Isroil davlati e'lon qilindi

Isroil davlati e'lon qilindi


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1948 yil 14 mayda Tel-Avivda yahudiy agentligi raisi Devid Ben-Gurion Isroil davlatini e'lon qilib, 2000 yildan keyin birinchi yahudiy davlatini tuzdi. Ben-Gurion Isroilning birinchi bosh vaziri bo'ldi.

Uzoqdan, o'sha kuni ingliz qo'shinlari chiqib ketgandan so'ng, yahudiylar va arablar o'rtasida boshlangan janglardan qurollarning shovqini eshitildi. O'sha kuni kechqurun Misr Isroilga havo hujumini boshladi. Tel -Avivda elektr ta'minoti o'chirilganiga va arablar istilo qilganiga qaramay, yahudiylar yangi xalqning tug'ilganini, ayniqsa Qo'shma Shtatlar yahudiy davlatini tan olgani haqida xabar olgandan keyin, quvonch bilan nishonladilar. Yarim tunda Isroil davlati Britaniyaning Falastindagi mandati tugashi bilan rasman vujudga keldi.

Zamonaviy Isroilning kelib chiqishi 19 -asrning oxirida Rossiya imperiyasidagi yahudiylar tomonidan ta'qiblarga uchraganidan keyin hududiy yahudiy davlatini tuzishga chaqirgan sionizm harakatidan kelib chiqqan. 1896 yilda yahudiy-avstriyalik jurnalist Teodor Gertsl nufuzli siyosiy risolani nashr etdi Yahudiy davlati, yahudiy davlatining tashkil etilishi yahudiylarni antisemitizmdan himoya qilishning yagona yo'li ekanligini ta'kidladi. Herzl 1897 yilda Shveytsariyada birinchi sionistik Kongressni chaqirib, sionizmning etakchisiga aylandi. Yahudiylarning asl uyi bo'lgan Usmonli nazorati ostida bo'lgan Falastin yahudiy davlati uchun eng maqbul joy sifatida tanlandi va Gertsl Usmonli hukumatiga ariza berishdan muvaffaqiyatsiz o'tdi. nizom

Muvaffaqiyatsiz 1905 yildagi rus inqilobidan so'ng, Sharqiy Evropa va Rossiya yahudiylari o'sib borayotgan Falastinga ko'chib kela boshladilar, bundan oldin kelgan bir necha ming yahudiylarga qo'shildilar. Yahudiy ko'chmanchilar ibroniy tilini so'zlashuv tili sifatida ishlatishni talab qilishdi. Birinchi jahon urushi paytida Usmonli imperiyasi qulashi bilan Britaniya Falastinni egalladi. 1917 yilda Britaniya Falastinda yahudiy vatanini barpo etish niyatini bildirgan "Balfur deklaratsiyasi" ni chiqardi. Arab davlatlari noroziligiga qaramay, Balfur deklaratsiyasi 1922 yilda Millatlar Ligasi tomonidan ruxsat etilgan Falastin ustidan Buyuk Britaniyaning mandatiga kiritilgan edi. Arablarning Falastinda har qanday yahudiy davlatini barpo etishiga qarshiligi tufayli Britaniya hukmronligi 1920 -yillar davomida davom etdi. va 30 -yillar.

1929 yildan boshlab arablar va yahudiylar Falastinda ochiq jang qilishdi va Britaniya arablarni tinchlantirish vositasi sifatida yahudiy immigratsiyasini cheklashga urindi. Evropada sodir bo'lgan Xolokost natijasida, Ikkinchi Jahon urushi paytida ko'plab yahudiylar noqonuniy ravishda Falastinga kirgan. Yahudiy guruhlari Falastindagi Britaniya kuchlariga qarshi terrorizm ishlatdilar, ular sionistik ishlarga xiyonat qilgan deb o'ylashdi. Ikkinchi jahon urushi oxirida, 1945 yilda Qo'shma Shtatlar sionistik ishlarni o'z zimmasiga oldi. Amaliy yechim topa olmagan Britaniya bu muammoni Birlashgan Millatlar Tashkilotiga topshirdi, u 1947 yil noyabrda Falastinni bo'linishiga ovoz berdi.

Yahudiylar Falastinning yarmidan ko'pini egallashi kerak edi, garchi ular Falastin aholisining yarmidan kamini tashkil qilsa. Boshqa mamlakatlardan kelgan ko'ngillilar yordamidagi Falastin arablari sionistik kuchlarga qarshi kurashdilar, lekin 1948 yil 14-mayga qadar yahudiylar BMT tomonidan ajratilgan Falastindagi ulushini, shuningdek, ba'zi arab hududlarini to'liq nazorat qilishdi. 14 may kuni Buyuk Britaniya o'z vakolat muddati tugashi bilan chekindi va Isroil davlati e'lon qilindi. Ertasi kuni Misr, Transjordaniya, Suriya, Livan va Iroqdan kuchlar bostirib kirdi.

Isroilliklar, yaxshi jihozlanmagan bo'lsalar -da, arablarga qarshi kurashishga muvaffaq bo'lishdi, so'ngra Jalila, Falastin sohillari va qirg'oq mintaqasini Quddusning g'arbiy qismi bilan bog'laydigan hududlar chizig'ini egallab olishdi. 1949 yilda Birlashgan Millatlar Tashkilotining vositachiligida o't ochishni to'xtatish Isroil davlatini bosib olingan bu hududni doimiy nazoratida qoldirdi. Urush paytida yuz minglab falastinlik arablarning Isroildan ketishi mamlakatni yahudiylarning ko'pchiligida qoldirdi.

