Tintagel qal'asi: Artur afsonasi haqiqiy tarix bilan aralashgan

Tintagel qal'asi: Artur afsonasi haqiqiy tarix bilan aralashgan


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Tintagel qal'asi - Tintagel orolida joylashgan qasr xarobalari joylashgan joy; ingichka Shimoliy Kornuoll sohiliga tor er bilan bog'langan yarim orol. Bu qal'a Buyuk Britaniyada Rim hukmronligining oxiridan boshlab, ya'ni miloddan avvalgi 4 -asr yoki miloddan avvalgi V asrdan to miloddan avvalgi VII asr oxirigacha muhim qal'a bo'lgan. Tintagel qal'asi, afsonaviy qirol Artur tug'ilgan joy, degan da'vo bilan mashhur, lekin bu saytning haqiqiy tarixi ham hayajonli.

Tintagel qal'asida rimliklarning belgilari

Bugungi kunda Tintagel qal'asi turgan joy, ehtimol, Rim davrida ishg'ol qilingan bo'lishi mumkin, chunki yarim oroldan shu davrga oid asarlar topilgan. Aytgancha, Rim davriga tegishli tuzilmalar hali kashf qilinmaganligi sababli, Tintagel orolida Rim davrida yashaganligi aniq emas.

Tintagel, Buyuk Britaniya - 2016 yil 12 -avgust: Tintagel oroli va afsonaviy Tintagel qal'asi xarobalarining quyosh botishidagi ko'rinishi. (valeryegorov /Adobe Stock)

Ishonch bilan aytish mumkinki, bu joy Rim davrining oxiri va miloddan avvalgi VII asr o'rtasida egallab olingan. 2016 yilda o'tkazilgan geofizik tadqiqotlar bu joyda devorlar va binolar qatlamlari borligini aniqladi. Qozuv ishlari natijasida qalinligi bir metr bo'lgan saroyga tegishli devorlar topilgan.

  • Arxeologlar qirol Arturning tug'ilgan joyini kashf qilishgan bo'lishi mumkin: afsonalar hayotga qaytadimi?
  • Tarixchilar afsonaviy qirol Artur qabriga yaqinroq
  • Ukrainadagi Kamianets-Podilskiy qal'asining dramatik tarixi: Qal'adan qamoqxonagacha

Ko'plab artefaktlar, jumladan olis mamlakatlardan olib kelingan hashamatli buyumlar ham topilgan. Bunday ob'ektlar orasida O'rta er dengizidan Tintagelga sharob va zaytun moyini tashish uchun ishlatilgani aytilgan nozik shisha bo'laklari, Finikiya qizil sirg'aladigan qirrasi va kech rim amforalari bor.

Qirol Artur haqida afsona

Shuningdek, bu saroy qadimgi janubi-g'arbiy Britaniya qirolligi Dumnoniya hukmdorlariga tegishli ekanligi xabar qilingan. Aytishlaricha, bu shohlik hozirgi Devonda joylashgan bo'lib, hozirgi Kornuoll va Somersetning bir qismini o'z ichiga olgan. Qirol Arturning Tintagel kontseptsiyasining hikoyasi Dumnoniya qirolligi yoki hech bo'lmaganda uning xotirasi bilan bog'liqligi taxmin qilingan.

12 -asrda Monmutlik yozuvchi Jefri yozgan Tarix Regum Britanniae (ingliz tiliga "Britaniya qirollarining tarixi" deb tarjima qilingan), Britaniya tarixining soxta tarixiy bayoni. Bu hisobdagi shaxslardan biri, Jefrining so'zlariga ko'ra, Tintagelda homilador bo'lgan qirol Artur edi. Jefri Tintagelni avvalgi asrlarda qirollik joyi sifatida eslab, uni afsonaviy qirolning kontseptsiyasi joyi bilan bog'lashdan ilhomlangan deb taxmin qilingan.

Afsonaga ko'ra, Arturning otasi Uter Pendragon qal'asi Tintagelda bo'lgan Kornuoll Gorlozining rafiqasi Igreynni sevib qolgan / sevgan. Uter malikani orzu qilish uchun Merlinni sehridan foydalanishga ko'ndirishga muvaffaq bo'ldi. Merlin Uterni Gorlois obraziga aylantirdi va u malikani yo'ldan ozdirish uchun Tintagel qal'asiga kira oldi. Aytishlaricha, Artur homilador bo'lgan.

N.C. Vaytning "O'g'il qiroli Artur" uchun rasm (1922). (Jamoat mulki)

Tintagel qal'asini qurish

1230 -yillar davomida, Kornuollning 1 -chi grafi, Angliya qiroli Jonning ikkinchi o'g'li va Angliya qiroli Genrix III ning ukasi Richard Tintagel orolida qal'a qurishga qaror qildi.

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  • Nottingem qal'asining dramatik va qonli tarixi
  • Qadimgi yozuvlar Tintagelda topilganmi, shoh Artur borligidan dalolatmi?

Qal'a, bu erga bog'langan Artur afsonasi asosida qurilgani va u hech qanday harbiy ahamiyatga ega emasligi qabul qilingan. Qal'ani Garl avlodlari meros qilib olishgan, garchi ular undan unchalik foydalanmaganlar. XIV asr o'rtalariga kelib, qasr qurilganidan taxminan bir asr o'tgach, Katta zal tomsiz qolgani aytiladi va yana bir asr o'tgach, qal'a vayronaga aylangan.

Tintagel qal'asi xarobalari, Kornuoll . (CJohns /Adobe Stock)

Konservatsiya va "Disneyfikatsiya" savollari

Bu Richard qal'asining xarobalari, uni bugun ham ko'rish mumkin. Qal'a Kornuoll gersogligi mulki bo'lib qoladi va uni xalq tashrif buyurishi mumkin. Arturning afsonalari sayyohlarni o'ziga jalb qilsa -da, arxeologlar va tarixchilar boshqa sabablarga ko'ra bu erga tashrif buyurishni davom ettirmoqdalar.

Ular ham kashfiyotlarni davom ettirmoqdalar. 2016 yilda ma'lum bo'lishicha, Merlin tasvirlangan san'at asari afsonaga ko'ra, Artur aytilgan joyga yaqin qoyaning yuziga o'yilgan. Va 2018 yilda lotin, yunon va keltcha so'zlar, ismlar va ramzlar shiferli deraza tokchasida o'yilgan holda topilgan.

Bundan tashqari, yaqinda saytga kirishni osonlashtirish uchun materik va qal'ani bog'laydigan piyodalar ko'prigi (dizayni tanlovdan tanlangan) qurilgan. Ba'zilar bu o'zgarishlarga ijobiy qarashgan bo'lsa -da, bu sayyohlikni kuchaytirgani uchun, boshqalar buni saytning "Disneyfikatsiyasi" deb atashdi.

Qirol Artur haykali . (Marko Nijland /Adobe Stock)


Qirol Artur haqidagi afsona

Ba'zilar haqiqat deb o'ylashni yaxshi ko'radigan bir hikoya bor. 13 -asrda, monastirlar bilan suhbatlashgan abbot, tinglovchilarining ko'pchiligi uxlab qolishganini aniqladi. Umidsizlikka tushib, abbat ovozini baland qilib e'lon qildi: "Men senga yangi va buyuk bir narsani aytib beraman. Bir paytlar qudratli podshoh bo'lgan, uning ismi Artur edi ...". Bu so'zlar elektrlashtiruvchi ta'sir ko'rsatdi. Rohiblar, abbotning muqaddas masalalar haqidagi fikrlarini eshitib, hushyor tura olmasalar ham, ular sehrli Artur ismining tilga olinishidan zavqlanishdi.

Arturus, harbiy boshliq

Afsonaviy Artur obrazi ortida haqiqiy tarixiy shaxs, V asrda ingliz-saksonlarga qarshi keltlar britaniyaliklari kurashini qo'llab-quvvatlagan Artur ismli buyuk etakchi turgani umumiy qabul qilinadi. Biroq, uning ismi o'sha davrning ishonchli tarixida ko'rinmaydi, ehtimol, Arturus uning ismi emas, balki Ayiq degan ma'noni anglatuvchi unvon edi.

