Miloddan avvalgi 357 yil Amfipolni qamal qilish

Miloddan avvalgi 357 yil Amfipolni qamal qilish


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Miloddan avvalgi 357 yil Amfipolni qamal qilish

Amfipolni qamal qilish (miloddan avvalgi 357 yil) Makedoniya Filippi II uchun birinchi g'alaba edi va Afina bilan bo'lgan munosabatlarini abadiy buzish evaziga, uning Trakiyadagi asosiy o'rnini egallaganini ko'rdi.

Amfipolis Xaltsiditsaning sharqida, qirg'oqning ichki qismida joylashgan muhim shahar edi. U Afinaliklar tomonidan Frakiya qirg'oqlari va Qora dengizga boradigan savdo yo'llarini nazorat qilish maqsadida tashkil etilgan. Amfipolisga ega bo'lish Afinaning uzoq muddatli maqsadi edi, garchi shahar qisqa vaqt davomida ularning qo'lida bo'lgan bo'lsa ham (miloddan avvalgi 437 yilda shaharning tashkil topishi bilan miloddan avvalgi 424 yilda spartaliklarga yutqazilishi o'rtasida (keyin Afinadagi jangda mag'lubiyat). Miloddan avvalgi 422 yildagi Amfipolis). 359 yilda Afina Filipp II bilan ittifoq tuzdi, ehtimol u shaharga bo'lgan da'vosini qo'llab -quvvatlashga va'da bergan edi.

Demosfenning so'zlariga ko'ra, Filipp Amfipolisni miloddan avvalgi 364 yildan beri Afinaning qo'lida bo'lgan Makedoniya porti Pidna evaziga qabul qilib olgandan keyin Afinaga topshirishga va'da bergan. Ammo bu maxfiy shartnoma edi.

Bu ittifoq Filippni shimoliy va g'arbiy chegaralariga diqqatni jamlashdan ozod qildi. Avval u Makedoniyaning shimolidagi Paeon qabilalarini mag'lub etdi, keyin 358 yilda Illyriya qiroli Bardilisni mag'lub etdi (Erigon vodiysi yoki Link tekisligi). Bu g'alabalar Makedoniya chegarasini Makedoniya yuragidan ancha uzoqlashtirdi.

Miloddan avvalgi 357 yilda Afina ijtimoiy urushning boshlanishi (miloddan avvalgi 357-355) zaiflashdi, bu Afina hukmronligiga qarshi bir qator qo'zg'olonlarni qo'zg'atdi. Ko'p o'tmay, Filipp Afinaning zaifligidan foydalanib, yoki bu zaiflik Afina ittifoqining qiymatini pasaytirgani uchun Amfipolisga hujum qildi. Uning bahonasi shundaki, Amfipolis aholisi unga nisbatan yomon munosabatda bo'lishgan.

Diodor bizga qamal haqida qisqacha ma'lumot beradi (Diodorus 16.8.2). Filipp qamal qilish uchun dvigatellarni olib keldi va devorga qattiq va uzluksiz hujumda qo'g'irchoqlar ishlatdi. Ko'p o'tmay, u devorni yorib yubordi va uning qo'shinlari shaharga bostirib kirdi. Shahar qulaganidan so'ng, u unga qarshi bo'lganlarni quvg'in qildi, lekin qolganlarga yumshoq muomala qildi. Demosfen bizga aytadiki, Amfipoldan ikki elchi (Ieraks va Stratokl) miloddan avvalgi 357 yil Afinaga etib kelgan va afinaliklardan o'z shahrini egallashlarini so'ragan.

Filippning muvaffaqiyati Xalsid Ligasi etakchisi Olinthusni xavotirga soldi. Olinthus Afinaga uvertura qildi, ammo muvaffaqiyatsiz bo'ldi. Ular, shuningdek, Iliriya qiroli Grabus bilan muzokaralarga kirishdilar. Filipp qarshi taklif bilan javob berdi. U Afina bo'lgan Potidaea Ligasi boshqaruvini tiklashga yordam berishga va'da berdi ruhoniy 361 yildan beri va Anthem chegara hududini topshiradi. Oltinliklar Filippning taklifini qabul qilishdi va u bilan ittifoq tuzishdi. Shartlardan biri Filippsiz Afina bilan ittifoq tuzmaslik to'g'risidagi kelishuv edi.

Filipp Amfipolisni egallaganidan ko'p o'tmay, bu hududda o'z kuchini yanada kengaytirdi. Frakiya qiroli Cersobleptes Pangaen tog'i atrofidagi Krenid kon markazini egallashga harakat qildi. Bu oltin ishlab chiqarish markazi edi, shuning uchun krenidlar Filippga murojaat qilishganda, u yordam berishdan xursand edi. Cersobleptes majburan orqaga qaytarildi va tarqoq Krenid jamoalari Filippining yangi nomi bilan bir shaharda to'plandi.

Bu voqealardan ko'p o'tmay, Filipp, hech bo'lmaganda Demosfenning so'zlariga ko'ra, shahar ichidagi xoinlar yordamida Pydnani egallab oldi.

Afina Amfipolning qulashiga Filippga urush e'lon qilib, o'n yillik "Amfipolis urushi" ni qo'zg'atdi. Keyingi o'n yil davomida afinaliklar Filippning dushmanlariga tez -tez yordam berishni rejalashtirishgan, lekin ularning kuchlari deyarli har doim yordam berish uchun juda kech kelgan va urush oxir -oqibat Filokratlar tinchligi bilan tugagan (miloddan avvalgi 346 yil), xuddi shu kelishuv. Uchinchi muqaddas urush.


Miloddan avvalgi 357 yil Amfipolni qamal qilish - Tarix

(dengiz bilan o'ralgan shahar), Makedoniya shahri, u orqali Pavlus va Sila Filippidan Salonikaga yo'l olishgan (Havoriylar 17: 1) Filippidan 33 kilometr uzoqlikda, janubi -g'arbda va dengizdan taxminan uch mil narida edi. Uning o'rnini hozir qishloq deb nomlangan qishloq egallaydi Neoxorio turk tilida Jeni-Keni yoki "Yangi shahar".

Makedoniya shahri, Strimon daryosining og'zidan unchalik uzoq bo'lmagan joyda joylashgan bo'lib, u "shahar atrofida" oqardi va shu sababdan uning nomini oldi. Hozir qadimiy shahar joylashgan qishloq Amfipolisning korrupsiyasi bo'lgan Yamboli Empoli deb nomlanadi. Pavlus va Sila tashrif buyurgan, Havoriylar 17: 1.

am-fip-o-lis (Amfipolis): Makedoniya shahri, Strimonning sharqiy qirg'og'ida (zamonaviy Struma yoki Karasu) og'zidan uch mil narida, Prasias ko'li yoki Cercinitis ko'lidan oqib chiqadigan joy yaqinida joylashgan. . U shimolda, g'arbda va janubda daryo bo'yida, sharqda devor bilan himoyalangan terasli tepalikda yotardi (Thuc. Iv.102), uning porti Eion-daryo bo'yida joylashgan. Bu nom deyarli oqim bilan o'ralganidan yoki har tomondan ko'zga ko'rinmasligidan kelib chiqqan, bu faktga Fukidid e'tibor qaratadi (ko'rsatilgan joyda). U dastlab Ennea Xodoy, To'qqiz Yo'l deb nomlangan, bu uning strategik va tijoriy jihatdan muhimligini ko'rsatadi. U Frakiyadan Makedoniyaga boradigan asosiy yo'lni qo'riqlagan va keyinchalik Via Egnatiyadagi muhim stantsiyaga aylangan, Adriyatik bo'yidagi Dirraxiumdan Xevrusgacha (Maritsa) ulkan Rim yo'li va Vino Egnatiyada muhim vokzalga aylangan va u sharob, moy ishlab chiqaradigan unumdor tuman markazi bo'lgan. anjir va yog'och mo'l -ko'l va oltin va kumush konlari va ayniqsa, jun buyumlar bilan boyitilgan. Miloddan avvalgi 497 yilda Miletning sobiq despoti Aristagor u erga joylashishga harakat qildi va 465-464 yillarda Afinaliklar tomonidan ikkinchi behuda urinish qilindi, ular 437 yilda Xagnon boshchiligida u erda koloniya tuzishga muvaffaq bo'lishdi. Biroq, aholi juda afinalik hamdardlik bildirish uchun juda aralashgan edi va 424 yilda shahar spartaliklar yetakchisi Brasidaga o'tdi va afinaliklarning uni qaytarib olish uchun qilgan barcha urinishlariga qarshi chiqdi. U Makedoniya Perdikkas va Filippning protektoratiga o'tdi va ikkinchisi nihoyat 358 yilda o'z ustasi bo'ldi. Pidna jangidan keyin (miloddan avvalgi 168 yil) Makedoniyaning Rim bo'linishida Amfipolis Makedoniyaning erkin shahri va poytaxti bo'ldi. . Pavlus va Sila Filippidan Salonikaga ketayotganda bu yo'lni bosib o'tdilar, lekin bu voqea uzoq vaqt qolishga to'sqinlik qilganday tuyuladi (Havoriylar 17: 1). O'rta asrlarda bu joy Popoliya deb nomlangan, hozirgi zamonda Neochori qishlog'i (turk, Yenikeui) bu joyni belgilaydi (Leake, Shimoliy Gretsiya, III, 181, Cousinery, Makedoin, I, 100, 122 Heuzey et Daumet, Mission) arxeol. de Makedoin, 165).