Uchinchi arab-isroil mojarosi paytida-1967 yilgi olti kunlik urushda Isroil yana Iordaniya, Misr va Suriyadan Quddusning Eski shahri, Sinay yarimoroli, G'azo sektori, G'arbiy Sohil va Golan tepaliklari. 1979 yilda Isroil va Misr tarixiy tinchlik bitimini imzoladilar, unda Isroil Sinayni Misrni tan olish va tinchlik evaziga qaytaradi. Isroil va Falastin Ozodlik Tashkiloti 1993 yilda G'arbiy Sohil va G'azo sohilida Falastin o'zini o'zi boshqarishni bosqichma-bosqich amalga oshirishni ko'zda tutuvchi yirik tinchlik bitimini imzoladi. Biroq, Isroil-Falastin tinchlik jarayoni asta-sekinlik bilan o'tdi va 21-chi davrda Isroil va Falastin o'rtasida Isroil va bosib olingan hududlarda katta janglar boshlandi.


Nima uchun birinchi navbatda Isroil davlati e'lon qilinganligini unutmaylik

Isroil XAMASdan boshdan kechirgan zo'ravonlik paytida, nima uchun birinchi navbatda Isroil tashkil etilganini eslash muhim. Bu eslatma bo'lishi mumkin yoki hatto odamlarga birinchi marta nima uchun biz eng buyuk ittifoqchilarimizdan biri borligini va o'zini himoya qilish huquqini qo'llab -quvvatlayotganini tushuntirishi mumkin. Isroil, shuningdek, Yaqin Sharqdagi yagona demokratiya bo'lib, u erda eng yuqori turmush darajasiga ega va jahon reytingidagi boshqa ko'plab yutuqlarga ega. Bunga uning COVID -ni pasaytirishdagi muvaffaqiyatlari va emlashlar kiradi.

Isroil davlati bundan 73 yil oldin, 1948 yil 14 mayda e'lon qilingan. Vatanga bo'lgan da'volar Bibliya davridan beri mavjud. Prezident Garri Truman o'sha kuni uning mavjudligini tan oldi. Milliy arxiv ba'zi asl hujjatlarni taqdim etadi, masalan, Davlat kotibi Jorj Marshallning Londondagi elchi Duglasga yuborgan telegrammasi, biz Isroilni tan olganimiz haqidagi de -fakto tan olish haqidagi press -reliz va de -yure tan olinishi haqidagi press -reliz. 1949 yil 31 yanvar.

Yahudiy virtual kutubxonasi Mitchell Bard, Amerika-Isroil kooperativ korxonasining loyihasi, quyidagicha tushuntiradi:

Yahudiy xalqi Isroil eriga bo'lgan da'vosini kamida to'rtta binoga asoslaydi: 1) Xudo bu erni Ibrohimga patriarxga va'da qiladi 2) Yahudiylar bu erni joylashtiradilar va rivojlantiradilar 3) xalqaro hamjamiyat Falastindagi yahudiylarga siyosiy suverenitetni beradi. odamlar va 4) hudud mudofaa urushlarida bosib olindi.

.

Isroilning "tug'ilganlik to'g'risidagi guvohnomasi" Joshua davridan boshlab, 1917 yildagi Balfur deklaratsiyasidan so'ng, Birlashgan Millatlar Tashkilotining 1947 yildagi Balfur deklaratsiyasini o'z ichiga olgan Balfur deklaratsiyasidan so'ng, Muqaddas Kitobning yahudiylarning uzluksiz joylashuvi haqidagi va'dasi bilan tasdiqlangan. 1949 yilda Birlashgan Millatlar Tashkilotiga boshqa davlatlar tomonidan Isroilni tan olish va eng muhimi, Isroil xalqi o'nlab yillar mobaynida rivojlangan, dinamik milliy mavjudlik.

1948 yilda, aniqrog'i bir necha yil oldin nima bo'lganini eslashga arziydi. Bu e'lon Xolokostdan keyin sodir bo'lgan, bu davrda kamida olti million yahudiy natsistlar tomonidan o'ldirilgan.

Bu ta'qiblarning eng dahshatli shaklidan so'ng, yahudiy xalqi o'z uyiga qo'ng'iroq qiladigan joyga muhtoj edi, u erda ular tarix davomida turli xil ta'qiblar va ko'chishlardan ozod bo'lishlari kerak edi.

Sionizm haqida ko'p gapirish mumkin, va yahudiy kutubxonasi juda keng qamrovli manba. Sionizm ta'rifini o'rganadigan sahifada:

& LdquoZionizm & rdquo atamasi 1890 yilda Natan Birnbaum tomonidan kiritilgan.

Uning umumiy ta'rifi yahudiy xalqining o'z vataniga qaytishi va Isroil erida yahudiylarning suverenitetini tiklash uchun milliy harakatni bildiradi.

1948 yilda Isroil davlati tashkil etilganidan beri sionizm Isroil mudofaa kuchlarini qo'llab -quvvatlash orqali Isroil davlatini rivojlantirish va Isroildagi yahudiy millatini himoya qilish harakatini o'z ichiga oldi.

Sionizm vujudga kelgandan boshlab, aniq va ma'naviy maqsadlarni himoya qildi. Yahudiylar har qanday fikrda - chap, o'ng, diniy va dunyoviy - sionistik harakatni tuzdilar va uning maqsadlari yo'lida birgalikda harakat qildilar.

Falsafadagi kelishmovchiliklar yillar davomida sionistik harakatda uzilishlarga olib keldi va bir qancha alohida shakllar paydo bo'ldi. Ayniqsa: siyosiy sionizm diniy sionizm sotsialistik sionizm va hududiy sionizm.

Zamonaviy davlatga olib kelgan narsa nafaqat yahudiy xalqining tarixi, balki Usmonli imperiyasi, Britaniya mustamlakachiligi, Falastinning erga da'vosi va Birlashgan Millatlar tarixi haqida bo'lishi kerak.