Qirol Artur Merlin bilan qayiqda qilichini olmoqchi - 1881 yil gravür

Saksonlar nihoyat Buyuk Britaniyani bosib olgan bo'lsalar -da, Keltlar Kornuoll, Kamberlend va Uelsda kuchli bo'lib qolishdi. U erda keltliklar mustaqillik darajasini saqlab qolishdi va Arturus kabi eski chempionlar xotirasini saqlab qolishdi. Seltik bardlar o'tmishdagi xalq ertaklarini aytib berish uchun suddan sudgacha sayohat qilishdi. Vaqt o'tishi bilan harbiy boshliq Artur Angliya qiroli Arturga aylandi.

Ba'zi tarixchilarning fikricha, Artur Buyuk Britaniyaning Dux (Dyuk) rim unvoni edi. Biroq, milodiy 500 yilga kelib, bunday unvonlar noaniq bo'lib qoldi va "qirol" Keltlar etakchilarining odatiy belgisi edi. Orolda Rim hukmronligi yo'qolganda, qabilalar va hududlarning eski qirollik oilalari yana paydo bo'ldi.

Qadimgi yozuvlarda keltirilgan maslahatlardan biz Arturni bir muncha vaqt muvaffaqiyatli bo'lgan, milodiy 537 yildagi Kamlan jangidan keyin yoki fuqarolar urushida fojiali tarzda halok bo'lgan jangchi sifatida ko'rishimiz mumkin. Arturning otasi Buyuk Britaniya gersogi Ambrosius Aurelianus bo'lishi mumkin. Ambrosiusning o'limidan o'n yillar o'tgach, 495 yildan keyin va Arturning o'limidan taxminan 40 yil o'tib, boylik va keng ko'lamli kurashlar vaqti keldi. Bu Britaniyadagi afsonaviy qirol bilan bog'lanishini da'vo qiladigan ko'plab joylarni tushuntirishi mumkin.

Qirol Arturning xayoliy tarixi

Artur vafotidan keyingi asrlarda xayoliy tarixlar "qirol" haqidagi bir qancha ishonchli dalillarni, butun afsonani yaratgan, butun adabiyotni to'plab berdi. Ular orasida 1135 yilda Monmutlik Jefri tomonidan yozilgan Historia Regum Britanniae (Britaniya Shohlari tarixi) bor edi. Shuningdek, 12 -asrda rohib Nennius o'zining "Tarixi Brittonum" ("Britaniyaliklar tarixi") asarida Arturning 5 -asr oxiri - 6 -asr boshlarida nemis bosqinchilari - sakslar va burchaklarga qarshi olib borgan janglarini sanab o'tdi. Keyinchalik, 1160 yilda frantsuz yozuvchisi Kretyen de Troy qirol Arturni romantik adabiyotning zamonaviy mavzusi sifatida o'rta asrlar ritsarligi va saroy romantikasini ertaklarga kiritib qo'ydi. De Troyes nafaqat ritsarlarning ko'pini, balki Ser Lanselotni ham yaratdi, balki Artur malikasining ismi sifatida ko'proq lirik ovozli Guinevereni ishlatdi va o'z saroyining nomi uchun Camelotni tanladi.

Ammo bugun biz bilgan qirol Arturning hikoyasi asosan ser Tomas Malorining asaridir. Uning ichida Le Morte d'Artur (Arturning o'limi), 1485 yilda nashr etilgan, u dastlab og'zaki so'zlar bilan tarqatilgan va keyin yozib olingan ertaklarning ko'pini aytib berdi. U Arturni 15-asr qahramoniga aylantirib, o'z davrining modasini kiyintirdi. Gomer Odisseyda bo'lgani kabi, Ser Tomas Malori ham Arturda shunday bo'lgan.

Qirol Arturning zamonaviy ertaklari

Malorining matni o'quvchini sarguzashtlar va qirolliklar orzusiga olib keladi, bunda sarguzashtlarga bo'lgan muhabbat janglar uchun etarli edi. Garchi bu sarguzashtlar o'g'il bolalar orzusi kabi haqiqat bo'lsa -da, ularni hozirgi dunyoning kengligi va uzunligida joylashtirish qiyin.

Le Morte d'Artur Artur bilan Uter Pendragonning noqonuniy o'g'li (so'zma -so'z "bosh ajdaho" yoki Buyuk Britaniya qiroli) deb o'ylab topilgan. Yashirin tarbiyalanganidan so'ng, Artur toshdan qilich chiqarib o'zini, qirolligini isbotlaydi. U Guineverega uylanadi, Camelotda davra suhbati ritsarlarini topadi va Mordred ismli o'g'il tug'adi. 12 yillik farovonlikdan so'ng, Arturning ritsarlari Muqaddas Grailni kashf etishni boshlaydilar, shu vaqt ichida uning bosh ritsari Lancelot qirolicha Gvineya bilan zino ishini tugatadi. Oxir -oqibat, er -xotin aniqlanadi va Artur Lancelotni Frantsiyaga olib boradi va Mordredni regent sifatida qoldiradi.

Qirol Artur va uning davra suhbati tasviri

Hikoyaning oxirida Artur Mordredning taxtni egallashga urinishini aniqlaydi va isyonni bostirish uchun qaytadi. Oxirgi jangda Mordred vafot etadi va Artur o'lik jarohatni oladi, shundan so'ng u barj bilan Avalon vodiysiga etkaziladi. Jangdan so'ng, ser Bedivere istamay, Arturning qilichi Excaliburni Leyklar xonimiga qaytaradi, Lancelot ham, Guinevere ham muqaddas buyruqlarga kirib, o'z hayotlarini tinchlikda o'tkazadilar.

Qirol Arturning qadamlarini kuzatish

Britaniya orollarida Artur afsonasi bilan bog'liq diqqatga sazovor joylar ko'p. Uning atrofidagi sirni ochishga urinish uchun men bu joylarning ba'zilariga tashrif buyurdim. Men Vinchesterdan boshladim, qadimgi Rim shahri Venta Belgarum, Katta zal va Arturiya qoldiqlarining eng mashhuri - "Dumaloq stol" depozitariysi.

Qattiq eman stolining diametri 18 fut va og'irligi taxminan bir chorak tonna. U devorga osilgan bo'lib, xuddi yashil va oq bo'laklari bo'yalgan ulkan dart taxtasiga o'xshab, shoh va uning ritsarlari o'tirgan joylarni ko'rsatadi. Malorining davrida ko'pchilik buni haqiqiy maqola deb hisoblagan va tarixchilar Vinchester qal'asini Artur qal'asi - Kamelot joylashgan deb hisoblagan.

Afsuski, mavjud qasr Arturnikiga deyarli etarlicha yosh emas. Sinovlar shuni ko'rsatadiki, Eduard III stolni, ehtimol 1344 yilda, mashhur romanslarda tasvirlangan Dumaloq stol ritsarlariga asoslangan ritsarlik tartibi haqidagi tasavvurni yaratgan. Ehtimol, bu zodagonlar bayram qilgan mashhur Artur bayramlarini nishonlash uchun ishlatilgan.

Qirol Genrix VIII, 1522 yilda Muqaddas Rim imperatori Charlz V. ziyoratiga bag'ishlangan stolga buyurtma bergan. Arturning tasviri, aslida, qirollik regaliyasida o'tirgan, juda yosh Genrix VIIIga taqlid qilingan. Tudor atirguli uning markazini belgilaydi.

Afsonada aytilishicha, sehrgar Merlin Arturning otasi Uter Pendragon uchun dasturxon yozgan. Uterning o'limida Merlin stolni Arturga berdi. Hamma teng bo'lgan stol haqidagi fikr, hech kim o'z tengdoshlaridan ustun bo'lmagan holatda romantik idealizmga yoqdi, ayniqsa Viktoriya davrida ritsar afsonasini o'rab oldi. Aslida, Artur davrining har qanday etakchisi qattiq intizom yoki taxtdan chetlatilishi kerak edi.