Havoriylar XVII
. Sababni o'z orqasida qoldirgan holda, Pol va Silas boshqa sohani izlaydilar
mehnat (1) & quot Amfipolis va Apolloniya kirib kelishdi .
/. /mcgarvey/havoriylarning harakatlariga sharh/xvii.htm

Xiv xat. Do'sti Gregoriga.
. Shunday qilib, tekisliklar va uni chegaralovchi daryolarning buyrug'ini berish
Strimondan ko'rinib turibdiki, mening ta'zimga ko'ra, undan ham chiroyli emas Amfipolis. .
/. /reyhan/rayhon harflari va asarlarni tanlang/xiv harfi gregori his.htm

Ikkinchi missionerlik sayohati
. Filippidan ketish yaxshiroq edi, Pol va uning kompaniyasi Egnatiya bo'ylab ketdilar
Yunonistonning ikkita go'zal shahri orqali o'tadigan yo'l Amfipolis va Apolloniya .
/. /sotish/povul hayotidagi bibliya tadqiqotlari/o'rganish iv ikkinchi missionerlik sayohati.htm

Pavlus va Silas Salonikada va Beriyada.
. Shunday qilib, Filippidan chiqib, ular poytaxt Salonika shahriga jo'nab ketishdi
Makedoniya & quotAgar ular o'tib ketishganida Amfipolis va Apolloniya, ular kelishdi .
/. /dik/havoriylarning harakatlari bo'yicha ma'ruzalar/ma'ruza xix paul va silas.htm

Salonikada, Beriyada, Afinada va Korinfda Pavlusning xizmati.
. KORINTH. AD52 dan AD54 gacha. Filippidan chiqib, o'tib ketgandan keyin Amfipolis
va Apolloniya, Pavlus Salonikaga yo'l oldi. Yilda .
/. /killen/qadimgi cherkov/vii bob vazirlik of.htm

Havoriylar xvii. 1, 2, 3
. Hamdardlik XXXVII. Havoriylar XVII. 1, 2, 3. Havoriylar XVII.1, 2, 3 & quotHozir ular o'tganidan keyin
Amfipolis va Apolloniya, ular Salonika shahriga kelishdi .
/. /chrysostom/homilies on acts and romans/homily xxxvii act xvii 1.htm

Salonikada va Beriyada
. HARAKATLAR BOBI. XIII TESALONIKA VA BEREYANI TUCHLASH. 'Endi ular o'tib ketishganida
Amfipolis va Apolloniya, Salonikaga kelishdi, u erda ibodatxona bor edi .
/. /maklaren/Muqaddas Yozuvlarning ekspozitsiyalari/Salonik va berea.htm

Ep. Iv.
. Va daryo shovqin -suron bilan oqadi, bu sizga Strimon Amfipolis uchun
tinchlik va unda tosh kabi baliqlar ko'p emas va u oqmaydi .
/. /kiril/avliyo gregori nazianzenning harflarini tanlang/ep iv.htm

Masihiy ibodat.
. Hatto Pavlus Damashq, Kipr, Antioxiya ibodatxonalarida Masih haqida va'z qilgan
Pisidiyada, Amfipolis, Bereya, Afina, Korinf, Efes. .
/. /xristian cherkovi tarixi i jild/52 -bo'lim xristianlarga sig'inish.htm

Pol va Sila Makedoniyada
. shahar. Ular o'tgandan keyin Amfipolis va Apolloniya
Salonikaga keldi, u erda yahudiylarning ibodatxonasi bor edi. Kabi .
/. /sherman/bolalar bibliyasi/makedoniyadagi paul va silalar.htm

Apolloniya (1 marta)
. Easton Injil lug'ati o'rtasida Makedoniya shahri Amfipolis va
Salonikadan 36 mil uzoqlikda bo'lgan. Pol .
/a/apollonia.htm - 8k

Amfipolis (1 marta)
Amfipolis. Amfipolis, Amfipolis. Keng. Ko'p versiyali muvofiqlik
Amfipolis (1 marta). . Amfipolis, Amfipolis. Keng. Malumot Bibliya.
/a/amphip'olis.htm - 6k

Makedoniya (23 marta)
. U Makedoniya qabilalarini yagona xalqqa birlashtirdi, kuch va firibgarlik yo'li bilan g'alaba qozondi
ning muhim pozitsiyalari Amfipolis, Pydna, Potidaea, Olinthus, Abdera va .
/m/macedonia.htm - 40k

Filippi (8 ta voqea)
. Odamlar "sharmanda bo'lishdi" (Havoriylar 16: 9-40 1 Salonikaliklarga)
2: 2). Pavlus va Sila uzoq vaqt bu shaharni tark etib, davom etishdi Amfipolis (qv .
/p/philippi.htm - 36k

Salonikada (8 marta)
. U Filippida bo'lgan va u erdan Egnatiya yo'lidan o'tgan
Amfipolis va yo'lda Apolloniya (Havoriylar 17: 1). U Salonikada a .
/t/thessalonica.htm - 25k

Sayohat (111 ta voqea)
. (WEY). Havoriylar 17: 1 Va sayohat qilib Amfipolis va Apolloniya, ular kelishdi
yahudiylarning ibodatxonasi bo'lgan Salonikaga. (DBY). .
/j/journeyed.htm - 33k

Sayohat qilgan (104 ta voqea)
. (Qarang: NIV). Havoriylar 17: 1: Ular o'tib ketishdi Amfipolis va Apolloniya,
ular Salonikaga kelishdi, u erda yahudiy ibodatxonasi bor edi. (NAS ga qarang). .
/t/traveled.htm - 32k

Tifsa (2 marta)
. Ammo Aleksandr Makedonskiy o'z tashabbusi bilan transport uchun ikkita ko'prik qurdi
uning qo'shini haqida (Arrian III). Salavkiylar davrida u shunday nomlangan Amfipolis. .
/t/tiphsah.htm - 9k

Havoriylar 17: 1
Ular Amfipolis va Apolloniyadan o'tib, Salonikaga kelishdi, u erda yahudiy ibodatxonasi bor edi.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)


Tarkibi

Uchinchi Muqaddas Urushning qadimiy manbalari kam va umuman xronologik ma'lumotlarga ega emas. [3] [4] Bu davr uchun asosiy manba Diodor Siculusdir Tarix kitobi, miloddan avvalgi I asrda yozilgan, shuning uchun u ikkinchi darajali manba hisoblanadi. [5] Diodorusni zamonaviy tarixchilar ko'pincha uslubi va noaniqligi uchun masxara qilishadi, lekin u hech qaerda bo'lmagan qadimiy davrning ko'plab tafsilotlarini saqlaydi. [6] [7] Diodor, asosan, boshqa tarixchilarning asarlarini epitomizatsiya qilib, uning maqsadiga to'g'ri kelmaydigan ko'p tafsilotlarni o'chirib tashlash orqali ishlagan, bu tarixdan axloqiy saboqlarni tasvirlash edi, chunki uning Uchinchi Muqaddas Urush haqidagi hikoyasida ko'plab bo'shliqlar bor. [3]

Diodorusdan tashqari, Muqaddas Urush haqidagi boshqa tafsilotlarni Afina davlat arboblari, birinchi navbatda, buzilmagan holda saqlanib qolgan Demosfen va Esxinlar so'zlarida topish mumkin. [3] Bu nutqlar hech qachon tarixiy material sifatida mo'ljallanmaganligi sababli, ularga ehtiyotkorlik bilan munosabatda bo'lish kerak, Demosfen va Esxinlar "yolg'onchilarning ikkalasi ham, hech kim haqiqatni aytmaganiga ishonish mumkin. u uzoqdan yolg'on gapirishni xohlardi ". [8] Shunga qaramay, ularning zamonaviy yoki o'tmishdagi voqealarga qilgan chiqishlari Diodor hisobidagi ba'zi bo'shliqlarni ko'rsatadi va xronologiyani tuzishda yordam beradi. Diodor, Demosfen va Eschinlar haqidagi hisoblar boshqa yo'qolgan tarixlar (masalan, Teopomp tomonidan) va zamonaviy epigrafik manbalar bilan to'ldirilishi mumkin. [3] [4]

Hozirgi tarixchilarning urushga oid sanalari qizg'in munozaralarga sabab bo'lgan, aniq bir fikrga kelmagan. [9] Urush 10 yil davom etdi va miloddan avvalgi 346 yil yozida (sanoqli sanalardan biri) tugadi, bu urush boshlanishi uchun miloddan avvalgi 356 yilga to'g'ri keladi, Filomelos Delfini egallab oladi. [9] Diodorusning muqaddas urush xronologiyasi juda chalkash - u urushning boshlanishi va tugashini bir yil kechikkan sanaga bag'ishlaydi, boshqacha aytganda, urush 9, 10 yoki 11 yil davom etgan va har xil vaqtlarda ikki marta Methone qamalini o'z ichiga olgan. va shuning uchun uning sanalariga ishonib bo'lmaydi. [9]