ADL ma'lumotlariga ko'ra & quot; Isroil davlatini yaratish & quot;

Birinchi jahon urushida Usmonli imperiyasi mag'lubiyatga uchraganidan so'ng, inglizlar Falastin ustidan nazoratni qo'lga olishdi. 1917 yil noyabr oyida Britaniya hukumati Balfur deklaratsiyasini e'lon qilib, Falastinda yahudiy xalqining milliy uyini qurishga ko'maklashish niyatini e'lon qildi. , yahudiylarning vatanini o'rnatishni, yahudiylarning immigratsiyasini osonlashtirishni va bu erga yahudiylarning joylashishini rag'batlantirishni talab qiladigan qoidalar.

Arablar yahudiylarning Falastinga immigratsiyasiga qarshi edilar va yahudiylarga qarshi hujumlarini kuchaytirdilar. Arablar hujumlari ko'payganidan so'ng, inglizlar 1936 yilda Falastindagi vaziyatni o'rganish uchun qirollik komissiyasini tayinladilar. Peel komissiyasi mamlakatni arablar va yahudiylar o'rtasida bo'lishni tavsiya qildi. Arablar bu fikrni rad etishdi, yahudiylar bo'linish tamoyilini qabul qilishdi.

Ikkinchi Jahon urushi oxirida inglizlar immigratsion cheklovlarni davom ettirdilar va Xolokostdan omon qolgan yahudiylar zo'ravonlik bilan Falastin qirg'oqlaridan chetlashtirildi. Yahudiy agentligi va Xaganah yahudiylarni Falastinga olib kirishda davom etishdi. Yahudiylarning er osti hujayralari, xususan Irgun va Lehi, inglizlarga va ularning inshootlariga qarshi ochiq urush olib bordilar.

Inglizlar endi Falastinni boshqara olmaydi degan xulosaga kelishdi va masalani Birlashgan Millatlar Tashkilotiga topshirishdi. 1947 yil 29 -noyabrda, ko'p munozaralar va munozaralardan so'ng, BMT Falastinni ikkita davlatga bo'lishni tavsiya qildi va uyatchan bir yahudiy va bitta arab. Yahudiylar BMT rezolyutsiyasini, arablar esa rad etishdi.

Shu bilan birga, Britaniya mandati davridan beri Falastindagi yahudiylar jamiyati Falastindagi kundalik hayotni boshqaradigan, davlatdan oldingi infratuzilma vazifasini bajaradigan siyosiy, ijtimoiy va iqtisodiy institutlarni shakllantirgan edi. Sionistlar lideri Devid Ben-Gurion (1886-1973) davlatgacha bo'lgan hukumat boshlig'i bo'lib ishlagan.

Britaniyaning Falastin ustidan mandati 1948 yil 14-may, yarim tunda rasman to'xtatildi. Shu kuni, 16:00 da, Devid Ben-Gurion Isroil davlati tashkil etilganini e'lon qildi va uning birinchi bosh vaziri bo'ldi. Britaniyada sionizmning uzoq vaqtdan beri himoyachisi Xaim Veyzman (1874-1952) Isroilning birinchi prezidenti bo'ldi. 15 may kuni Qo'shma Shtatlar Isroil davlatini tan oldi va tez orada Sovet Ittifoqi ham xuddi shunday yo'l tutdi.

Birlashgan Millatlar Tashkiloti haqida gapirganda, ba'zilar Hamasni terrorchi tashkilot emas deb da'vo qilishlari mumkin, chunki BMT buni aytmaydi, AQSh Davlat Departamenti buni 1997 yil 8 oktyabrda qilgan. BMT ham o'nlab yillar davomida Isroilga qarshi tarafkashlik qilgan. shu jumladan, ayniqsa Inson huquqlari kengashi.

Bayden ma'muriyati a'zolari va prezident Jo Baydenning o'zi Isroilni qo'llab -quvvatlayotganini bir necha bor tasdiqlagan. Ular, shuningdek, demokratik hamkasblarini, xususan, "Squad" a'zolarini chaqira olmadilar. Falastinliklar bunga kim rozi bo'lmaydi va ular boshidan beri bunga rozi emaslar.

O'n yillar o'tib, odamlar hozir ham o'z platformalaridan antisemitizm va isroilga qarshi his-tuyg'ularni ifoda etish uchun foydalanmoqdalar. Eng yomon va ohangsiz misollardan biri bu siyosiy multfilm, Isroil askarini fashist askariga qiyoslaydi.

Daily Mail bugun xabar berganidek, BBC muxbiri Tala Halava, uning tvitterida "Ramallah - Falastinda joylashgan" deb yozgan, o'z tvitida Gitlerni maqtagan:

Etti yil oldin '#HitlerWasRight ' tvitida yozgan BBC jurnalisti post ochilganidan keyin tergovni boshladi.

Tala Halava "Isroil Gitlerdan ko'ra ko'proq natsist" deb da'vo qilgan va 2014 yil 20 -iyuldagi Internet -xabarida Isroil mudofaa kuchlariga "BBCga raqamli muxbir bo'lishidan oldin" do'zaxga kirishni buyurgan.

Halawa, uning Twitter tarjimai holida uni Falastinning Ramallah shahrida joylashgani aniqlangan, u twitda '#HitlerWasRight ' bilan birga PrayForGaza ' xeshtegini ishlatgan.

Ehtimol, bugun siz eshitadigan eng dahshatli narsa shundaki, u o'z tvitlari va LinkedIn profilini qulflab qo'ygan, ikkinchisi uni "Palestin hokimiyati" deb ta'riflagan.

Halol hisobot ijtimoiy tarmoqlardagi Halawa postlari haqida ko'proq ma'lumotga ega, shu jumladan, "septitsizmga qarshi melodrama endi trendga kirmaydi, siz ahmoq #sionistlar #Jersualem #poytaxt #Falastin."

GnasherJew, shuningdek, Halawa haqida ko'p yozgan.