Malorida Le Morte d'Artur, Camelot Vinchester edi. Mahalliy folklorga ko'ra, bu Kolchester edi. Axir, rimliklar shaharni Camulodunum deb atashgan. Ikkala holatda ham da'voni qo'llab -quvvatlaydigan narsa kam. O'tgan asrning 60 -yillarida to'plangan ba'zi arxeologik dalillar bilan tasdiqlangan Camelotning eng ehtimol joyi - bu Yovil yaqinidagi temir asr tepaligidagi Cadbury qal'asi, Somerset tekisligidan baland, Qirolicha Tuya qishlog'i yaqinida. Genrix VIII davrida antikvar bo'lgan Jon Leland yozganidek, mahalliy odamlar bu mustahkam tepalik qoldiqlarini "Camalat-Qirol Artur saroyi" deb atashgan.

Arturning o'rindig'i Calton Hill, Edinburg, Shotlandiya

Arxeolog Lesli Alkok tomonidan olib borilgan qazishmalar, tepalik tepasidagi 18 gektarlik yopiq o'rmon ichidagi cho'l va dubli kulbalarni aniqladi. Shuningdek, ikkita ziyoratgoh, metallsozlar maydoni, pechlar, temirchilar asboblari va tayyor qurollar topilgan. Dalillar shundan dalolat beradiki, Camelotga kirish joyi o'n metrli toshli yo'lak edi, u darvoza minorasi ostidagi yog'ochdan yasalgan yo'lakdan o'tib, har ikki tarafdagi devor va qo'riqchi yo'lak bilan bog'langan edi. Katta yo'lakchali eshiklar bu o'tish joyining ikkala uchini yopib qo'ydi. Rim binolari vayron bo'lgan ko'p miqdordagi kiyingan toshlar devorning o'zi edi.

Artur saroyini o'rganish

Artur saroyi yaqinidagi topilmalardan ma'lum bo'ldiki, Kadberi bir vaqtlar katta ahamiyatga ega bo'lgan qal'a bo'lib, Rimgacha bo'lgan asl holatidan qaytgan va Dark asr qal'asiga aylangan.

Tepalikka olib boradigan bo'lak, ulug'vor daraxtlar xiyoboni bo'ylab sekin yuqoriga ko'tariladi. Sammitda o'tloqli plato Angliyadagi har qanday raqibga qarashni beradi.

Cadbury atrofida hayoliy ko'rinishlar ko'p bo'lgan va men tepalikka chiqayotganimda ruhlarning sovuqligini his qilganman. Men pastda Glastonberiga olib boradigan qadimiy trekning qoldiqlarini ko'rdim, ehtimol Artur va uning ritsarlari Kamelotga borib qaytishgan. Mahalliy aholining aytishicha, qish oqshomida ritsarlar hali ham bu yo'l bo'ylab yurishadi, jilov va jabduqlar bilan ovga ketishadi. Bu dahshatli manzaraga guvoh bo'lganman deganlar, qorong'uda porlayotgan nayzalarni ko'rish va itlarning umurtqa pog'onalarini eshitib turish haqida gapirishadi.

Somersetning diqqatga sazovor joylari - Glastonberi Torning qishning tumanli manzarasi

Cadbury qal'asidan unchalik uzoq bo'lmagan joyda, deydi mahalliy aholi, Kam daryosi bo'yida, Solsberi tekisligida, Artur ham, Mordred ham Kamlan jangida yiqilgan. Bir paytlar fermerlar qal'aning g'arbiy qismidagi ommaviy qabrda ko'p sonli skeletlari topilgan, bu kuchli jang bo'lganini ko'rsatadi. Bir joyda turib, men qurolli ritsarlarni, qilichlarining to'qnashuvi qarshilik va adolat ruhini eshitganini orzu qilardim.

Shundan so'ng, men Kornuolldagi Bolventordan ikki mil janubda joylashgan Bodmin Murga, Dozmari hovuziga tashrif buyurdim. Atrofda bir mil bo'lgan Dozmari hovuzi - bu kayfiyat va go'zallik o'zgaruvchan, sir va sehrli joy. Erta tongda tuman ko'tarila boshlaganida, men tasodif qilardim, ser Bedivere Excaliburni ko'lga uloqtirib yubordi, shundan keyin Artur qirol o'layotgan paytda qo'l ko'tarilib, sehrli qilichni ushlab oldi.

"Excalibur" ko'li xonimiga tashlanishi haqidagi hikoya, ehtimol, Keltlar urf -odatlaridan kelib chiqqan. Arxeologlar uzoq vaqt muqaddas ko'llarga suv ma'budasi, shifobaxsh ma'budaga qurbonlik sifatida tashlangan ko'plab qilichlarni topdilar.

An'anaga ko'ra Arturning o'limi bilan bog'liq bo'lgan bu saytlar singari, uning tug'ilgan joyi Tintagel qal'asi ham shimoliy qirg'oq bo'yidagi Kornuollda joylashgan. Qal'aning xarobalari qishloqning tashqarisida, deyarli ko'pikli dengizlar bilan o'ralgan orolda, bir paytlar materik bilan tor tog 'tizmasi bilan bog'langan.

Harobalarga tashrif buyuruvchilar piyodalar ko'prigidan o'tib, uzoq pog'onalarga ko'tarilishlari kerak. 250 metr pastda, qoyali qirg'oqqa urilgan to'lqinlarning shovqinli shamoli havoning sho'r havosiga to'la, hayajonli o'tish joyini yaratadi. Vayronalar faqat qasrning ulug'vorligini ko'rsatadi. Qolganlari - bu dramatik kamar va devorlarning bir necha qismlari, ular bir paytlar qurilish yog'ochlarini qo'llab -quvvatlaydigan teshiklari bilan qoplangan.

Go'yoki Merlin g'ori vayronalar ostida yotib, katta jarlikdan o'tib, qirg'oqning narigi tomonidagi qoyali plyajga o'tadi. Bu erda, kulrang osmon ostida, Atlantikaning bo'roni bo'ronli kunda shamol kabi baland ovozda bo'lishi mumkin. Tintagelda haqiqat va afsonani ajratuvchi chiziq ko'pincha ingichka va loyqa.

Glastonberi Tor cho'qqisi

Qirol Artur bilan birgalikda Tintagel haqida birinchi eslatma Monmutlik Jefrida uchraydi Tarix, unda Uter Pendragon Kornuoll gersogi Gorloizning rafiqasi Ygernaga oshiq bo'ladi. Uni Utherning qo'lidan uzoqlashtirmaslik uchun eri uni Tintagelga yuboradi. G'azablangan Uter Kornuollga boradi va Merlinni Gorloisga o'xshab ketishiga imkon beradigan sehrli ichimlik tayyorlashga ko'ndiradi. Shunday qilib, u yashiringan holda, qal'aga kirishda Ygerna bilan uxlashda qiyinchilik tug'dirmaydi, bunda Artur homilador bo'ladi.

Tintagelga kelgan minglab Artur ziyoratchilariga hozirgi qal'a XII asrning boshlariga to'g'ri kelganligi, shuning uchun Arturning tug'ilgan joyi bo'lishi mumkin emasligi ta'sir qilmaydi. Arxeologlar, shuningdek, Sent-Xuliot tomonidan asos solingan 6-asr Keltlar monastirining qoldiqlarini ham topdilar, ammo uni afsonaviy qirol bilan bog'laydigan dalillar yo'q.

Kamlanning haqiqiy jang maydoni

Tintagel yaqinida, Camelford yaqinidagi so'yish ko'prigi joylashgan. Bu ham Kamlanning haqiqiy jang maydoni, Arturning oxirgi jangi, u Mordredni nayza bilan o'ldirgan, ammo buning evaziga o'lik jarohatni olgan. Bir burchakda mox va g'aroyib yozuvlar bilan qoplangan tosh yotadi, uni kornişlar Artur qabri deb atashadi. Ehtimol, bu "keltlar" boshlig'i. O'lkashunoslik ma'lumotlariga ko'ra, Artur so'yish ko'prigida o'lmagan, aksincha, u qachondir qaytishi uchun chalkashlik ruhiga singib ketgan.