Filomelos Neonda mag'lubiyatga uchraganidan so'ng, tebanliklar umumiy Pammenesni Osiyoga 5000 ta hoplit bilan yuborishni xavfsiz deb hisoblashdi, ehtimol Pammenes Filipp bilan miloddan avvalgi 355 yilda Maroneiyada uchrashgan, ehtimol uning tashqi safarida. [9] Buckler, muqaddas urush haqida tizimli tadqiqotlar olib borgan yagona tarixchi, shuning uchun miloddan avvalgi 355 yilda Neonni joylashtirdi va Pammenes bilan uchrashgandan so'ng, Filipp Metonni qamal qilishni boshladi. [9] Boshqa tarixchilar Neonni miloddan avvalgi 354 yilda joylashtirgan, chunki Diodorning aytishicha, jang Filipp Metonni qamal qilgan paytda sodir bo'lgan, Diodor (bir nuqtada) miloddan avvalgi 354 yilda. [9] Tarixlarni hisobga olmaganda, ko'pchilik tarixchilar Muqaddas urushning birinchi bosqichlari uchun bir xil voqealar ketma -ketligi to'g'risida kelishib olishgan. Asosiy savol shu ketma -ketlik qachon boshlanganida. Shunday qilib, Buckler (shuningdek, Beloch va Kloche) Neonni miloddan avvalgi 355 yilga, Metonni miloddan avvalgi 355-354 yillarga, Filippning birinchi Salonikiy kampaniyasini miloddan avvalgi 354 yilga, ikkinchi safarini esa miloddan avvalgi 353 yilga to'g'ri keladi. [9] Aksincha, Kavkvell, Seili, Hammond va boshqalar bu sanalarning barchasini miloddan avvalgi 354 yilda Neondan boshlab bir yilga kamaytirgan. [9] [10]

Urush, go'yoki, Phocian Konfederatsiyasining miloddan avvalgi 357 yilda qadimgi Yunonistonning eng muqaddas joyi-Delfidagi Apollon ibodatxonasini boshqargan Amfikton Ligasi tomonidan qo'yilgan jarimani to'lashdan bosh tortgani tufayli yuzaga kelgan. [11] Bu jarima Fokiyaliklarning Kirrey tekisligidagi muqaddas erni noqonuniy ravishda etishtirgani bilan bog'liq edi, lekin ular bu jarimani fotsiyaliklarning to'lov qobiliyatidan ancha yuqori ekanligini inkor etmadilar. [11] Oddiy sharoitlarda, jarimani to'lashdan bosh tortish, fotsiyaliklarni Gretsiyada diniy (va shuning uchun ham siyosiy) quvg'in qilib qo'ygan bo'lardi va ularga qarshi muqaddas urush e'lon qilingan bo'lar edi. [11] [12] [13]

Diniy elementning orqasida, ehtimol, namoyish bor edi realpolitik Thebans tomonidan qo'zg'atilgan foksiyaliklarga ayblov qo'yishda. Fokanliklar, miloddan avvalgi 362 yildagi Mantiniya kampaniyasiga qo'shin yuborishdan bosh tortishgan, ammo Tebanning iltimosiga qaramay, bu Fevada doimiy adovatni keltirib chiqardi. [14] Miloddan avvalgi 357 yilga kelib, afinaliklar Ijtimoiy urushga aralashgan va Feradagi Aleksandr (fotsiyaliklarning sobiq ittifoqchisi) vafot etganida, Febanlar Fokisni jazolash imkoniyati keldi, deb hisoblashgan. [14] Amfikton Ligasi, asosan, Yunonistonning markaziy markazidan (Oeteylar, Bootlar, Dolopes, Fhtiyan Axanlar, Lokriyaliklar, Magneziyaliklar, Maliyaliklar, Perrebiyaliklar, Fotsiyaliklar, Delfiyalik Piflar va Fesaliyaliklar), shuningdek, Doriylardan (shu jumladan) iborat 12 ta yunon qabilalaridan iborat edi. Sparta) va ioniyaliklar (shu jumladan Afina), har bir qabila liga kengashida ikkita ovozga ega. [15] Fevda miloddan avvalgi 360 yilda, Fessaliyada fuqarolar urushi qayta boshlanganidan so'ng, teesaliyaliklar ilgari ligada hukmron kuch bo'lganidan so'ng, liganing "himoyachisiga" aylangan edi. [16] Shunday qilib, o'sha paytda, Thebes kengashda ko'pchilik ovozlarni nazorat qilgan va miloddan avvalgi 357 yildagi kuzgi yig'ilishda tevanlar ham fotsiyaliklarga (muqaddas erni etishtirish uchun), ham spartaliklarga ega bo'lishgan. (taxminan 25 yil oldin Fivani egallaganligi uchun) jazolandi va jarimaga tortildi. [14] Har ikki tomon uchun ham jarimalar "asossiz darajada qattiq" bo'lgani uchun [11] fabonlar, ehtimol, hech bir partiya to'lamasligini va shuning uchun ham muqaddas urush e'lon qilishini kutishgandi. [17] Yunonistonda fokiyaliklarga nisbatan hamdardlik bo'lganga o'xshaydi, chunki boshqa davlatlar "Thebanlar. Amfiktoniyadan mayda -chuyda va buzg'unchi vendettalarni qo'llashganini" ko'rishgan. [17] [18]

Fociyaliklar maxsus konferentsiya o'tkazib, qanday choralar ko'rish kerakligini hal qilishdi. Ledon fuqarosi Filomelos Delfini (Phocis chegarasida joylashgan) egallab olish va Phfisning Amfikton Ligasi prezidentligiga da'vosini ilgari surish siyosatini ilgari surdi. [17] Shunday qilib, foksiyaliklar o'zlariga nisbatan hukmni bekor qilishlari mumkin edi. [19] Fokiyaliklar uning taklifini yoqlab ovoz berishdi va Filomelos tayinlandi strategik avtokrator (mustaqil vakolatlarga ega bo'lgan) konfederatsiya tomonidan, uning asosiy tarafdori Onomarxos ham saylandi strategiyalar. [19] Filomelos o'z takliflarini Sparta qiroli Archidamos III bilan muhokama qilish uchun Spartaga yo'l oldi. Archidamos Spartalik jarima ham bekor qilinishiga umid qilib, o'z qo'llab -quvvatlashini bildirdi va Filomelosga qo'shin to'plash uchun 15 talant berdi. [20]

Phocisga qaytgach, Filomelos Archidamosning 15 talantidan foydalangan holda yollanma qo'shin yig'ishni boshladi, shuningdek, Phocian fuqarolari orasidan 1000 peltastlik kuchini yig'di. [21] Taxminan miloddan avvalgi 356 yil iyul oyida Filomelos Delfiga yurish qildi, foksiyaliklar o'z jarimalarini to'lashi kerak bo'lgan davr tugashiga oz qoldi. [21] U Delfi shahrini va Apollonning muqaddas makonini osonlik bilan bosib oldi. Filomelos, Phocisga jarima solish bilan shug'ullangan bo'lishi mumkin bo'lgan Thrakidai oilasining zodagonlarini qo'lga olib, ularning xazinasiga qo'shish uchun boyliklarini tortib oldi. [21] U boshqa delfaliklarga zarar bermaslikka va'da berdi, garchi u dastlab butun shaharni qul qilib olishni o'ylardi. [21]

Ozolian Lokrian Delphi Editga ekspeditsiyasi

Filomelosning Delfiga qarshi harakatlari haqidagi xabar, asosan, Amfissadan bo'lgan ozaliyalik lokaliyaliklar tomonidan yordam ekspeditsiyasini o'rnatdi. [21] Filomelosning qo'shini Delfi shahri va muqaddas joy orasidagi kichik tekislikda lokriyaliklar bilan ochiq jangda uchrashdi va ularni katta yo'qotishlar bilan mag'lub etdi. Ba'zi asirlarni olib ketishdi va Filomelos ularni muqaddas joy (Phaidriadai qoyalari) ustidagi qoyalardan tashlab yubordi. [21] Bu Apollon ma'badiga qurbonlik qilishning an'anaviy jazosi edi va bu vahshiylik yordamida Filomelos ma'bad raisligi uchun fokiyalik da'voni ilgari surdi. [21] Buckler "Filomelos birinchi harakatlarida urushga shafqatsiz tamg'a qo'yganini" kuzatadi. [21]