Mana @TalaHalawadan yana bir qancha antisemitizm, bu safar fitna nazariyasi. Demak, bu alohida holat emas. pic.twitter.com/K1j2wdYFQ3

& mdash (((GnasherJew & reg. #AmYisraelChai))) (@GnasherJew) 2021 yil 23 may

& Ldquothey & rdquo har lahzada Xolokost qilganlikda ayblansa, & ldquothey & rdquo har lahzada bu haqda yig'laydilar. Qiziq, bu erda & ldquothey & rdquo kim? U, shuningdek, & ldquoZionistlar & rdquo qonni to'ydira olmaydigan qon tuhmatini qo'yadi. Shuningdek, ommaviy axborot vositalari & ldquoZionists & rdquo tomonidan nazorat qilinadi. Bu erda bingo bormi? pic.twitter.com/XloamCp4Df

& mdash Maykl Elgort. ?? (@just_wh хамаагүй) 2021 yil 23 may

Bu jirkanch. Ularni vakili bo'lgan o'z ldquojurnalistlari va rdquo -larni tekshirmang yoki kuzatmang.

& mdash Roxane Exogamy-ist (@brigadam) 2021 yil 23 may

Antisemitizm ritorikadan ko'ra ko'proq. Keti xabar berishicha, yahudiylarga AQShda Falastin fraktsiyalari ochiq ko'chalarda hujum qilmoqda.


1. Yangi Isroil davlati

1897 yilda Teodor Herzel sionistik harakatning maqsadi - "yahudiy xalqi uchun Falastinda ochiq qonunlar bilan uy qurish" haqida e'lon qilganida, bu amalga oshirish qanchalik dramatik bo'lishini juda kam odam tushungan. Yahudiylar asrlar davomida qadimgi yurtlarida qayta tiklanishlarini orzu qilganlar. Endi bu intilish harakatga aylandi. Kamdan -kam xalqlar, millatni tiklash umidiga asos sifatida boy merosni ko'rsatishi mumkin.

Eski Ahdda Isroil tarixi

Isroil tarixi o'ttiz besh yuz yildan ko'proq vaqt oldin, Ibtido kitobining birinchi boblariga binoan, ilohiy chaqiruv Ibrohimga o'zining qadimiy Ur yurtidan chiqib, Xudo ko'rsatadigan erga borishi bilan boshlangan. Biroz vaqt o'tgach, Ibrohim nihoyat erga kirdi va o'sha erda va'da qilingan o'g'li Ishoq tug'ildi.

Garchi Xudo mo''jizaviy tarzda Is'hoqdagi o'g'il haqidagi va'dasini bajo keltirgan bo'lsa -da, Ibrohim o'zi va'da qilingan erga hech qachon egalik qilmagan, balki ziyoratchi va musofir sifatida yashagan. Yer yuzidagi boyliklarga boy bo'lgan Ibrohim umrida vatan haqidagi umidini hech qachon bajarmagan. Uning o'g'li Ishoq ham xuddi shunday taqdirni bo'lishgan. Is'hoqning o'g'li Yoqub davrida Isroil xalqi va'da qilingan erdan butunlay voz kechdi va Yusufning taklifiga binoan ular Misrda o'z uylarini qurdilar, u erda yuz yillar yashadilar. Misrda dushman podshoh ularning mavjudligiga tahdid solganidan keyingina, Isroil erni egallab oladigan kun keldi. Muso tayinlangan etakchi etib, ular har qanday xalq tomonidan amalga oshirilgan eng katta migratsiyani boshladilar. Qirq yil sahroda kezib yurganlaridan so'ng, ular nihoyat Misrdan Ibrohimga va'da qilingan erga haj qilishdi.

Yoshua kitobida Falastinning bosib olinishi va uning qisman bosib olinishi qayd etilgan. Ammo Isroil xalqi avlodlarga zulm va axloqiy tanazzulga mahkum bo'lgan. Vaqti -vaqti bilan ular G'ayriyahudiylar tomonidan zulmga uchrab, vaqti -vaqti bilan Xudo ko'targan sudyalar boshchiligida ruhiy va siyosiy tiklanish davrlari bo'lgan. Hukmdorlar davrini tavsiflovchi siyosiy anarxiya Shoul boshlagan shohlar hukmronligining o'rnini egalladi va Dovud va Sulaymon davridagi shohliklarning shon -shuhrati va siyosiy qudrati bilan davom etdi. Sulaymon davrida Isroil o'zining eng yuksak obro'siga, boyligiga va ulug'vorligiga erishdi va Xudo Ibrohimga va'da qilgan erlarning ko'p qismi vaqtincha Sulaymon hukmronligi ostida qoldi.

Shunga qaramay, axloqiy buzilish ichkaridan hujum qildi. Sulaymon boshqa millatlarga uylanish to'g'risidagi qonunni e'tiborsiz qoldirgani uchun, uning ko'p xotinlari butparast bo'lib, Xudoga ishonmas edilar. Shuning uchun uning bolalari butparast onalar tomonidan tarbiyalangan va ular Isroil Xudosiga emas, butlarga sig'inishga o'rgatilgan. Xudoning Isroilga bergan hukmi Yahudo va Isroilning bo'linib ketgan shohliklarida namoyon bo'ldi. Isroil Qirolligini tashkil etish uchun birlashgan o'nta qabilalar Xudodan butunlay dindan qaytdilar va butlarga sig'inish milliy dinga aylandi. Miloddan avvalgi 721 yilda o'n qabilani ossuriyaliklar asirlikka olib ketishdi. Yahudo shohligi, shu jumladan Benyamin va Yahudo qabilalari, yana bir asrdan ko'proq davom etdi, ular ham Bobil asiriga tushguncha. Bir avlod uchun Isroil erini Ibrohim avlodlari rad etishgan.

"Ezra" kitobida Isroilning asirliklarga ergashgani qayd etilgan. Ermiyoga berilgan asirlik faqat etmish yil davom etadi (Eremiyo 29:10) va'dasiga binoan, Zerubbabel boshchiligidagi Isroil bolalarining birinchi ekspeditsiyasi o'z vatanlariga sayohatini boshladi. Ezra kitobida ularning erni tiklash va ma'badni qurishdagi ilk qadamlari yozilgan. Nehemya devorlarni qurish va Quddus shahrining tiklanishi bilan rasmni to'ldiradi. Yana bir bor Isroil o'z qadimiy yurtida bo'lib, xalq sifatida qayta tiklandi.