Afsonalarda aytilishicha, Arturning singlisi Morgan Le Fay yarador Arturni "olmalar oroli" degan ma'noni anglatuvchi kelt so'zidan Avalon oroliga olib chiqqan. Ko'pchilik uning oxirgi dam olish joyi G'arbiy mamlakat bozoridagi Glastonberi shahrida joylashganligiga ishonishadi. Kichkina tepaliklar tepasida joylashgan Glastonberi, erta nasroniylik davrida deyarli orol bo'lib, atrofdagi qishloqlarning ko'p qismi botqoq edi. Shaharning eng baland tepaligi, Glastonberi Tor (eski G'arbiy mamlakat so'zining "tepalik" degan ma'noni anglatadi) tepasida yolg'iz minorasi bor, uni bir necha kilometr uzoqlikda ko'rish mumkin. An'anaga ko'ra, ko'pincha tuman bilan o'ralgan Tor Avalon oroli edi.

Glastonberi Torni o'ziga xos minorasiz tasavvur qilish qiyin, lekin Norman davriga qadar, rohiblar Sankt -Mayklga ibodatxona qurgan paytgacha, tepalik yalang'och bo'lib qolgan. 1275 yilda zilzila natijasida ibodatxona vayron bo'lgan va u 50 yil davomida Glastonberi abboti Adam Sodberi uni qayta tiklamaguncha vayron bo'lgan. Rohiblar XV asrda minora qo'shdilar.

Garchi Arturning qabrini qidirish meni Glastonberiga olib kelgan bo'lsa -da, u erga kelganimda, xarobalarning ulug'vorligi meni kechiktirishga undadi. Manevr qilingan maysazor va ko'rkam daraxtlar orasiga o'rnatilgan Abbey xarobalari O'rta asr Angliyaning eng buyuk monastirlaridan biri bo'lib qolmoqda. Qolgan devorlarning hech biri 1184 yildan eski emas. O'sha yilning 24 mayida katta yong'in monastirni vayron qilgan. Ko'pchilik Abbey Angliyadagi birinchi nasroniy jamoasining uyi bo'lgan deb hisoblashadi. Dalillar shuni ko'rsatadiki, rohiblar va zohidlar u erda 5-6 asrlarda yashagan bo'lishi mumkin.

Glastonberining qirol Artur bilan aloqasi 1100 -yillarning oxirida abbey hududida topilgani aytilgan kashfiyot natijasida paydo bo'lgan. 1190 yilda, yong'indan keyin rekonstruksiya paytida, rohiblar qabrni topdilar, deb da'vo qilishdi. Ular tosh plyonkaga etib borguncha etti metr chuqur qazishdi, uning ostida lotincha so'zlar yozilgan qo'rg'oshin xoch yotqizilgan edi: "Insula Avallonia" kitobida Rex Arthurius, Wenneveria. (Bu erda mashhur xotini Artur Avalon orolida, ikkinchi xotini Gvinerva bilan yotadi.)

Rohiblar to'qqiz fut narida qazishdi va ichi bo'sh daraxt tanasini topdilar, uning suyaklari juda baland bo'yli odamga o'xshab ko'rinardi, bundan tashqari mayda suyaklari va sarg'ish sochlari bor edi. Uning 10 ta yarasi bor edi, hammasidan hammasi davolandi.

Qabrning ochilishi, aytganda, o'z vaqtida edi, chunki rohiblar qayta qurish uchun mablag'ga juda muhtoj edilar. Pul yig'ishning yagona ishonchli yo'li - ko'p sonli ziyoratchilarni jalb qilish edi.

1539 yilda qirol Genrix VIII abbeyni tarqatib yuborish to'g'risida buyruq bergandan so'ng, abbeyning chiroyli bezatilgan maysazoridagi oddiy belgi shoh qoldiqlari yo'qolgan qabrni anglatadi.

Qirol Artur haqiqiy bo'lganmi? U haqiqiy shoh sifatida mavjud bo'lganmi? U kelt qahramoni, hukmdori va g'olibi yoki porloq zirhli o'rta asr romantik ritsari bo'lganmi? Asrlar mobaynida u haqida juda ko'p nazariyalar ilgari surilgan va shunday yozilganki, haqiqat biroz buzilgan bo'lsa -da, bunday odam bu ertaklarning barchasini yaratgan bo'lishi mumkin emasligini tasavvur qilish qiyin.

Qirol Artur va uning saroyi haqidagi ertaklar son -sanoqsiz o'quvchilarni hayajonga solishda davom etmoqda, ehtimol biz afsonani juda ko'p bilamiz va haqiqatni juda kam bilamiz. An'anaga ko'ra Artur bilan bog'liq bo'lgan eng mashhur saytlar tarixiy tekshiruvlarga dosh berolmaydi. Arturning mavjudligini isbotlovchi hujjat yo'q va arxeologlar uning ismi bilan atalgan narsalarni topmagan bo'lsalar -da, u yo'q deb ayta oladigan hech narsa yo'q.

Yana shoh Arturning afsonasi shunchaki afsona bo'lishi mumkin - lekin agar shunday bo'lsa, bu yaxshi afsona.


Qirol Artur va#x27s afsonasi tirik

Bo'ronlar va kuchli shamollar Angliyaning janubi -g'arbiy burchagida asrlar mobaynida bo'g'ilib ketgan, lekin bu hududda yashovchi afsonalar hali ham katta.

Tintagel qishlog'i yaqinidagi qoyali tepalik shoh Arturning afsonasi bilan shu qadar bog'lanib ketganki, uning poydevori tosh toshlar va uning boy o'tmishiga ishora qiluvchi devorlar ro'yxatiga qaramay, uning haqiqiy tarixi deyarli tasodif bo'lib tuyuladi.

Turli xil she'rlar, hikoyalar va mashhur afsonalarga ko'ra, aynan shu erda, Kornish gersogining qal'asida, qirol Artur o'ylab topilgan. Hikoyaning keyingi versiyalarida aytilishicha, Artur o'sha erda tug'ilgan va bir muncha vaqt shu erda yashagan bo'lishi mumkin.

O'rta asr qal'asi Tintagelda qirol Genrix III ning ukasi Richard, Kornuoll grafi tomonidan qurilgani shubhasiz. Bu inshootning hayratlanarli qoldiqlari - qulab tushgan tosh to'siqlar va eshiklar hali ham ko'rinib turibdi.

Tintagel o'zining tarixidan qat'i nazar, haqiqiy yoki xayoliy, dengiz tepasida turgan qoyalarning ajoyib ko'rinishini taqdim etadi.

Katta chiqishlar deyarli orol bo'lib, quruqlikka faqat tor va chuqur eroziyali o'tish yo'li bilan bog'langan. Tuproqli yo'llar bo'ylab yurishni va jarliklarni o'rab turgan yog'och zinapoyalarga ko'tarilishni istagan sayohatchilar uchun vizual zavq ko'p.

Tintagelga sayohat qilganlar jarliklarda va boshi aylanuvchi qoyaning tepasida sayr qilishlari, qirol Arturning arvohini ta'qib qilishlari va sho'r havo va manzaralarni o'zlari uchun yutishlari mumkin.

Siz, shuningdek, Richard qal'asining ichki hovlisiga tashrif buyurishingiz va bir vaqtlar kemalar yuk ortilgan qumli kirishga qarashingiz mumkin.

Saytni boshqaruvchi "English Heritage" konservatsiya guruhi saytining boshlig'i Robert Tremeyn tushuntirishicha, vaqti -vaqti bilan xarobalar devorlariga ohak va qum aralashmasi surtilgan.

"Siz ob -havo qanday bo'lganini ayta olasiz", dedi u shifer plitalari orasidagi bo'sh joylarga ishora qilib. "Elementlar doim bor. Bu dengiz va bo'ronlarning tabiiy eroziyasi."

Uning so'zlariga ko'ra, Richard qal'ani Artur afsonasi tufayli qurgan bo'lishi mumkin. "U bu shon -sharafning bir qismi unga tegib ketishini xohlardi", dedi Tremeyn.

Qirol Artur haqidagi afsonaning hikoyasi birinchi bo'lib Monmutlik Jefri tomonidan yozilgan, uning yozuvchisi "Britaniya qirollari tarixi" O'rta asrlarning eng mashhur kitoblaridan biri bo'lgan, garchi u asosan xayoliy bo'lsa.