Delphi Editni mustahkamlash

Lokriyaliklarni mag'lub etganidan so'ng, Filomelos Delfidagi mavqeini mustahkamlashda davom etdi. U fotsiyaliklarga qarshi hukm yozilgan toshlarni yo'q qildi va shahar hukumatini bekor qildi, uning o'rniga Afinada quvg'inda bo'lgan fokiyalik delfiyaliklar guruhini o'rnatdi. [22] Filomelos ma'badni g'arbiy tomondan mustahkamlashni buyurdi (tabiiy xususiyatlar boshqa yondashuvlarni himoya qildi) va katta ohaktosh devor qurildi. [22] Keyin u Apollon (Pifiya) ruhoniyidan unga orakil berishni talab qildi va u "xohlagan narsani qila oladi" deb javob berdi. [23] Filomelos buni oracle deb atadi va uni odatdagidek muqaddas joyga yozib qo'ydi. [23] Bu psevdo-orakl Filomelosga Apollonning xatti-harakatlari uchun ilohiy oqlanish berdi. [23] Keyin u Delfiga Phocian da'vosini tasdiqlab, Yunonistonning barcha shtatlariga o'z elchixonalarini yubordi va Apollon Bakler xazinasiga tegmaslikka va'da berdi, u yunonlar uning harakatlariga rozi bo'lishini kutmaganini, lekin qo'llab -quvvatlashdan voz kechishga umid qilganini ko'rsatadi. amfiktonlar. [23] Spartaliklar, kutilganidek, Filomelosning xatti-harakatlarini ma'qulladilar, chunki ularning jarimasi o'chirildi, Afina esa, umumiy anti-Theban siyosatiga amal qilib, qo'llab-quvvatladi. [24]

Muqaddas urush deklaratsiyasi tahrir

Biroq, Filomelosning boshqa joylardagi elchixonalari muvaffaqiyatsizlikka uchradi. Lokriyaliklar amfiktonlardan ulardan va Apollondan qasos olishni talab qilishdi va fevoniylar boshqa kengash a'zolariga elchixonalar yuborib, Fokisga qarshi muqaddas urush e'lon qilish kerakligini taklif qilishdi. [25] Bunga ko'pgina yunon davlatlari, shu jumladan amfikton kengashi a'zolari (minus Sparta va Afina), shuningdek, Thebaga yaxshi munosabatda bo'lgan davlatlar rozi bo'lishdi, aks holda taqqoslanmagan davlatlar taqvodorlik sabablari bilan Amfiktonni qo'llab-quvvatlashini e'lon qilishdi. [25] Amfiktonlar kampaniyani boshlash uchun bu yil juda ilg'or deb qaror qilishdi va shuning uchun keyingi yili harbiy harakatlarni boshlashga rozi bo'lishdi. Ular umid qilgandirki, bu orada fotsiyaliklarning qurbonlik xatti -harakatlari o'z pozitsiyasini qayta ko'rib chiqishga sabab bo'ladi. [26]

Phocisga qarshi urush e'lon qilinganidan so'ng, Filomelos o'z qo'shinlari sonini sezilarli darajada oshirishga qaror qildi. Filomelos, Phocian fuqarolar organini yig'ishdan ko'ra, yollanma ishchilarni yollashga qaror qildi, buning yagona yo'li Apollon xazinasidagi xayr -ehsonlarni talon -taroj qilish edi. [27] G'aznachilikda ko'p yillar davomida to'plangan xayr-ehsonlar ko'p boyliklarga ega ekanligi yaxshi tasdiqlangan, urush paytida fotsiyaliklar Apollon xazinasidan 10 000 talant sarflagan. [27] Yollanma askarlarning qurbonlik uchun kurashishni istamasligini bartaraf etish uchun Filomelos ish haqini ikki baravarga oshirdi, bu esa unga bo'lajak urush uchun qishda 10 ming askar qo'shinini jalb qilishga imkon berdi. [27]

Epiknemid Lokris va Fokisdagi ziddiyat (miloddan avvalgi 355 yil) Tahrir

Keyingi bahorda, ehtimol, bootiyaliklar Fokisga qarshi yurishga tayyor ekanliklari haqidagi xabarni eshitgach, Filomelos tashabbusni o'z qo'liga oldi va Epiknemid Lokrisga yurdi. [28] Fokiya armiyasi butun amfiktion yig'imidan ko'p bo'lgani uchun, u lokiyaliklardan boshlab dushmanlarini birma -bir mag'lub etishga intilgan bo'lishi mumkin. [28] Agar u lokriyaliklarni mag'lub qila oladigan bo'lsa, demak, u Termopilaning tor dovonini egallab, amfiktonning asosiy kontingenti bo'lgan Salonik va Boot qo'shinlarining birligini to'sib qo'yishi mumkin edi. [28] Shunday qilib, Filomelos armiyasi Lokrisga o'tdi, ehtimol Triteisdan Nariksgacha bo'lgan Fontana dovonidan yoki Titroniondan Kleisura dovonidan xuddi shu Lokris umumiy maydonigacha bo'lgan. Lokriyaliklar unga qarshilik ko'rsatish uchun otliq askar yuborishdi, uni fotsiyaliklar osonlikcha mag'lub etishdi. [28] Biroq, bu jang tesaliyaliklarga Termopiladan o'tib, Lokritsaga etib kelishlariga vaqt berdi. Filomelos darhol tesaliyaliklarga hujum qilib, ularni aniq bilmaydigan Argolas shahri yaqinida mag'lub etdi. Buckler topografik mulohazalar asosida zamonaviy Mendenitsa qishlog'i qadimgi Argolas bo'lishi kerakligini taklif qiladi. [28]

Keyin Filomelos Argolasni qamal qildi, lekin uni qo'lga kirita olmadi va buning o'rniga iloji boricha Lokriya hududini talon -taroj qildi. [28] Keyin Pammenes qo'mondonligi ostidagi Boeotiya armiyasi voqea joyiga etib keldi va Filomelos ularga qarshilik qilish o'rniga orqaga chekinib, bootsiyaliklarga lokriyaliklar va tesaliyaliklar bilan bog'lanishiga ruxsat berdi. [28] Shunday qilib, Filomelos amfiktonlar bilan alohida muomala qilish strategiyasida muvaffaqiyatsizlikka uchradi va endi u hech bo'lmaganda o'z armiyasi bilan teng bo'lgan armiyaga duch keldi. Shuning uchun u amfiktonlar uni jangga olib kelishidan oldin chekinishga qaror qildi va ehtimol Kleisura dovonidan foydalanib, o'z qo'shini bilan Fokisga qaytdi. [28]

Neon jangi tahrir

Filomelosning orqaga chekinishiga javoban, Pammenes Filomelosning Boeotiyaga yurishini oldini olish uchun, amfikton kuchlariga, ehtimol, Fontana dovonidan o'tib, Phocisga o'tishni buyurdi. [29] Ikki qo'shin Tithorea (uning akropoli, Neon, jangga o'z nomini beradi) ga yaqinlashdi, bu erda amfiktonlar fokiyaliklarni jangga olib kelishdi. Jang tafsilotlari juda kam, lekin amfiktonlar fotsiyaliklarni mag'lubiyatga uchratishdi, keyin tirik qolganlarni Parnassos tog'ining yon bag'riga kuzatib, ko'plarni o'ldirishdi. [29] Filomelos jarohat oldi va xavf ostida qolishdan ko'ra o'zini tog'dan tashlab, yiqildi. [29] Ikkinchi qo'mondon bo'lgan Onomarchos, qolgan armiyani qutqarishga muvaffaq bo'ldi va Delfiga chekindi, Pammenes esa Boeotiya qo'shinlari bilan Thebaga ketdi. [29]

Amfiktonlar Neondagi g'alabasi urushni samarali tugatgan degan xulosaga kelishdi va foksiyaliklar tinchlik uchun sudga murojaat qilishdi. [30] Aks holda, nima uchun Pammenes Delfiga yurish qilmaganini, hatto Kefisos vodiysidagi himoyalanmagan Fokiya shaharlarini ishdan bo'shatganini tushunish qiyin. [30] Amfiktonlar o'z g'alabalarini davom ettira olmaganlarida, urush paytida eng yaxshi imkoniyatni tugatishdi. [30] Tebanlar urush tugaganiga shunchalik amin edilarki, ular Neon jangidan ko'p o'tmay Fars satrapi Artabazus isyoniga yordam berish uchun Pammenes boshchiligidagi 5000 goplit yuborishga rozi bo'lishdi. [31] Thebanlar Artabazos taklif qilgan pulga muhtoj edilar va garchi ular Fors shohi bilan yaxshi munosabatda bo'lishsa -da, ular taklifni rad etish uchun juda yaxshi deb hisoblashgan. [31] Ehtimol, agar qo'shinlar, agar qolgan askarlari fokiyaliklar qo'ya oladigan har qanday qo'shin uchun mos deb o'ylamasalar, fokiyaliklarning jang qilish to'g'risidagi qarori aniq bo'lgunga qadar yuborilgan. [32] Bu Thebans va umuman amfikton sabablari uchun jiddiy xatoni isbotlashi kerak edi. [32]

Neondan chekinishdan keyin taslim bo'lish haqida o'ylashning o'rniga, Onomarxos fotsiyaliklarni yig'ib, urushni davom ettirishlarini talab qildi. [33] Fokiya konfederatsiyasining yig'ilishi bo'lib, kelgusidagi harakat yo'nalishi muhokama qilindi, unga afina va spartalik ittifoqchilari taklif qilindi. [33] Agar taslim bo'lsalar, fokiyaliklar o'zlarining qurbonliklari va xazinani talon -taroj qilganliklari uchun qo'shimcha jarimaga tortilishadi, ammo bundan keyin ham qurbonlik qilish uchun kurashishgan va fokiyaliklarni amfiktonlarga qarshi to'liq g'alaba qozonishga majbur qilishgan. [33] Ba'zilar tinchlikka moyil bo'lishsa -da, ko'pchilik Onomarxosning so'zlari va siyosatiga bo'ysundi, ehtimol yollanma askarlarning kuch tahdidi bilan qo'llab -quvvatlandi va urushni davom ettirishga ovoz berdi. [33] Buckler, urush paytida Fokiya konfederatsiyasi tomonidan (yoki) qabul qilingan qarorlar bo'yicha fokiyalik yollanma kuchlarning alohida ahamiyatini, shuningdek, uning fotsiyaliklar uchun qanday o'ziga xos oqibatlarga olib kelishini ta'kidlaydi: "Bu armiyaning asosiy sodiqligi. "Focian Konfederatsiyasiga emas, balki uning qo'mondoni va to'lovchisiga borar edi. Aslida, davom etayotgan urush fokiyaliklarni o'z xohish -irodasidan qat'i nazar harakat qila oladigan odamning qo'liga ishonishga majbur qildi. [33]