O'shandan beri Isroil tarixi jiddiy muammolardan xoli emas edi. Birinchidan, Aleksandr Makedonskiy davrida Makedoniya jangchilari Falastinni bosib olishdi. Keyin ular Salavkiy monarxlari hukmronligiga bo'ysundilar va keyinchalik suriyaliklar nazoratiga o'tdilar. Isroil tarixining qayg'uli boblaridan biri miloddan avvalgi 167 yilda sodir bo'lgan Makkabe qo'zg'oloni edi. va bu Isroil xalqining qattiq ta'qibiga olib keldi. Miloddan avvalgi 63 yilda Pompey Rim nazoratini o'rnatdi va shu vaqtdan boshlab Isroilning vatani bo'lgan Falastin erlari asrlar davomida Rim nazorati ostida edi. Bu davrda Iso Masih Baytlahmda tug'ilgan. Masih er yuzida bo'lganida, Isroil Rimning poshnasi ostida edi va Masihning O'zi Rim hokimiyati asosida xochga yuborilgan.

Masihdan beri Isroil tarixi

Isroilning keyingi tarixi eng baxtsiz edi. A.9 da. 70, Rim generali Tit Quddusni va uning go'zal ma'badini vayron qilishni buyurdi va chorak million yahudiy halok bo'ldi. Qolgan yahudiylar isyon ko'tarishda davom etishdi va nihoyat A.9. Yahudiyani vayron qilish to'g'risida buyruq berildi. Mingga yaqin shahar va qishloqlar kulga aylandi va ellikta qal'a yer bilan yakson qilindi. Isroil xalqi, qolgan bir nechta tarqoq oilalardan tashqari, to'rt shamolga tarqaldi.

Milodiy 135 -yildan to hozirgi zamongacha Isroil xalqi butun dunyo bo'ylab o'z uylarini qurdi. VIII asrda Abbosiy arablari Isroilning qadimiy erlarini egallab olishdi. Qisqa muddat davomida Falastinda salibchilar salohiyati faqat 1187 yilda mag'lubiyatga uchradi. Usmonli turklari 1517 yilda hokimiyatni qo'lga kiritdilar va Birinchi jahon urushida Turkiya mag'lub bo'lgunga qadar Falastin erlari Usmonli imperiyasining bir qismi bo'lib qoldi. 1917 yilda general Allenbi tomonidan Falastin va Britaniyaning Falastinni bosib olishi Isroil tarixida keskin burilish nuqtasi bo'ldi.

Isroilning erga qaytishi

Falastin ustidan nazorat turklardan tortib olinishidan oldin, sionistik harakat allaqachon boshlangan edi. 1871 yildayoq yahudiylar o'zlarini kichik yo'llar bilan qayta tiklashga harakat qilishdi, lekin butun hududda bitta yahudiy qishlog'i yo'q edi va faqat biluvchilar ibroniy tilini bilar edi. 1881 yilda zamonaviy sionistik ko'chirish jiddiy boshlandi. O'sha paytda butun hududda atigi 25000 yahudiy yashagan. "Bazel dasturi" da aytilgan sionistik g'oya 1897 yilda Teodor Gertsl tomonidan chaqirilgan birinchi sionistlar qurultoyida qabul qilingan. Uning e'lon qilingan maqsadi Falastin erini yahudiylarning uyi sifatida qaytarib olish edi. Birinchi jahon urushi boshlanishi bilan yahudiylar soni 80 mingga etdi.

Birinchi jahon urushi paytida Britaniya tashqi ishlar vaziri Artur J. Balfur 1917 yil 2 -noyabrda Balfur deklaratsiyasini o'rnatganida sionistik harakatga turtki berildi va u shunday dedi: “Aliy hazratlari hukumati Falastinda milliy uy qurish tarafdori. yahudiy xalqi ... "Bu bayonot, yahudiylar tomonidan ma'qul kelsa -da, arablar qarshiligiga uchradi va unchalik natija bermadi. Bu orada Millatlar Ligasi tomonidan berilgan Buyuk Britaniyaning mandati kuchga kirdi, lekin inglizlarning arab xalqlari bilan do'stlikni saqlab qolish istagi tufayli Isroil uchun vatan qurishda hech qanday yutuqqa yo'l qo'yilmadi.

1939 yilda, Ikkinchi Jahon Urushining boshida, Britaniya hukumati oq qog'ozni chop etdi, unda Falastinda mustaqil arab davlatini tuzish shartlari ko'rsatilgan edi. Bu vaqtga kelib, mamlakatda 400 ming yahudiy bor edi. Biroq, yahudiylarning immigratsiyasiga cheklovlar qattiq edi va kelajakda immigratsiya arablarning roziligiga bo'ysunadi. Erning ozgina qismi yahudiylarga sotilishi mumkin edi.

Ikkinchi Jahon urushi paytida, olti million yahudiy fashistlar hukmronligi ostida qirilgani tufayli Isroil xalqiga bo'lgan butun dunyo hamdardligi tufayli Isroil o'z vataniga ega bo'lishi kerak, degan fikr keng tarqaldi. o'zlari. Yahudiylarning yanada kengayishiga qarshi 1945 yilda arablar ligasi tuzildi. Ikkinchi Jahon Urushidan keyin Britaniya hukumati Falastinni Birlashgan Millatlar Tashkilotiga topshirdi va bu tashkilot rahbarligida yahudiy va arab davlatiga bo'linib, Falastinning bo'linishi tavsiya qilindi. 1948 yilga kelib yahudiylar soni 650 ming kishiga yetdi.