Kitobda xotini qirol Uter Pendragonning e'tiborini tortgan Gorlois ismli korniş gersogiga tegishli Tintagel qal'asi tasvirlangan. Podshoh sehrgar Gorlinni qasrga kirishi uchun sehrli ko'rinishga chaqirish uchun Merlinni chaqirdi.

Buning evaziga Merlin Utherning otasi - Arturni Merlin tarbiyalab berishini so'radi.

Richard o'z qasrini qurganida, ehtimol mahalliy kornish aholisiga yoqish uchun, ingliz merosi qo'llanmasiga ko'ra, Tintagel Artur tug'ilgan va yashagan joy sifatida tasvirlangan.

Tintagel, shuningdek, Tristan va Izoldaning mashhur sevgi hikoyalari versiyalarida paydo bo'lgan. Ko'p asrlik ertak hikoyasida bu joy Tristanning amakisi King Markning saroyi ekanligi aniqlangan.

Ammo Tintagelning turli xil o'tmishining aniq dalillari juda ko'p.

Bu hududda topilgan artefaktlar shuni ko'rsatadiki, bu bir vaqtlar Rim imperiyasining chekkasidagi forpost edi. Ispaniya, Shimoliy Afrika va O'rta er dengizining sharob idishlari va boshqa hashamatli buyumlar Tintagelga tez -tez tashrif buyuradigan qirol yoki shahzodani anglatishi mumkin.

Axloqsizlik, tosh va yog'ochdan qurilgan devor, qorong'u asrlarda qal'a bo'lganini ko'rsatadi.

XVIII va XIX asrlarda bu hudud shifer karerlari bilan mashhur bo'lib, ularda mahalliy erkaklar ishlagan.

Qirg'oq tepasidagi yo'l qorong'u asrlarda qurilgan uylarning vayronalaridan o'tib ketadi va past tosh devor bilan o'ralgan o'tloqli o'tloqqa - o'rta asr bog'i deb hisoblangan maydonga etib boradi.

Boshqa tarixiy xususiyatlarga quduq, XI asr oxirida qurilgan, o'rta asrlar darvozasi va kichik ibodatxona sifatida ishlatilgan bo'lishi mumkin bo'lgan tabiiy shamollatiladigan tunnel kiradi.

Janubiy jarliklarga qarasak, qirg'oq bo'yida ko'pikli to'lqinlar bilan qoplangan katta jarlik bor va ufqda joylashgan Tintagel qishlog'idagi binolar bor, u erda pablar va mehmon uylari tor ko'chalarda joylashgan.

Bir necha avlod tashrif buyuruvchilar, jumladan, Dikkens va Tennison kabi yozuvchilar Tintagelga sayohat qilib, bu joyni Artur afsonasining asosi deb bilishgan. Bugungi tashrif buyuruvchilar uchun uning tabiiy ulug'vorligi ham xuddi shunday foydali bo'lishi mumkin.


Artur Angliya 6 -qism: Tintagel – Arturning afsonaviy tug'ilgan joyi

Arturning Tintagel kontseptsiyasi haqidagi hikoya Monmutlik Geoffreydan keladi Britaniya qirollarining tarixi. Unda Tintagel qirol Goloris va uning rafiqasi Iggrainning qarorgohi bo'lgan. Yuqori qirol Uter Pendragon, Arturning otasi, Iggrenni birinchi qarashda sevib qoladi. Goloris jangda o'ldirilganda, Merlin uni Golorisga o'xshatish uchun Uterga sehr qiladi. U qal'aga shubhasiz kiradi va Arturni homilador bo'lgan Iggraine bilan yotadi. To'qqiz oy o'tgach, bola tug'ilganda, Merlin Tintagelga kelib, Arturni xavfsiz joyga olib ketadi. Shunday qilib, bu ta'sirli qal'a Artur afsonasiga kiradi.

Tres va men qoyalarda baland

Ha, qal'aga borish uchun hammasini bosib o'tish kerak.

Bugungi tintagel, albatta, ajoyib tuzilma. Kornish qirg'og'ida baland (va men baland demoqchiman) joylashgan, ko'rinadigan xarobalar XII asr qal'asidan qolgan. U erga borish uchun siz zinapoyalar qatoridan o'tishingiz kerak, u erga va u erga yuguradi va ko'p qadamlari 5 va#82171 dyuymli odamning o'rnidan turishi qiyin. (Mening buzoq mushaklarim hech qachon bir xil bo'lmaydi!) Lekin tepaga chiqqanda bunga arziydi. Monastir xarobalaridan tashqari, erta Keltlar aholi punktlarining bir necha tosh poydevorlari bor, bu erda siz turli binolar, hatto boshqa xonalar bo'lgan joylarni ko'rishingiz mumkin. Aql bilan aytganda, bular jarlikning eng shafqatsiz shamoldan himoyalangan qismida.

Keltlarning ba'zi aholi punktlari

Yuqoridagi yana bir nechta diqqatga sazovor joylar - bu qadimiy, akustik jihatdan mukammal g'or, uning maqsadini hech kim bilmaydi. Bu marosim uchun qilingan deb taxmin qilinadi. Devorlari qo'lda qazilgan, lekin juda silliq, ular mashinada qilingan ko'rinadi. Keyin, yassi tosh bo'lagi bor, uning ichiga deyarli mukammal doiralar o'yilgan. Shunga qaramay, maqsadni hech kim bilmaydi (qadimgi kubok egalari? :)).

Qirol Arturga qaytsak, unda tosh Arturning izi deb taassurot qoldirgan tosh bor, u erda afsonaga ko'ra, u toj kiygan va bu erga ramziy ravishda uylangan. Bu haqiqatan ham katta odamning oyog'i taassurot qoldirganga o'xshaydi. Siz ham o'z oyog'ingizni qo'yishingiz mumkin. Sohil yaqinida, Merlin shlyapasi deb nomlanuvchi uchburchak orol bor.

Merlin va#8217s g'oridan ko'rinish

Quyida bir nechta g'orlar bor, ulardan faqat bittasi materik bilan bog'lanadi. Bu g'or afsonaviy sehrgarning uyi bo'lgan Merlin g'ori sifatida tanilgan. Bu suv toshqini, biz guvoh bo'ldik, chunki to'lqin biz bo'lganimizda keldi. Bu go'zal g'or, nurni berkituvchi vertikal yoriq. Bu sehrli bo'lishi mumkin yoki bo'lmasligi mumkin, lekin men u erdagi fotosuratda orbni suratga oldim, 1000 dan ortiq fotosuratdagi yagona.

Biz g'orning tashqarisidagi suvda cho'milishga bordik, u sovuq edi va oyog'ingizni og'ritdi. Xo'sh, suzish uchun Jeymi jasur edi. Men toshlarga (o'zlarini Astroturfga o'xshagan yosunlar bor edi) suv parisi singari yopishib oldim, faqat to'lqinlar meni sochib yuborganida, beliga yaqinlashishga jur'at etdim. Do'stim Tres yaqindan ko'rish uchun palapartishlikdan chiqib, qaytib kelganida tananing pastki yarmini sezmasligini aytdi.

Men Camelot Castle mehmonxonasiga vilka qo'yishim kerak, u erda biz Tintagelda bo'lganmiz. Internetda bu haqda juda ko'p salbiy hikoyalar bor, lekin men u erda o'tkazgan vaqtimdan juda zavqlandim. Bu jarliklar tepasida joylashgan, hozirda besh yillik ta'mirdan o'tayotgan ajoyib mehmonxona. Men yangilangan xona uchun pul to'ladim, bu erda qolganlarga tavsiya qilaman. Mening xonamda to'rtta plakatli to'shak va hammom bor edi, u suzish uchun etarlicha katta edi! (Men iqtibos keltirmoqchi edim Sohibjamol ayol: "Uning vannasi Moviy banannikidan kattaroq!") Bundan tashqari, uning okeanga qaraydigan shaxsiy balkoni va pastdagi o'tlarga o'yilgan labirint bor edi. Qorong'i tushganidan keyin balkonga chiqib, yulduzlarga qaradim va siz shahardagidan ko'ra ko'proq ko'rishingiz mumkin. Bu ruhiy tajriba edi.