Endilikda uning pozitsiyasi ishonchli, Onomarchos o'zining asosiy raqiblarini hibsga oldi va qatl etdi va ularning mol-mulkini musodara qildi. Keyin u Filomelosning kuchini ikki barobar oshirib, yangi armiya qurishga kirishdi, uning ixtiyorida 20000 askar va 500 otliq bor edi. [34] Bunday katta kuchni yig'ish uchun Apollon boyliklaridan mahrum qilish kerak edi, bronza va temirdan yasalgan qurbonlar eritilib, qurolga aylantirildi, oltin va kumush qurbonliklari eritilib, tanga yasash uchun ishlatildi. [34] Garchi bunday katta qo'shinni yig'ish ancha vaqtni talab qilgan bo'lsa -da, Neomdan keyin butun qish Onomarxos uchun kerak edi. [34]

Epiknemid Lokridagi birinchi fokiy kampaniyasi (miloddan avvalgi 354 yil) Tahrir

Dorisdagi fokian kampaniyasi (mil. Av. 354 yil) Tahrir qiling

Boeotiyada birinchi fokian kampaniyasi (miloddan avvalgi 354 yil) Tahrir qiling

Fessaliyadagi birinchi to'qnashuv (miloddan avvalgi 354 yil) Tahrir

Muqaddas urush, Thessalyada yana to'qnashuvlarga yo'l qo'yganga o'xshaydi. Salonik Konfederatsiyasi, umuman, Amfikton Ligasining sodiq tarafdorlari edi va qadimdan foksiyalarga nafrat bilan qarashgan. [35] Aksincha, Pera shahar-davlati fotsiyaliklar bilan ittifoq tuzgan edi. [36] Miloddan avvalgi 354 yoki 353 yillarda Larissa shahrining hukmron klani Makedoniya Filippi II ga Perani mag'lub etishga yordam so'rab murojaat qilgan. [37] [38] [39]

Shunday qilib, Filipp, ehtimol, Feraga hujum qilish niyatida, Thessalyaga qo'shin olib kirdi. [40] O'z ittifoqi shartlariga ko'ra, Ferafalik Likofron fokiyaliklardan yordam so'radi va Onormarxos 7000 kishi bilan ukasi Phayllosni jo'natdi [38], ammo Filipp bu kuchni fereylarga qo'shilishidan oldin qaytarib yubordi. [41] Keyin Onomarxos hozir sud qilayotgan qamaldan voz kechdi va Filippga hujum qilish uchun butun kuchini Fesaliyaga olib keldi. [38] Ehtimol, Onomarxos bu jarayonda Fessaliyani zabt etishga umid qilgan bo'lishi mumkin, bu ham Tebanni yolg'iz qoldiradi (Lokris va Doris allaqachon foksiyaliklar qo'liga o'tgan) va amfikton kengashida ko'pchilikni fokiylarga beradi va shu bilan ularga imkon beradi. urush tugagan deb e'lon qilindi. [42] Onomarxos, ehtimol, o'zi bilan 20 000 piyoda, 500 otliq va ko'p sonli katapultlarni olib kelgan va Filipp armiyasidan ko'p edi. [38] [42] Keyingi kampaniyaning aniq tafsilotlari noma'lum, biroq Onomarxos Filippni ikkita mag'lubiyatga uchratganga o'xshaydi, bu jarayonda ko'plab makedoniyaliklar o'ldirilgan. [43] [44] Polyaenusning aytishicha, Onomarxosning birinchi g'alabasi foksiyaliklarga hujum qilish uchun qiyalikka ko'tarilib, Makedoniya falanksiga tosh otish uchun katapultlardan foydalangan. [38] [45] Bu mag'lubiyatlardan so'ng, Filipp qish uchun Makedoniyaga chekindi. [44] Aytilishicha, u "qochmagan, lekin men qo'chqor kabi orqamga yana qattiqroq tortdim", deb izoh bergan. [46]

Boeotiyada ikkinchi fokian kampaniyasi (miloddan avvalgi 353 yil) Tahrir qiling

Miloddan avvalgi 353 yilda Onomarxos, moliyaviy jihatdan holdan toygan Teb, Fors shohiga qarshi Artabaz, Gellespontin Frigiya satrapining qo'zg'olonini qo'llab -quvvatlash uchun yollanma askar sifatida 5 000 taban askarini yuborganidan foydalangan. U Lokrisga qarshi hujum uyushtirdi va markaziy materik Yunonistonning marshrut tarmog'ining asosiy strategik nuqtasi bo'lgan Thronionni egalladi. U janubga burilib, Dorisga va oxir -oqibat Boeotiyaga bostirib kirdi, u erda u nihoyat Chaeronea yaqinidagi ittifoqdosh bootilar tomonidan nazorat qilindi. [47]

Fessaliyadagi ikkinchi to'qnashuv (miloddan avvalgi 353 yil) Tahrir

Filipp keyingi yil yozida Fessaliyaga qaytib keldi (miloddan avvalgi 353 yoki 352 yil, xronologiyaga qarab), Makedoniyada yangi qo'shin to'plab. [43] Filipp rasmiy ravishda tesaliyaliklarni unga qo'shilishlarini so'radi, agar ular o'tgan yili Filippning o'yinidan ko'ngli qolmagan bo'lsalar -da, agar ular Onomarxos qo'shini tomonidan bosib olinmasligini xohlasalar. [48] ​​[49] Filipp endi Peraning barcha Salonik dushmanlarini yig'a oldi va Diodorning so'zlariga ko'ra, uning oxirgi armiyasi 20000 piyoda va 3000 otliq askarlardan iborat edi. [43]

Pagasae tahrirlash

Bir paytlar Fessaliyadagi yurishlari davomida Filipp strategik Pagasae portini [50] bosib oldi, bu aslida Ferae porti edi. [51] Bu birinchi yoki ikkinchi kampaniya paytida bo'lganmi yoki yo'qmi noma'lum, Buckler ham, Kawkwell ham, bu kampaniya Crocus Field jangidan oldingi ikkinchi kampaniyada sodir bo'lgan deb taxmin qilishadi. [9] [51] Pagasae -ni olib, Filipp Peraning ikkinchi yurishida dengiz orqali mustahkamlanishiga to'sqinlik qilgan bo'lishi mumkin. Bucklerning aytishicha, Filipp oldingi kampaniyadan saboq olgan va unga hujum qilishdan oldin Perani tashqi yordamdan ajratmoqchi bo'lgan. [51] [52]

Crocus Field jangi tahriri

Bu orada, Onomarxos o'tgan yili bo'lgani kabi, xuddi shu kuch bilan u erdagi fokiyalik yuksalishni saqlab qolishga urinish uchun Fessaliyaga qaytib keldi. [42] [43] Bundan tashqari, afinaliklar Filippga hal qiluvchi zarba berish imkoniyatini ko'rib, fokiyalik ittifoqchilariga yordam berish uchun Chares yuborishdi. [52] Subsequent events are unclear, but a battle was fought between the Macedonians and the Phocians, probably as Philip tried to prevent the Phocians uniting forces with the Pheraeans, and crucially, before the Athenians had arrived. [52] According to Diodorus, the two armies met on a large plain near the sea, probably in the vicinity of Pagasae. [52] Philip sent his men into battle wearing crown of laurel, the symbol of the Apollo "as if he was the avenger. of sacrilege, and he proceeded to battle under the leadership, as it were, of the god". [53] [54] In the ensuing battle, the bloodiest recorded in ancient Greek history, Philip won a decisive victory against the Phocians. In total, 6,000 Phocian troops were killed including Onomarchos, and another 3,000 taken prisoner. [44] Onomarchos was either hanged or crucified and the other prisoners drowned, as ritual demanded for temple-robbers. [43] These punishments were designed to deny the defeated an honourable burial Philip thus continued to present himself as the pious avenger of the sacrilege committed by the Phocians. [55]

Re-organisation of Thessaly Edit

Ehtimol, uning g'alabasidan keyin (agar ilgari bo'lmasa), teesaliyaliklar Filippni tayinlashgan arxon Thessaly haqida. [48] [56] This was an appointment for life, and gave Philip control over all the revenues of the Thessalian Confederation, and furthermore made Philip leader of the united Thesslian army. [48]