Yangi Isroil davlatining tashkil topishi

1948 yil 14 mayda inglizlar nazoratni tortib olgach, Isroil o'zini Birlashgan Millatlar tashkil qilgan chegaralar ichida mustaqil davlat deb e'lon qildi. Ammo kun o'tmasdan Isroilga Misr, Iordaniya, Iroq, Suriya, Livan va Saudiya Arabistoni hujum qildi va ochiq urush boshlandi. Garchi ikkala tomon ham og'ir azob chekishsa -da, bir qator sulhlar boshlandi. Birinchisi 11 -iyun kuni bo'lib o'tdi va 17 -iyulda yakuniy sulh bilan yakunlangan jangovar harakatlar yangilandi. 1949 -yil 7 -yanvarda umumiy sulh tuzildi, bunda Isroilga harbiy harakatlar paytida himoyalangan qo'shimcha erlarni saqlab qolishga ruxsat berildi. Isroilning o'zi Birlashgan Millatlar Tashkilotiga qabul qilindi. Keyingi yillarda doimiy tinchlikka erishish uchun ko'plab qiyinchiliklar uchun etarli echim topilmadi. Arab xalqlari Isroilni tan olishdan bosh tortdilar va uning yashash huquqidan voz kechdilar. Isroil qochqinlar muammosiga haqiqiy bo'lmagan yondashuvni qabul qildi, bu esa ochiq yara bo'lib qoldi.

1949 yildan beri Isroil xalqi tez qadam tashladi va shu kungacha mustahkam o'rnashgan. Dushmanlar qurshovida bo'lishiga qaramay, Isroil yuqori qurol -yarog 'va samarali harbiy tashkilot xavfsizligida. Miloddan avvalgi 70-yildan buyon birinchi marta Isroil mustaqil va o'zini-o'zi ta'minlab, siyosiy davlat sifatida e'tirof etilishi muhim faktdir.

Isroilning qadimiy diyoriga tiklanishi va siyosiy hukumat sifatida o'rnatilishi jahon tarixida deyarli tengsiz. Ko'p asrlar davomida tarqoq bo'lgan qadimgi xalq hech qachon o'z qadimiy yurtiga qaytib, yangi Isroil davlati guvohi bo'lgan muvaffaqiyat va tez taraqqiyot bilan qayta tiklana olmagan.

Isroilning siyosiy va harbiy o'sishi

Isroil tan olingan siyosiy davlat ekanligi alohida ahamiyatga ega. 1948 yil 14 -maydagi asl deklaratsiyasida demokratik parlamentli respublika shaklida tartibli hukumat tuzish nazarda tutilgan. Isroilning asosiy qonun chiqaruvchi organi - knesset, ibroniycha "yig'ilish" degan ma'noni anglatadi. To'shak Isroilning kapitoli bo'lgan Quddusda uchrashadi va shu maqsadda moslashtirilgan kvartallarni vaqtincha egallaydi. Hukumat markazi sotsialistik harakat asoschisi dafn etilgan Gertsl tog'iga qaragan balandlikda rejalashtirilgan. Kesset qonunlarni qabul qilish va o'zgartirish huquqiga ega va hukumat o'z lavozimiga kirishidan oldin uni tasdiqlash zarur. Yangi hukumat tuzilishi kerak, chunki knesset mavjud hukumatga ishonch bildirmaydi. Uning 120 a'zosidan ko'pchiligi yahudiy millatiga mansub, lekin bir nechta arablar ham bor.

Isroil konstitutsiyasida yigirma bir yoshdan oshgan har bir fuqaro saylanishi mumkin, va o'n sakkiz yoshdan oshgan har bir fuqaro, jinsi, irqi va dinidan qat'i nazar, knesset a'zolari uchun ovoz berish huquqiga ega. Huquqiy masalalarning aksariyati fuqarolik sudlari tomonidan uchta asosiy toifaga bo'lingan bo'lsa -da, magistratura sudlari, tuman sudlari va oliy sud - hal qilinsa ham, nikoh, ajralish borasida tegishli fuqarolarning diniga mos keladigan bir qator maxsus sudlar tashkil etilgan. , va shunga o'xshash masalalar. Shunday qilib, yahudiy ravvinlik sudlariga, musulmonlar musulmonlar sudiga va xristianlar nasroniy sudiga murojaat qilinadi. Barcha diniy sudlar Din vazirligi nazorati ostida. Isroil ichki hukumati ozchiliklar guruhlariga katta erkinlik beradi va bu tadbirkor xalqning o'sishi uchun to'g'ri huquqiy asos yaratadi.

Isroil taraqqiyotining muhim omillaridan biri uning yuqori samarali armiyasi edi. Isroil davlatining dastlabki kunlarida, ular har tomondan dushmanlar tomonidan hujumga uchraganda, katta qiyinchiliklar ostida, qahramonlik sa'y -harakatlari bilan, o'zi haqida yaxshi ma'lumot bera oldi va Isroilning maydonini taxminan ellik foizga kengaytirdi. natijada paydo bo'lgan jangovar harakatlarda. Armiya ibroniy tilida Tsahal deb nomlanadi, bu Isroilda mudofaa armiyasining bosh harflarini ifodalaydi, bu ibroniy tilida Tseva Xagana Leyrosel nomi bilan tanilgan. Uning tarkibiga quruqlikda, dengizda va havoda jang qilish uchun jihozlangan kuchlar kiradi. Armiya Evropa va Amerikadan kelgan tajribali ofitserlar tomonidan o'qitilgan va bir qancha harbiy akademiyalar va kadrlar kolleji tashkil etilgan.

Armiya korpusi zaxiralar bilan to'ldirilgan ko'ngillilardan iborat. O'n sakkiz yoshga to'lgan erkaklar ikki yarim yil xizmat qilishadi. Ular qirq besh yoshgacha xizmatga haqli. Yolg'iz ayollarga ham ikki yillik ta'lim beriladi. Chegara hududlarida zaxirachilar joylashtiriladigan va Isroil dunyodagi har qanday millatning eng tezkor safarbarlik tizimiga ega bo'lgan tizim ishlab chiqilgan. Armiyaning rivojlanishi bilan bir qatorda, qurol sanoati yaratildi, bu Isroilga nafaqat o'z kuchlarini etkazib berishga, balki har xil turdagi qurollarni, shu jumladan, bugungi kunda eng yaxshi avtomatik qurollarni eksport qilishga imkon berdi.