Mehmonxonamizdan quyosh botishi, Tintagel qal'asiga qaragan

Taom ham juda yaxshi va biz rassom bilan qarorgohda uchrashishimiz kerak edi. U juda mehribon, balki biroz ekssentrik (biz hammamiz emasmiz), lekin men uni juda yoqtirardim. Men hatto uning sevib qolgan rasmlaridan birini sotib oldim. Va men hech qachon bunday qilmayman - bu mening haqiqiy san'at asarim.

Xo'sh, Tintagel haqida nima deb o'ylaysiz? Bu Artur va#8217s tug'ilgan joymi? Menda shubha bor, lekin men sizning fikringizni eshitishni yaxshi ko'raman. Siz u erda bo'lganmisiz? Sizning tajribangiz qanday edi?


Kamelot, qirol Artur sudi

Garchi ko'pchilik olimlar buni xayoliy deb hisoblasalar -da, qirol Arturning "Kamelot" filmi bilan bog'langan joylar ko'p. Camelot was the name of the place where King Arthur held court and was the location of the famous Round Table.

Perhaps a clue to its possible location might be found in the sources we have for the legend of King Arthur. Did he exist and if so, who was he? Was he perhaps a Romano-Celtic leader defending his lands from Anglo-Saxon invaders?

The earliest reference to Arthur is in a poem dating from around AD 594. Aneirin’s Y Gododdin is the earliest surviving Welsh poem and consists of a series of separate elegies to the men of the Gododdin who died at the Battle of Catraeth (believed to be modern day Catterick in Yorkshire), fighting against the Angles of Deira and Bernicia. Nearly all the Britons were killed and their lands absorbed into the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms. In one of these elegies a reference is made to Arthur, which suggests he was already a famous figure at the time of the poem’s original composition.

Camelot, from a 14th century manuscript

This is the earliest reference to Arthur. He appears again in the ‘History of the Britons’, written in AD 830 by Nennius, where he is depicted as a heroic general and a Christian warrior. Later references date from the early 12th century, and include Geoffrey of Monmouth’s chronicle Historia Regum Britanniae (“History of the Kings of Britain”), and later, the works of Chrétien de Troyes and Thomas Malory.

Let us look at the top four contenders for Camelot.

Caerleon, South Wales

Both Geoffrey of Monmouth and Chrétien de Troyes place Camelot, Arthur’s chief court and fortress, in Caerleon, South Wales, one of three Roman legionary forts in Britain. Although the name ‘Caerleon’ sounds typically Celtic, it is actually a corruption of the Latin words castrum (fortress) and legio (legion).

The Welsh are the direct descendants of the Romano-Britons of England and Wales, who were pushed back towards the west of Britain by the Anglo-Saxons in the 5th and 6th centuries. Arthur is considered by many to have been a Romano-British leader fighting the Anglo-Saxon invaders. So the placing of Camelot in Wales at Caerleon could be quite plausible.

The legend of Arthur and his knights also appears in The Mabinogion, a collection of eleven stories collated from early medieval Welsh manuscripts, intertwining pre-Christian Celtic mythology, folklore, tradition and history.

The Mabinogion tales were written down in the 14th century but it is widely acknowledged that the stories they are based on date from much earlier than this. The four ‘mabinogi’ tales are thought to be the earliest, dating from the 11th century. Five of the remaining stories involve the legend of Arthur and his knights, even including one of the earliest references to the Grail legend. Three of the Arthurian tales are set at ‘Arthur’s Court’.

If we look at Aneirin’s poem with its reference to Arthur written around AD 594, and then look at the Mabinogion stories, it appears that the tale of King Arthur is rooted in Welsh folklore, having been passed down through the ages in the oral tradition. If so, this may suggest that Arthur may indeed have been a real person and that some, if not all, of the deeds and accounts of him may be based in fact. Or it may be that ‘Arthur’ is a composite character incorporating the deeds of several British warriors and leaders of the 5th and 6th century.

Cadbury Castle, Somerset

Another candidate is Cadbury Castle, an Iron Age hill fort near Yeovil in Somerset, referred to as a location for Camelot by the antiquary John Leland in his Itinerary of 1542. Leland fervently believed that King Arthur was a real person and did exist in historical fact.

Following the withdrawal of the Romans in the mid 5th century, the site is thought to have been in use from then until around AD 580. Archaeological excavations on the site have revealed a substantial building which could have been a Great Hall. It is also clear that some of the Iron Age defences had been re-fortified, creating an extensive defensive site, larger than any other known fort of the period. Shards of pottery from the eastern Mediterranean were also found, showing wealth and trade. It therefore seems probable that this hill fort was the castle or palace of a Dark Ages ruler or king.

Local names and traditions seem to reinforce the links between Arthur’s Camelot and Cadbury Castle. Since the 16th century, the well on the way up the hill has been known locally as Arthur’s Well and the highest part of the hill has been known as Arthur’s Palace. Cadbury Castle is also situated not far from Glastonbury Tor, a location shrouded in mystery and legend. A causeway, known as King Arthur’s Hunting Track, links the two sites.

Also, according to tradition King Arthur, the legendary ‘Once and Future King’, sleeps in Cadbury Castle. The hill fort is supposedly hollow, and there he and his knights lie, ready until such time as England should need their services again. Indeed, every Midsummer Eve, King Arthur is supposed to lead a troop of mounted knights down the slopes of the hill.

Tintagel Castle, Tintagel, Cornwall.

In his “Historia Regum Britannae” Geoffrey of Monmouth wrote that Arthur was born in Cornwall at Tintagel Castle. Indeed a 1,500 year old piece of slate with two Latin inscriptions was found at Tintagel in the late 1980s, which would seem to link Arthur with Tintagel. The second inscription on the slate reads ” Artognou, father of a descendant of Coll, has had [this] made.” King Coel (Old King Cole of the nursery rhyme) is said by Geoffrey of Monmouth to be one of Arthur’s ancestors.

Recent excavations have revealed pottery from the 5th and 6th centuries, suggesting that this place was inhabited during the Romano-British period.

So if Tintagel was Arthur’s birthplace, was it also Camelot? We cannot be sure. Certainly the spectacular and dramatic setting of Tintagel Castle fits in perfectly with the romance of Arthur’s Camelot. However the castle there today was actually built in the early 1100s and so cannot be Camelot.

Winchester, Hampshire

One of the most famous accounts of Arthur and his knights is Thomas Malory’s 15th century work, Le Morte d’Arthur, a compilation of tales about King Arthur, Guinevere, Lancelot, and the Knights of the Round Table, taken from both French and English sources. Here it is said Winchester Castle was Camelot.

For hundreds of years, a round wooden tabletop has been displayed in the Great Hall at Winchester Castle in Hampshire. It is painted with the names of King Arthur and 24 knights, and shows their places around the table. In 1976 this round table was carbon-dated to around the turn of the 13th/14th century. It has hung in the Great Hall, Winchester since at least 1540, and possibly since as far back as 1348. It was almost certainly painted during the reign of Henry VIII in the early 1500s, as it has the Tudor rose at its centre and is thought to portray King Henry as Arthur on his throne, surrounded by the Knights of the Round Table.

Whilst Winchester Castle was built in the late 11th century, it is interesting to note that in the 9th century, the town of Winchester was the ancient court and capital of King Alfred the Great, a great warrior famous for defeating the Danish invaders and a great statesman, law maker and wise leader. Coincidentally, these are all traits that the legendary Arthur was supposed to possess: a successful warrior leading his people against invaders and at the same time, a wise and gracious leader.

The locations above are only four of the many places that have been associated with the Arthurian legend of Camelot. Other possible sites that have been put forward include the Castle of Dinerth Edinburgh the Roman fort of Camboglanna on Hadrian’s Wall Colchester Wroxeter Roxburgh Castle in the Scottish Borders and more.

Unfortunately it seems likely that we will never know for sure whether Camelot actually existed, and if it did exist, where it was situated. However the legend of King Arthur and his Camelot lives on, as popular as ever.


Tintagel Castle History

Beyond the legends, there are some chapters of the castle’s history that we do know for sure though excavations, historical accounts and records.