Filipp endi bo'sh vaqtlarida Fessaliyani hal qila oldi. U, ehtimol, afinaliklarning Fessaliyadagi qo'nish joyini rad etish uchun Pagasae qamalini tugatgan. [56] Pagasae was not part of the Thessalian Confederation, and Philip therefore took it as his own, and garrisoned it. [57] The fall of Pagasae now left Pherae totally isolated. Likofron, Onomarxosning taqdiriga duch kelishdan ko'ra, Filipp bilan savdolashdi va Ferani Filippga topshirish evaziga unga 2000 ta yollanma askarlari bilan birga Phocisga borishga ruxsat berildi. [57] Philip now worked to unite the traditionally fractious cities of Thessaly under his rule. U G'arbiy Tessaliyadagi bir nechta shaharlarni to'g'ridan -to'g'ri nazorat qilib, dissidentlarni quvg'in qildi va bir holda, Makedoniya aholisi bo'lgan shaharni qayta tiklab, Perxaebiya ustidan nazoratni kuchaytirdi va Magnesiyaga bostirib kirdi, shuningdek, uni o'z qo'liga oldi va "tugatgandan so'ng uni garnizon qildi", u Fessaliya hukmdori edi. " [58]

Thermopylae Edit

Filippi o'zining "Thessaly" ni qayta tashkil etishidan qoniqqanidan so'ng, janubga, Yunonistonning markaziy darvozasi bo'lgan Termopiley dovoniga yo'l oldi. [44] [54] [58] He probably intended to follow up his victory over the Phocians by invading Phocis itself, [58] a prospect which greatly alarmed the Athenians, since once he was past Thermopylae, he could also march on Athens. [44] The Athenians therefore dispatched a force to Thermopylae and occupied the pass there is some debate as to whether other contingents may have joined the Athenians at Thermopylae. The Athenians were certainly there, since the Athenian orator Demosthenes celebrated the defense of the pass in one of his speeches. [59] Cawkwell suggests that the Athenian force was the one that Diodorus says was dispatched under Nausicles consisting of 5,000 infantry and 400 cavalry, and that they were joined by the remnants of the Phocians and the Pheraean mercenaries. [54] However, Buckler argues that Diodorus never mentions Thermopylae, and the force under Nausicles was sent to help the Phocians the following year instead, he believes that another Athenian force held the pass unassisted. [59] Although it might have proved possible to force the pass, Philip did not attempt to do so, preferring not to risk a defeat after his great successes in Thessaly. [44] [59]

Meanwhile, the Phocians regrouped under Onomarchos's brother, Phayllos. After the huge Phocian defeats at Neon and Crocus Field, Phayllos had to resort to doubling the pay for mercenaries, in order to attract enough to replenish his army. [60] Despite their defeats however, the majority of the Phocians were still in favour of continuing the war. [60] Over the winter of that year, Phayllos engaged in diplomatic efforts to gather more support from Phocis's allies, and succeeding in widening the theatre of conflict in the next campaigning season. [60] Uniquely in Greek history, the Phocians were able to absorb huge losses in manpower, thanks to their pillaging of Temple of Apollo, a factor which was to contribute to the war dragging on indecisively until 346 BC. [60]

Third Phocian campaign in Boeotia (352 BC) Edit

First conflict in the Peloponnese (352 BC) Edit

Second Phocian campaign in Epicnemidian Locris (351 BC) Edit

Second conflict in the Peloponnese (351 BC) Edit

Fourth Phocian campaign in Boeotia (351 BC) Edit

Second Boeotian campaign in Phocis (349 BC) Edit

Fifth Phocian campaign in Boeotia (349 BC) Edit

Euboea (349–348 BC) Edit

Third Boeotian campaign in Phocis (348 BC) Edit

Sixth Phocian campaign in Boeotia (347 BC) Edit

Fourth Boeotian campaign in Phocis (347 BC) Edit

Philip had not involved himself in the Sacred War since his victory at the Crocus Field in 352 BC. In the meantime, it had become clear that the Sacred War could only be ended by outside intervention. [61] The Phocians had occupied several Boeotian cities, but were running out of treasure to pay their mercenaries conversely, the Thebans were unable to act effectively against the Phocians. [61] The Phocian general Phalaikos was removed from his command in 347 BC, and three new generals appointed, who successfully attacked Boeotia again. [62]

Thebanliklar Filippdan yordam so'rab murojaat qilishdi va u ularga yordam berish uchun kichik kuch yubordi. [61] Philip sent force enough to honour his alliance with Thebes, but not enough to end the war—he desired the glory of ending the war personally, in the manner of his choosing, and on his terms. [61] [62]

Preliminaries Edit

Athens and Macedon had been at war since 356 BC, after Philip's capture of the Athenian colonies of Pydna and Potidea. Philip had then been drawn into the Sacred War, on behalf of the Thessalians, as described above. Since Athens was also a combatant in the Sacred War, the war between Athens and Macedon was inextricably linked with the progress of the Sacred War. In 352 BC, Philip's erstwhile ally, the Chalkidian League (led by Olynthos), alarmed by Philip's growing power, sought to ally themselves with Athens, in clear breach of their alliance with Philip. In response, Philip attacked Chalkidiki in 349 BC, and by 348 BC, had completely destroyed the Chalkidian League, razing Olynthos in the process. The prominent Athenian politician Philocrates had suggested offering Philip peace in 348 BC, during the Olynthian war. [63] The war between Athens and Philip thus continued through 347 BC, as did the Sacred War. [63]

In early 346 BC, Philip let it be known that he intended to march south with the Thessalians, though not where or why. [61] The Phocians thus made plans to defend Thermopylae, and requested assistance from the Spartans and the Athenians, probably around 14 February. [61] The Spartans dispatched Archidamus III with 1,000 hoplites, and the Athenians ordered everyone eligible for military service under the age of 40 to be sent to the Phocians' aid. [61] However, between the Phocians' appeal and the end of the month, all plans were upset by the return of Phalaikos to power in Phocis the Athenians and the Spartans were subsequently told that they would not be permitted to defend Thermopylae. [61] It is not clear from the ancient sources why Phalaikos was returned to power, nor why he adopted this dramatic change of policy. Cawkwell suggests, based on remarks of Aeschines, that the Phocian army restored Phalaikos because they had not been properly paid, and further that Phalaikos, realizing that the army could not be paid and that the Phocians could no longer hope to win the war, decided to try to negotiate a peace settlement with Philip. [64]

Peace between Macedon and Athens Edit

Afinaliklar bu xabarni qabul qilib, siyosatni tez o'zgartirdilar. Agar Termopilani endi himoya qila olmasalar, Afina xavfsizligi kafolatlanmaydi. [64] By the end of February, the Athenians had dispatched an embassy, including Philocrates, Demosthenes and Aeschines, to Philip to discuss peace between Athens and Macedon. [64] The embassy had two audiences with Philip, in which each side presented their proposals for the terms of the peace settlement. Keyin elchixona Afinaga qaytib keldi va Afina Assambleyasiga taklif qilingan shartlarni taqdim etdi, shuningdek Makedoniyaning Afinadagi elchixonasi Filipp tomonidan kelishuvni yakunlash huquqiga ega edi. [65] On 23 April, the Athenians swore to the terms of the treaty in the presence of the Macedonian ambassadors. [65]

Embassies to Philip Edit

After agreeing to the peace terms with Macedonian ambassadors in April, the Athenians dispatched a second embassy to Macedon, to extract the peace oaths from Philip this embassy travelled to Pella at a relaxed pace, knowing that Philip was away on campaign against the Thracian king Kersebleptes. [66] When they arrived, the Athenians (again including Demosthenes and Aeschines) were rather surprised to find embassies from all the principal combatants in the Sacred War were also present, in order to discuss a settlement to the war. [67]

When Philip returned from Thrace he received both the Athenian and other embassies. [67] The Thebans and Thessalians requested that he take the leadership of Greece, and punish Phocis conversely, the Phocians, supported by the Spartans and the Athenian delegations, pleaded with Philip not to attack Phocis. [67] Philip, however, delayed making any decisions "[he] sought by every means not to reveal how he intended to settle things both sides were privately encouraged to hope that he would do as they wanted, but both were bidden not to prepare for war a peacefully arranged concordat was at hand" he also delayed taking the oaths to the Peace of Philocrates. [68] Military preparations were ongoing in Pella during this period, but Philip told the ambassadors that they were for a campaign against Halus, a small Thessalian city which held out against him. [68] He departed for Halus before making any pronouncements, compelling the Athenian embassy to travel with him only when they reached Pherae did Philip finally take the oaths, enabling the Athenian ambassadors to return home. [68]

Occupation of Thermopylae Edit

It was in the aftermath of finally ratifying the Peace that Philip applied the to'ntarish. He had persuaded the Athenians and other Greeks that he and his army was heading for Halus, but it seems certain that he also sent other units straight to Thermopylae. [68] Thus, when he swore oaths to the Athenian assembly in Pherae, his troops were already very close to Thermopylae by the time the Athenian ambassadors arrived home (9 July), Philip was already in possession of the pass. [68] By delaying the oaths, and making what was effectively a feint against Halus, he prevented the Athenians from seeing their imminent danger, and from having time to garrison the Thermopylae. [69] [70]