Isroil 1949 yil sulhidan beri tinchlik o'rnatgan va 1956 yil oktyabr oyida boshlangan janglarda G'azo sektorini bosib olishga muvaffaq bo'lgan. Isroil armiyasi kichik xalqni bosib olishi mumkin edi. Shu sababli, bugungi kunda Isroil xalqi yuqori ishonch holatida va hushyorlikda.

Qishloq xo'jaligi va sanoatning rivojlanishi

Ehtimol, Isroilni qayta tiklashning eng hayratlanarli tomoni - asrlar davomida Isroil hozir egallab turgan hududni tavsiflab bergan, eroziyaga uchragan erlar va isrof qilingan resurslarni tezda o'zlashtirish. Isroilga kelishdan oldin birinchi navbatda Suriya va Iordaniyaga tashrif buyurgan sayohatchilar dramatik farq bilan darhol taassurot qoldiradilar. Hamma joyda Isroilda hayratlanarli taraqqiyot dalillari bor.

Isroilni qiynab qo'ygan birinchi muammolardan biri toshlar bilan to'lib toshgan va o'simliklarga qaraganda umidsiz bo'lgan erlarni qaytarib olish edi. Qishloq xo'jaligi haqida kam ma'lumotga ega bo'lgan muhojirlarning zo'r mehnatlari tufayli, er tozalanib, teraslangan va ishlov berildi. Isroilda, atrofdagi mamlakatlarda bo'lgani kabi, suv tanqisligi asosiy muammo hisoblanadi. Katta loyihalar nafaqat mamlakatning shimoliy qismini, balki Isroil hududining asosiy qismini tashkil etuvchi janubiy cho'l Negivni melioratsiya qilish uchun ham sug'orish uchun suv ta'minladi.

Isroil bo'ylab sayohatchilar bir necha yil oldin umidsiz ravishda eroziyaga uchragan erlardagi ekin maydonlari bilan tanishadilar. 1961 yilga kelib, sakson million daraxt ekildi va davom etayotgan dastur oxir -oqibat suvni tejash va yog'och bilan ta'minlashga katta hissa qo'shadi. Apelsin daraxtlari mo'l -ko'l ekilgan, shuningdek boshqa tsitrus mevalari va apelsinlar yangi xalqning asosiy eksportiga aylangan. Paxta, shakarqamish, uzum, yeryong'oq va sisal kabi ekinlar asosiy ishlab chiqarishga aylandi, bundan bir necha yil oldin tuxum yaqindan ratsionlangan edi. 1961 yilga kelib Isroil kuniga deyarli bir million tuxum eksport qilardi.

Arab xalqlari bilan suv borligi to'g'risida tinchlik bitimlari tuzilmasligi, o'z imkoniyatlaridan unumli foydalangani bilan, Isroil ulkan sug'orish tizimini qurmoqda, Yarkon va Iordaniyadan suv tortib, uni janubga jo'natmoqda. Negivga. Minglab gektar erlar unumdorligi tiklanmoqda va hisob -kitoblarga ko'ra, qaytarilgan erlar keyingi o'n yil ichida yana bir million muhojirga ruxsat beradi. Nafaqat cho'l erlari qaytarib olindi, balki ajoyib yutuqlardan biri - Esdraelon vodiysining botqoqliklarini quritib yuborish, chivinlar tahdidini yo'q qilish va bu keng maydonni ekin maydonlariga qaytarish edi. butun Isroilning eng unumdor hududlari.

Qishloq xo'jaligi va erlarning meliorativ holatidagi yutuqlar sanoatning tashkil etilishi bilan bir darajada mos keldi. To'qimachilik endi Isroil ishlab chiqarishining muhim qismiga aylandi. Bu maqsadda olib kelingan olmoslarni kesish, harbiy qurol va qurol ishlab chiqarish, O'lik dengizning o'lchovsiz kimyoviy boyligidan foydalanish Isroil iqtisodiyotining asosiy omillaridir. Ba'zi neft va gaz allaqachon topilgan. Boshida Isroilni qiynayotgan muammolar birma -bir hal qilinmoqda.

Rivojlanayotgan iqtisodiyot, shuningdek, ajoyib yangi shaharlar qurilishiga zamin yaratdi. The new city of Jerusalem, the capitol of Israel, has been beautifully constructed of stone with lovely streets and parks and by 1961 had attained a population of 160,000. Tel Aviv, the largest of the cities in Israel, has a population nearing 400,000, and offers every convenience of a modern city. Next to Tel Aviv is Haifa, with a population of 175,000. The growth of the cities has kept up with the growth in population which has almost tripled since 1948, reaching over two million in 1960.

Educational System And Revival Of Biblical Hebrew

One of the impressive sights in Israel is the spectacular rise of its educational system. Not only are new elementary schools built throughout the country to take care of the expanding population, but the Hebrew university with an enrollment in 1959-60 of seven thousand is one of the finest in the Middle East. In addition the Israel Institute of Technology has some twenty-five hundred students with training in various aspects of modern science. In the entire educational system Biblical Hebrew is used as the spoken and written language and has restored this ancient language to popular usage in Israel. New terms are being coined to meet modern situations. The revival of Hebrew inevitably ties the people of Israel to their ancient Scriptures in a way that otherwise would have been impossible.

The revival of Hebrew has also paved the way for a renewal of Biblical studies. Unlike American universities which neglect the Bible, the Old Testament is taught in public schools, including the universities, and is considered essential to any true education. Some four hundred study groups have been formed by the Israel Bible Study Association with a membership approaching twenty thousand. The reading of the Old Testament is popular, though often attended by little theological discernment. Even the New Testament is read as religious literature, though not considered on a par with the Old Testament by orthodox Jews. To some extent the new interest in the Bible has created an increased interest in the Jewish religion as such.