Through the numerous digs over the years, we know that the Romans were settled on his site around the 1st century AD. Then, a little later, a Celtic king and his court used this place as a stronghold in the 6th century.

It gained monumental fame when Geoffrey of Monmouth wrote his tales in the 12th century about King Arthur. So, many notable people across England wanted to own the land of this legendary King!

These Arthurian tales inspired Richard of Cornwall, brother of King Henry III, to build a castle on top of the island in the 13th century. Little is known about what the castle was used for if he used it at all!

When the Duchy of Cornwall was created a century later, it was still being managed but eventually, it fell into decay and was abandoned by the 17th century.

Around this time, the name King Arthur’s Castle started being used to describe the fort and the legends have preceded it ever since.

Around the 19th century, excavations started to take place in the area and the ruin became a popular tourist attraction. Even today, it’s estimated that 250,000 visitors make the journey across to Tintagel Castle every year.

Tintagel Castle

The details

Tintagel Castle is open from 10am–6pm from March to September and until 5pm in October. The rest of the year it’s open 10am–4pm on Saturday and Sunday only, except during February half-term. Entry costs £8.40 for adults, £7.60 for students/over 60s and £5 for children aged 5–15. Or it’s free if you’re an English Heritage member – annual membership gets you entry to 400 sites across the country and costs £54 per adult or £96 for joint membership, and you can get three months free if you sign up by Direct Debit.

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Lucy Dodsworth

Lucy is an award-winning blogger based in Cheltenham, UK. She founded On the Luce in 2011, has an MSc in Tourism, Heritage & Sustainability from the University of Glasgow and is a member of the British Guild of Travel Writers. Ko'proq o'qish.

20 Comments

Darlene

I love this spot. I visited it many years ago and your post brought back some great memories!! Rahmat.

Glad to bring back some good memories Darlene, it’s lovely down there!

Richard

Lovely pics of a lovely place. We stayed the night there once in November and it was deserted. Nice when the sun is out, but on a grim day it is the epitome of the word bleak!

It’s pretty exposed out there – I can imagine you wouldn’t want to be out on the top on a windy winter’s day, the steps would be terrifying!

Jill Barth

So very interesting. Imagination is going now…

Yes it’s one of those places that really brings the stories to life!

Tanja

What an interesting place. I haven’t heard before the legend about King Arthur’s conception)

No I hadn’t heard of it either – definitely a good story!

Suzanne Jones

We hoped to visit a couple of years ago but it was absolutely pelting with rain – definitely one to re-visit judging by your shots. Good to know the history behind it.

I can imagine it’s pretty grim on a grey rainy day so think you made the right choice – hopefully next time the sun will shine for you!

Ladies what. travel (@LadiesWhat)

I love history & legends and going to see Arthur’s part of the world is something I’ve wanted to do but still haven’t got round to. This has inspired me to sort my act out! Keri

The are some great myths and legends in this part of the world – I only scratched the surface but would love to see more sometime!

Thisfishlikestoread

Brilliant I’ve been obsessed about the legends, hope to visit here someday!

It’s a really interesting place – and those views are just gorgeous on a sunny day!

Thebritishberliner

‘Love this piece.
Surprisingly, I don’t believe that I’ve ever been to Cornwall even though I’ve been everywhere else! At least, I might have been there as a kid, but not as an adult as I can’t remember lol!

It is a long way from pretty much everywhere else I’d spend a lot more time down there, but the coast is just gorgeous – well worth a visit sometime!

Liana

Beaaaaautiful pics and post!! I so loooooooove it!!
I’m crazy about King Arthur’s tales and I’m seriously considering to spend some short breaks in Cornwall. I was considering to stay in a cottage, because I need to take my dog with me (I don’t have anyone who can take care of him while I’m out and I found it might be easier to stay with him in a “normal” house). Do you have any tips?? What is the best place to stay that is near Tintagel, but not that expensive??

Thanks for this beautiful photos!

Thank you, it’s a great place! Cottage rentals are a really good idea, especially if you want to bring your dog. There are a lot of rental companies – I’ve used Cornish Horizons and Stay in Cornwall recently and both were really good. If you’re on a budget you might want to look inland a bit near Bodmin Moor as it’s not far from Tintagel and tends to be a bit cheaper than the coastal villages.

Shannon.Chamberlain

Love Tintagel, Spent 18 years of my life growing up down there, beautiful place, always my home! lovely to read such a nice post about my little hometown (more village!)

Such a lovely place, really enjoyed exploring it!

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How King Arthur Worked

The name King Arthur conjures up a very specific image, thanks to his enduring presence in stories, novels, plays, movies and songs. In these, Arthur is a legendary hero and visionary leader who took control of Britain during a troubled time. The fictional king unites various regional British kings against common enemies and fights off countless invaders. He also goes on a quest for the Holy Grail, a chalice Jesus used at the Last Supper that's said to contain the secret of immortality. The story goes that when Britain is most in need of his services, Arthur will return.

There are certain consistencies in every Arthurian legend, but there are also many variations and complexities. For example, in some stories, Arthur pulls his sword, Excalibur, from a stone. In others, his sword was given to him by a mysterious woman who lives in a lake. The man said to be have led to Arthur's eventual downfall, Mordred, was supposedly his son by his half-sister Morgase. But other stories depict Mordred as Arthur's nephew. Which version or versions are right?

The short answer is that it depends on your definition of "right." Although King Arthur was ranked number 51 in a 2002 BBC poll of 100 Greatest Britons, historians and scholars continue to debate whether he existed at all [source: BBC News].

The Basics of King Arthur

Before we get into the historical basis for King Arthur, let's review the basics of his story. Arthur ascends to the throne after Britain's been invaded and its king deposed. A prophecy stated that the only man who could rightfully retake the throne had to be able to pull a sword from an ancient stone. One day, a young stranger walked up to the stone and pulled the sword from it effortlessly. The peasants cheered because they finally had a king again.

In some stories, the sword that Arthur pulls from the stone is Excalibur. In others, he is given Excalibur after he breaks his first sword. This sword comes from a woman known as the Ko'l xonimi, a mysterious, nymphlike person eternally associated with the magical island of Avalon.

Arthur goes out onto the lake in a barge, and the Lady (called anything from Nimue to Viviane in various stories) stretches her hand up from the lake holding the sword. In some stories, Merlin, a wise old magician, appears at this point in Arthur's life, while in others he appears in Arthur's childhood. Like the Lady of the Lake, he's often associated with Avalon and also with pagan legends, but he's sometimes depicted as a prophet of the Holy Grail as well. After Arthur becomes king, he builds Kamelot, a castle stronghold.

In order to fight the evil forces still sacking and pillaging the countryside, he recruits the best knights in the country to join him. These knights become the Knights of the Round Table. Some knights appear again and again in the legends (and have stories of their own, apart from Arthur), including Lancelot, Gawain, Bedevere and Galahad.

During his travels, Arthur meets and marries a beautiful young woman named Guinevere. After Arthur and his knights defeat all outsiders and calm reigns over Britain, there is a period of peace and happiness at a utopian Camelot. Biroq, Lancelot, Arthur's most trusted knight and companion, falls in love with Queen Guinevere. In some versions of the legend, this secret affair is what leads to the fall of King Arthur and of Camelot. The affair is exposed, and Arthur goes to war with Lancelot after condemning Guinevere to death.

In other tales, man named Mordred tries to take both the throne and Guinevere for himself. Sometimes this is with the assistance of Arthur's half-sister, a pagan named Morgan le Fay. Ultimately, Arthur and Mordred meet at the Battle of Camlann. Mordred is killed and Arthur is heavily wounded.

As he lies on the battlefield, Arthur tells Sir Bedevere that he must return Excalibur to the lake. Bedevere resists at first, knowing the power that Excalibur holds. But finally, he casts the sword into the water and a feminine arm emerges to catch it. The wounded Arthur is taken to Avalon to recover from his wounds. In some stories, Arthur dies and is buried there. In others, he recovers and waits for the right moment to emerge and unite Britain again.

Why a round table? The idea is that all who sit at the table are equals because it has no head. The poet Wace was the first writer to mention King Arthur's round table in his "Roman de Bruit," or verse history of Britain. There are two versions of the table's origin: In one, it was given to Arthur as a wedding gift by Guinevere's father King Leodegrance (who got it from Arthur's father, Uther Pendragon). In another, the table was built by Merlin and meant to resemble the table used at the Last Supper.

