroactivity of the human brain and, along with Dr. Oskar Hirsch, developed a new method of pituitary gland surgery.

Hamlin was married to Margaret Beck Hamlin. They had three children: Ellen V. Reynolds, Prof. Cyrus Hamlin and Dr. Charles Hamlin. Hannibal Hamlin died on June 28, 1982 in Boston, MA from cancer at the age of 78.

Manbalar

    “Dr. Hannibal Hamlin, Former Neurosurgeon.” The New York Times (New York, NY), June 29, 1982. http://www.nytimes.com/1982/06/29/obituaries/dr-hannibal-hamlin-former-neurosurgeon.html.
    AMNH 1982 Bulletin. Hamlin, Hannibal vertical file. AMNH Research Library.

Shartlar

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Written by: Cara Shatzman
Last modified: 2016 November 3


Videoni tomosha qiling: Did You Know: Abraham Lincolns First Vice President


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