Peace settlement Edit

All of central and southern Greece was now at Philip's mercy, [70] and the Athenians could not now save Phocis even if they abandoned the peace. [71] However, the Athenians were still ignorant of this turn of events when Phocian ambassadors came to Athens to plead for military aid around 9 July. [71] The Athenian council recommended that the peace be rejected, and Thermopylae be occupied in order to help save Phocis since, as far at the Athenian embassy knew, Philip's troops were still in Pherae, there seemed to be ample time to occupy the pass. [71] By 12 July the news that Philip was "in the gates" arrived in Athens the Athenians then knew that the situation was hopeless, and instead of acting on the previous recommendation of the council, the Assembly instead passed a motion re-affirming the Peace of Philocrates. [71]

Now that he was in control of Thermopylae, Philip could be certain of dictating the terms of the end of the Sacred War, since he could now use force against any state that did not accept his arbitration. He began by making a truce with Phalaikos on 19 July Phalaikos surrendered Phocis to him, in return for being allowed to leave with his mercenaries and go wherever he wished. [70] [72] Cawkwell suggests that Phalaikos probably collaborated with Philip in 346 BC, allowing Philip to take Thermopylae in return for lenience for him and his men. [69] Otherwise, it is difficult to see how Philip could have advertised his campaign so far in advance (and been so confident of success), and yet not been stopped at Thermopylae. [69] Philip restored to Boeotia the cities that Phocis had captured during the war (Orchomenos, Coroneia and Corsiae), and then declared that the fate of Phocis would not be decided by him, but by the Amphictyonic Council. This caused great panic in Athens, since the Phocians could never hope for mercy from the Amphictyons, and since Athens had also (having allied with Phocis) shared in the same sacrilege. [73] However, it is clear that Philip was dictating the terms behind the scenes [74] [75] allowing the Amphictyons the formal responsibility allowed him to dissociate himself from the terms in the future. [74]

Urushni tugatish evaziga, Makedon Amfikton kengashining a'zosi bo'ldi va Phocisdan ajratilgan ikkita ovozni oldi. [73] This was an important moment for Philip, since membership of the Ampictyony meant that Macedon was now no longer a 'barbarian' state in Greek eyes. [76] The terms imposed on Phocis were harsh, but realistically Philip had no choice but to impose such sanctions he needed the support of the Thessalians (sworn enemies of Phocis), and could not risk losing the prestige that he had won for his pious conduct during the war. [70] [77] However, they were not as harsh as some of the Amphictyonic members had suggested the Oeteans had demanded that the traditional punishment for temple robbers of being pushed over a cliff be carried out. [73] Aside from being expelled from the Amphictyonic council, all the Phocian cities were to be destroyed, and the Phocians settled in 'villages' of no more than fifty houses the money stolen from the temple was to be paid back at a rate of 60 talents per year [75] He did not, however, destroy the Phocians, and they retained their land. [73] The Athenians, having made peace with Philip, were not penalised by the Amphictyonic council, and the Spartans also seem to have escaped lightly. [b] [78] Philip presided over the Amphictyonic festival in the autumn, and then much to the surprise of the Greeks, he went back to Macedon and did not return to Greece for seven years. He did however retain his access, by garrisoning Nicaea, the closest town to Thermopylae, with Thessalian troops. [78]

The destruction of the Phocian cities and the heavy fine imposed on the Phocian confederation certainly caused the Phocians to bear a grudge against Philip II. Seven years later the Locrians brought charges against the Athenians in the amphictyonic council and a special session of the council was set in order to deal with that matter. The Athenians, however, did not send envoys and neither did the Thebans. This was a clear insult to the council and Philip II intervened once more as a regulator. The Fourth Sacred War broke out, ending in the total subjugation of Greece to the kingdom of Macedonia. The Phocians recovered gradually from the repercussions of the Third Sacred War and managed to be reinstated in the Amphictyony in 279 BC, when they joined forces with the Aetolian League fighting against the Gauls. However, a serious side-loss of the Third Sacred War remained the destruction of a large number of ex votos and other precious offerings to the sanctuary of Apollo, which deprived not only the sanctuary itself but also the later generations of some magnificent pieces of art.


Philip of Macedonia

Philip II was born as the youngest son of the King of Macedonia during the era of the Theban Hegemony. He was taken as a hostage to Thebes for much of his youth, and there learned the military arts and diplomacy at the court of Epaminondas. This had a profound effect on upon the young man, and he returned to Macedonia at age 22 with advanced ideas for the reorganization of his father's kingdom.

A SSASSINATION OF P HILIP OF M ACEDON
After the deaths of his elder brothers, Philip became king of Macedonia in 359 B . C ., and immediately began to put into practice some of his ideas for reforming the military and administration of his kingdom. He first turned his attention to the surrounding hill tribes and established Macedonian authority all over the surrounding regions. Over the next few years he attacked several of the major towns on the Thracian sea-board, and expanded Macedonian influence over Thrace. Eventually he was emboldened to take Amphipolis, a very important colony formerly allied with Athens, which controlled the gold mines of Pangion. (This town later was renamed Philipolis, and was the subject of Paul's letters To the Philippians .) During this period, Athens was attempting to rebuild her empire, but suffered numerous setbacks, and Philip used his behind-the-scenes influence to encourage several colonies to revolt. Some statesmen, such as Demosthenes, could see the danger of the increasingly influential Macedonians, and railed against him, but to no permanent avail. During this period Philip also married Olympias, a princess of Epirus, and his son Alexander was born.

In 355 B . C. the Sacred War broke out and Philip used this war to further his own aims. The sacred war was fought primarily in Phocis and Boeotia, but involved all of the cities of the Amphictyonic Council which were charged with protecting the temple of Delphi. By offering to "come to the defense" of Delphi, and with generous use of his newly won gold mines, he established "friendly" relations with ambassadors throughout Greece, and used these diplomatic relationships to create alliances and increase his influence, just as effectively as he used force in Thrace. By 352 he had brought all of Thessaly under his control, but was finally resisted at the pass of Thermopylae by an army of united Greeks, led by Athens and Sparta. This was but a temporary setback however. Later that year he won a terrific victory over the Phocians, which gave him nearly complete control of northern Greece. He did not attempt to bring his armies south for six more years however, and preoccupied himself by furthering his influence and consolidating power in the Balkans, while continuing to interfere in the affairs of the southern Greeks by diplomatic means. Eventually he brought all of the northern cities formerly allied with Athens under his control, and even inspired Euboea to rebel from Athens.

During the period after the Sacred Wars, Demosthenes continued to rail against Philip, but political opinion in Athens was not united against him, and the city did nothing. Sparta, refused to make an alliance with Philip, but on the other hand, did not take a leadership position in resisting him, since her dominions in the Peloponnese were not immediately threatened. Most of Philips military activity during this period continued to be in Thrace, where he won uniform victories until, in 339 B . C ., embarking on an unsuccessful siege of Byzantium. This military set back provided an opening for his enemies in southern Greece, who took the opportunity to unite against him. Thebes and Athens led a united Greek army at the


New inscriptions found

Greek news site Ekathimerini reports that new evidence has emerged that may finally solve the mystery of the tomb’s original owner.

During a conference in Thessaloniki, Peristeri and her head architect Michalis Lefantzis announced that they found three inscriptions within the Amphipolis tomb with the monogram of Hephaestion, a general, and the closest friend of Alexander the Great. The inscriptions are project contracts for the construction of the monument.

According to the Greek Reporter , the inscriptions suggest that the monument was commissioned by a powerful individual of that era, and Peristeri maintains that individual may have been Alexander himself.

The monogram of Hephaestion found in three separate inscriptions within the Amphipolis tomb. Credit: Greek Ministry of Culture


Siege of Amphipolis, 357 BC - History

I n the winter of 424 BC, the Spartan commander Brasidas drew near the city and appealed to the residents who were troubled under the Athenian rule.As a result of this, he was able to capture the colony without any bloodshed.

Philippi Photo Credit: Leonora (Ellie) Enking

The Athenians received the bad news and sent Thucydides to the rescue but it was rather late. Brasidas had already gathered allied forces from nearby locations. The loss of Amphipolis played a pivotal role in Athens holding Thucydides responsible and exiling him.

But despite Sparta’s victory, the lack of permanent reinforcements resulted in Brasidas entering a truce with Athens in order to keep the ground he had gained.

The Lion of Amphipolis Photo Credit: Derek Winterburn

And although there were voices calling for a peaceful solution from both sides, the Athenian statesmen and general Kleon wanted to keep fighting. And when he was elected as one of Athen’s strategists, the fight for Amphipolis resumed.

He made sure new reinforcements from Thrace and Macedonia arrive alongside the Athenian soldiers but emerged as a hesitant general thought out the fight, sending contradictory signals to his men regarding the timing of the attack or retreat.

Lion of Amphipolis Photo Credit: Andy Montgomery

Brasidas has a much more specific plan but couldn’t match Athens’ numerical superiority. He had positioned his men in an area so as to have full view of the opponent’s moves and planned to move forward in two different stages. However, before his plan could be set into motion, the Athenian’s retreated back to Eion Port.

After a two year on and off struggle, Sparta finally captured Amphipolis but during the battle, both Brasidas and Kleon were killed.