The Literary History of King Arthur

Many scholars trace the first mention of Arthur to a Welsh poem called the "Gododdin," which elegizes Scottish warriors. The "Gododdin" has been attributed to a sixth-century poet named Aneirin and is often considered Britain's earliest surviving poem. Arthur is named in just one line. Other possible references to Arthur from this time period are in the "Historia Britonum" (History of Briton), written around AD 800, and in the "Annales Cambriae" (Annals of Wales), probably written a few hundred years later. Both of these texts were used as sources for multiple histories of Britain and Wales, and both are likely compilations and revisions of earlier texts. In addition, their true authors are in question, and their accuracy can't be proven.

The beginnings of King Arthur as we recognize him can be traced to Geoffrey of Monmouth. This priest and author wrote the "Historia Regum Britannae" (History of British Kings) in the early 1100s. Scholars believe that Geoffrey based this text in part on the "Historia Britonum" as well as earlier histories. Some of his contemporaries went so far as to accuse him of fabricating much of his writings.

­However, the "Historia Regum Britannae" became incredibly popular and spread throughout Europe. It influenced French writers and led to the creation of the Arthurian romance. The poet Chretien de Troyes wrote several poems about love and chivalry in the mid-1100s that incorporated tales of Knights of the Round Table. The most significant ones established the romance between Lancelot and Guinevere and told the story of the search for the Holy Grail.

The Vulgate Cycle, or Prose Lancelot, comprises prose stories that expand on de Troyes' themes and tie Christianity even more into the Arthurian legend. Not clearly attributed to an author, these stories were written between 1210 and 1230. They explain how Joseph of Arimathea, a Biblical figure who donated his tomb to Jesus after the crucifixion, brought the Grail to Britain. In a later story, Galahad, the illegitimate son of Sir Lancelot, was able to discover the Grail because he was so pure and devoted. The Vulgate Cycle was followed by the post-Vulgate a few years later, which revised and added material to the existing stories. This is the source for the Lady in the Lake myth and the tale of Mordred as Arthur's son by his sister.

Sir Thomas Malory's compilation "Le Morte d'Arthur" (The Death of Arthur) is probably the best-known version of the Arthurian legends. It was first printed in 1485 and contains the entire story of King Arthur's life, as well as the quest for the Holy Grail and stories about two different Knights of the Round Table: Sir Gareth and Sir Tristan. Up until this time, most of the retellings focused more on pagan and Celtic elements. But in Malory's version, Christianity plays a large part. For example, Guinevere becomes a nun and Lancelot becomes a monk after their affair is discovered.

Malory's version became the basis for many more retellings. This includes the "Idylls of the King" by Victorian poet Lord Alfred Tennyson, and the T.H. White novel "The Once and Future King," which led to the Disney film "The Sword in the Stone."

With such a long and varied history, it seems impossible that Arthur could have been a real person, or that Avalon could have been a real place. But some still believe.

The 1975 film "Monty Python and the Holy Grail," created and performed by the British comedy troupe Monty Python, parodies the Arthurian legends. For many people, this movie is the first thing that they think of when they hear the name "King Arthur." In the movie, Arthur travels around Britain recruiting knights for his Knights of the Round Table. Then God instructs the knights to search for the Holy Grail.

Although many of the characters and locations are from various Arthurian legends, there is no evidence to support the existence of the Holy Hand Grenade of Antioch, the Killer Rabbit of Caerbannog, or the Knights Who Say Ni! "Monty Python and the Holy Grail" continues to have a large cult following and was the basis for the Tony award-winning Broadway musical "Spamalot." It's not the first popular King Arthur musical -- Lerner and Loewe's 1960 "Camelot" also won several Tony Awards.


Tintagel Castle: Where History Meets Legend

A new exhibition at Tintagel Castle in Cornwall takes a fresh look at how fact and fiction have contributed to the history of this iconic landmark. The English Heritage exhibition explores the origins of Tintagel’s links to the Arthurian legend, and how this inspired Richard, Earl of Cornwall, to build a castle on the rugged coastal spot in the 13 th century.

Set in the castle’s visitor centre, the exhibition features exhibits in the shape of oversized open books offering an introduction to Tintagel Castle through the ages. Historic artefacts, an innovative 3D model of the island, and book sculptures representing the castle’s literary fame, bring Tintagel’s mysterious past to life.

Tintagel’s breath-taking location, perched high on the north Cornwall coast, has inspired writers, artists and travellers for centuries. The castle prospered in the 5 th and 6 th centuries as a mighty royal stronghold and a thriving port – a key part of a vast international trade network – but it was in the 12 th century that Tintagel rose to literary stardom.

Scholar Geoffrey of Monmouth first linked Arthur with Tintagel in his Britaniya qirollarining tarixi, describing it as the island fortress where Arthur was conceived thanks to the magic of Merlin. The legend has been embellished by writers through the years. It is retold in Malory’s Le Morte Darthur and Tennyson’s Idylls of the King – which has been transformed into a beautiful book sculpture for the new exhibition.

As well as exploring the stories inspired by Tintagel, the exhibition looks at the developments of the iconic landscape through time. The highlight of the exhibition is a new 3D model of the island, which shows the island changing over 1500 years of history.

Ground-breaking techniques have been used to create the detailed model. The whole island has been mapped from above with an unmanned aircraft, to collect high resolution data using a photogrammetric survey. The result is an accurate, scale model of the island and nearby mainland. A projected film and accompanying audio soundscape show the island changing through time – from thriving Dark Age settlement, to medieval fortress, through to romantic ruin.

English Heritage Senior Properties Historian Susan Greaney comments “Tintagel Castle has a unique story, where archaeology, history and legend are intertwined. The Dark Age settlement may have inspired early legends about the site, which in turn led Earl Richard to choose this location as the site of his medieval castle. For the first time, the exhibition will allow our visitors to find out more about this extraordinary history, and go on to explore the site both informed and inspired by what they have seen”.

As one of Cornwall’s most iconic historic and popular landmarks, Tintagel Castle welcomes nearly 200,000 people every year. Alongside the new exhibition, visitors can now enjoy improved facilities across the site.

The castle’s beach café has undergone a complete refurbishment, with decor combining the area’s industrial heritage with its beachside setting, and a new menu to give a real taste of Cornwall there are improved ticketing facilities on the mainland courtyard and the gift shop has been redesigned.


King Arthur: 4 more places to explore in Britain

Cadbury Castle (Somerset)

Where an ancient fort was upgraded

This Iron Age fortress was first linked with Arthur in 1542, when the antiquary John Leland claimed that Cadbury had been ‘Camelot’. Excavations here in the late 1960s demonstrated that there was indeed significant remodification of the prehistoric fort in the post Roman period, but whether this was the headquarters of a monarch who inspired the myth of Arthur is unknown.

Glastonbury Abbey (Somerset)

Where ‘Arthur’ was reburied

Glastonbury today has strong popular associations with King Arthur. This is in part due to the romantic setting of both the ruined abbey and the Tor, but also because it was here, in 1191, that monks disturbed two graves, supposedly those of Arthur and Guinevere, establishing Glastonbury as ‘Avalon’. The bones were reburied by the high altar, providing a lucrative pilgrimage attraction.

The Great Hall (Winchester)

Where a round table hangs

On the wall of the Great Hall of Winchester hangs a large round table. (The round table was added to Arthur’s story in the 12th century, and has become a potent aspect of the myth.) Dendrochronology suggests that it dates from the late 13th century and it may have been commissioned by Edward I, who was a great Arthur enthusiast.

Birdoswald (Cumbria)

Where it’s claimed Arthur was slain

Birdoswald was the Roman fort of Banna, an outpost at the western end of Hadrian’s Wall. Some have suggested that the fort provided the basis for the battle of Camlann, where Arthur fell in battle fighting the treacherous Mordred but, as with all things Arthurian, this is much disputed.

Dr Miles Russell is senior lecturer in prehistoric and Roman archaeology at Bournemouth University. Words by Spencer Mizen


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