The remains of the ancient bridge over the River Strymon near Amphipolis Photo Credit: Claire Cox

As far as Thucydides is concerned, his discharge brought up a different course for his life and for humanity as he was then fully devoted in recording events.

In the aftermath of the Amphipolis battle, hostility between Sparta and Athens was decreased. And the death of both Brasidas and Kleon spurred efforts to bring peace, a treaty for which was brought by Nicias. It called for fifty years of reconciliation but was broken within a decade.


Tarkibi

Pollux once showed off the award he received after he won the games at Amphipolis.("Winner Take All")

At one point, Strife suggested that Ares start a rockslide in Amphipolis and blame it on the Poteidaians.

Backstory [ edit | manbani tahrirlash]

Xena grew up in her mother, Cyrene's tavern with her brothers Lyceus and Toris. Her father, Atrius, was often abroad at war for long periods. Either he suddenly returned home from war one day and conceived Xena with Cyrene (it was suggested, however, that it was in fact Ares in Atrius's form). Later, he tried to murder the baby Xena and was killed by Cyrene.

Much later, when Xena was growing up Amphipolis was attacked by the warlord Cortese. Xena rallied the villagers to defend themselves, resulting in the death of Lyceus and many other villagers and the estrangement of Toris. Many of the villagers blamed her and hated her for their deaths. Xena drove Cortese's army away and began to take control of the surrounding villages as a "buffer zone" against further attacks. This began Xena's path of darkness, which led eventually to her becoming the "Destroyer of Nations".

XWP Season 1 [ edit | manbani tahrirlash]

Around ten years large, Xena returned home to Amphipolis, perhaps in the hope of reconciling with her mother. On arriving her mother Cyrene disowned her and the villagers told her to leave. Unfortunately, the warlord Draco had followed Xena and threatened the village. Xena was able to defeat Draco and proved to Cyrene that she had indeed changed. Xena, with Gabrielle in tow, then departed to begin her quest for redemption in earnest."(Sins of the Past")

XWP Season 2 [ edit | manbani tahrirlash]

In an alternate reality shown to her by the Fates, Xena discovered that if she had refused to defend Amphipolis years before, Lyceus would indeed still be alive, living with Xena and her fiancé Maphias in Amphipolis. But while Lyceus lived, Cyrene had been killed instead. The warlord Mezentius ruled the village with Gabrielle as his slave, calling her his "sweet thing". Xena was unable to abide this dark reality, particularly when Gabrielle killed Mezentius with a savage delight. Realizing that this reality wasn't worth it, Xena drew the blood of another warlord and returned to the normal timeline. ("Remember Nothing")

No long thereafter, the villagers of Amphipolis were locked up in a cave by Callisto, who intended to burn them all alive in revenge for the (accidental) fiery destruction of Cirra by Xena years before. Xena chased Callisto to Amphipolis and managed to free the villagers. ("Intimate Stranger")

XWP Season 3 [ edit | manbani tahrirlash]

XWP Season 4 [ edit | manbani tahrirlash]

XWP Season 5 [ edit | manbani tahrirlash]

XWP Season 6 [ edit | manbani tahrirlash]

At some point following their entombment in ice, Mephistopheles, the King of Hell, used Cyrene's inn as a beachhead for his takeover of the mortal realm, sending vengeful spirits to haunt the inn and torture any who set foot within. Cyrene herself was seen as the source of these demons, and was burned as a witch. When Xena and Gabrielle finally awoke, they were horrified to learn what had happened. They resolved to stop Mephistopheles, with Xena eventually bringing him to the mortal realm and then killing him, freeing Cyrene's spirit and banishing the demons back to Hell.

Unfortunately, the portal to Hell remained open, and proceeded to corrupt the colonists who had come to repopulate Amphipolis. Seeking to save the town and avert her new destiny to become the Queen of Hell, Xena tricked the archangel Lucifer into committing the Seven Deadly Sins, turning him into a new archdemon and the new King of Hell.


Battle of Tanagra (457 BC)

Battle of Tanagra in 457 BC was a battle in the Megarid between the Athenians and Corinthians, and campaign of Lacedaemonians in Doris.

An Athenian army, 15,000 strong, under the conduct of Myronides, entered Boeotia to protect its independence and delivered battle at Tanagra in 457 BC. The two armies met at Tanagra in a battle marked by bloody slaughter on both sides.

Spartan warrior
Animated by this exhortation, they fought with so much valour that they all perished but the Athenians lost the battle by the treachery of the Thessalian. This defeat, however, was repaired a few weeks afterwards, by a complete victory over the Thebans at Cenophytam in the plain of Tanagra.

There was great slaughter on both sides but the Thessalian horsemen deserted during the combat, and the Lacedaemonians gained victory.

The Spartan won the day but quickly withdrew fighting through the Megarid, their ability to capitalize in the victory an early sign of vulnerability to casualties because of the chronic lack of citizen manpower at Sparta.

The victory was not sufficiently decisive to enable the Lacedaemonians to invade Attica but it served to secure them an unmolested retreat, after partially ravaging the Megarid through the passes of the Geraneia.
Battle of Tanagra (457 BC)


Demosthenes

Demosthenes is one of the most famous orators of ancient times, and many of his speeches were preserved and studied by students of rhetoric for hundreds of years. He lived some years after the Golden age of Athens in a period of decline, and constantly exhorted his fellow-citizens to return to their former habits of courage and self-reliance, but to little avail. His great nemesis was Philip II of Macedonia, who during the lifetime of Demosthenes was slowly becoming an over-lord of all of Greece using both military and diplomatic methods. Demosthenes warned against acquiescing to Philip, but failed to inspire his townsmen to act until it was too late.

D EMOSTHENES PRACTICING ORATORY .
The story of Demosthenes evolution as an orator is especially notable because he was not a naturally talented or confident speaker as a youth, but rather, a relatively poor one. He gained his reputation mainly through hard work, and improved his speaking abilities by various methods such as shouting to be heard above the crashing of the ocean waves, and spending many hours in his studio preparing his speeches. He eventually became a prosperous lawyer and when Philip of Macedonia began involving himself in the affairs of Greece, he became increasingly involved in politics.

In around 357 B . C. Athens became involved in a Social War with some of her colonies. At nearly the same time, the Sacred War broke out between Thebes and Phocis. Philip II used both of these conflicts to increase his influence over northern Greece and several of Athens' allies in the Aegean. Demosthenes saw the danger of Philip's designs early and began delivering speeches warning of the Macedonian threat, but many of his fellow-citizens were willing to make alliances with Philip in order to oppose Thebes and avoid going to war. Philip's encroachments and Demosthenes' warnings persisted for many years before the fatal Battle of Chaeronea , after which Athens submitted to an alliance under terms highly favorable to Macedonia. For the next twelve years, Demosthenes had no real choice but to submit to Macedonian rule, and only by the intervention of a well respected general was he spared permanent exile. On the death of Alexander in 323 B . C. however, he helped inspire a rebellion against Macedonia. When the rebellion was put down, he fled to a temple and there ended his own life.


Brasidas

Brasidas was one of the most important Spartan generals in first decade of the Peloponnesian War. He won his first laurels by the relief of Methone, which was besieged by the Athenians (431 B . C .). Later (425) he distinguished himself in the assault on the Athenian position at Pylos, during which he was severely wounded. It was the following year, however, that he began a campaign of conquest in Thrace that brought Sparta some of its greatest successes in the war, and put them in a strong position during the negotiations of the Peace of Nicias in 421.

H E BECAME A TARGET FOR EVERY ARROW .
In 424 B . C. year, while Brasidas mustered a force at Corinth for a campaign in Thrace, he frustrated an Athenian attack on Megara, and immediately afterwards marched through Thessaly at the head of 700 helots and 1000 Peloponnesian mercenaries to join the Macedonian king Perdiccas. His good nature and excellent statesmanship helped him win many of the towns in the region to the Spartan cause. The most important of these was Amphipolis, which had previously been an ally of Athens. When Athens found out the Spartans were approaching Amphipolis they sent Thucydides with a fleet to intervene, but he did not arrive in time to save the city. It was for this offense that Thucydides, who later wrote the famous history of the Peloponnesian War, was exiled from Athens.

In the spring of 423 B . C. a truce was concluded between Athens and Sparta, but its effectiveness was at once imperilled by Brasidas's refusal to give up Scione. The town had revolted two days after the truce began and Brasidas shortly afterward occupied Mende. An Athenian fleet under Nicias and Nicostratus recovered Mende and blockaded Scione, which fell two years later (421 B . C .). In April 422 Cleon, leader of the war party in Athens was despatched to Thrace, where he prepared for an attack on Amphipolis. But a carelessly conducted reconnaissance gave Brasidas the opportunity for a vigorous and successful sally. The Athenian army was routed with a loss of 600 men and Cleon was slain. On the Spartan side only seven men are said to have fallen, but amongst them was Brasidas. He was buried at Amphipolis with impressive pomp, and for the future was regarded as the founder of the city and honoured with yearly games and sacrifices.

Brasidas united the personal courage characteristic of Spartans with those virtues in which the typical Spartan was most signally lacking. He was quick in forming his plans and carried them out without delay or hesitation, and with an oratorical power rare amongst the Lacedaemonians he combined a conciliatory manner which everywhere won friends for himself and for Sparta.


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