Religious Life Of Israel

It is to be expected with the rebirth of the nation and its renewed interest in the Bible that attendance at the synagogue has taken on new life in Israel. Visitors normally will find the synagogue crowded, though meeting in new and spacious buildings. It soon becomes evident, however, that the religious life of Israel is to some extent one of outer form. The religious exercises are devoted primarily to revival of their traditions, their reassurance of the general providence of God, and the application to some extent of moral standards. For Israel their religion is one of works rather than of faith, and their redemption is to be achieved by their own efforts.

The religious life of Israel is directed by some 430 rabbis who actively carry on their duties. It is to these leaders that Israel turns for direction. As a result of the revival of Judaism, the Sabbath is strictly enforced and everyone observes it, even those who never attend the synagogue. The religious life of Israel is largely in the hands of the orthodox, though the majority of ordinary Jews in Israel do not necessarily follow their leaders. The revival of interest, therefore, in the Jewish faith and the religious activities which characterize it, to some extent is an expression of patriotism and enthusiasm for the progress of the state rather than for theological or spiritual reasons. Nevertheless, the movement is a phenomenon without parallel in the modern history of Israel and is doing much to revive their ancient faith. The land of Israel which historically has been the cradle of Judaism, Christianity, and the Moslem faith is once again witnessing a revival of that which held sway for centuries.

Political And Prophetic Significance Of The New State Of Israel

The significance of the new state of Israel is bound up with the growing importance of the Middle East in international affairs. The land of Israel is located geographically in the hub of three major continents. Because of this strategic location, it is involved in the economic life of the world. Any major nation seeking to dominate the world would need to conquer this portion. Its military value is also obvious, for the Middle East is not only a channel of world commerce but is the gateway to the immense reserves in oil and chemicals found in that portion of the world. It is inevitable that any future world conflict would engulf this portion of the world as a primary objective. It is especially significant that from a Biblical standpoint the Middle East remains a center of interest. World events which are yet to unfold will find this area also its major theater. It is for this reason that students of the Bible, whether Jews or Christians, find the development of the new state of Israel one of the most important and significant events of the twentieth century.

The repossession of a portion of their ancient land by the new state of Israel is especially striking because of the promise given by God to Abraham of perpetual title to the land between Egypt and the Euphrates. As recorded in Genesis 15:18 the covenant of God with Abraham included the promise: “Unto thy seed have I given this land, from the river of Egypt unto the great river, the river Euphrates.” This promise was subsequently repeated in Genesis 17:8 in these words: “And I will give unto thee, and to thy seed after thee, the land of thy sojournings, all the land of Canaan, for an everlasting possession and I will be their God.” Consideration will be given to these passages in later discussion, but their mention at this time demonstrates the great significance of the reoccupation of this area by the new state of Israel.

In the subsequent history of Israel neither Abraham nor his immediate posterity were able to possess the land and, as stated earlier, only at the time of the Exodus was the land ever actually possessed. Of great importance are the Scriptures which describe the dispersion of Israel in the captivities of Babylon and Assyria and the later scattering of Israel resulting from the persecution of the Romans. This will be followed by Israel’s ultimate regathering. A study of some of the great promises relating to this future restoration of Israel to the land will be examined in detail later. The revival of Israel after these many centuries of dispersion introduces the major questions relating to the fulfillment of God’s promise to Abraham and whether the creation of the new state of Israel is indeed a confirmation of Israel’s continuance as a nation.

The return of Israel and the organization of the new state of Israel is especially significant in the light of prophecies to be examined concerning Israel’s future time of trouble when Israel is pictured in the land, as for instance in Matthew 24:15-26. The predictions of the grand climax of the nation’s history, given in Daniel 9:26, 27, when Israel is described as making a covenant with the future world ruler, is of special importance in the light of their renewed presence in their ancient land. Of the many peculiar phenomena which characterize the present generation, few events can claim equal significance as far as Biblical prophecy is concerned with that of the return of Israel to their land. It constitutes a preparation for the end of the age, the setting for the coming of the Lord for His church, and the fulfillment of Israel’s prophetic destiny.


State of Israel proclaimed, Seinfeld airs final episode: Today in history (photos)

Today is Saturday, May 14, the 135th day of 2016. There are 231 days left in the year.

Today's Highlight in History:

On May 14, 1948, according to the current-era calendar, the independent state of Israel was proclaimed in Tel Aviv.

In 1643, Louis XIV became King of France at age four upon the death of his father, Louis XIII.

In 1796, English physician Edward Jenner inoculated 8-year-old James Phipps against smallpox by using cowpox matter.

In 1804, the Lewis and Clark expedition to explore the Louisiana Territory as well as the Pacific Northwest left camp near present-day Hartford, Illinois.

In 1900, the Olympic games opened in Paris as part of the 1900 World's Fair.

In 1925, the Virginia Woolf novel "Mrs Dalloway" was first published in England and the United States.

In 1936, British Field Marshal Edmund Allenby, 1st Viscount Allenby, died in London at age 75.

In 1940, the Netherlands surrendered to invading German forces during World War II.

In 1955, representatives from eight Communist bloc countries, including the Soviet Union, signed the Warsaw Pact in Poland. (The Pact was dissolved in 1991.)

In 1961, Freedom Riders were attacked by violent mobs in Anniston and Birmingham, Alabama.

In 1973, the United States launched Skylab 1, its first manned space station. (Skylab 1 remained in orbit for six years before burning up during re-entry in 1979.) The National Right to Life Committee was incorporated.

In 1988, 27 people, mostly teens, were killed when their church bus collided with a pickup truck going the wrong direction on a highway near Carrollton, Kentucky. (Truck driver Larry Mahoney served 9 1/2 years in prison for manslaughter.)

In 1998, singer-actor Frank Sinatra died at a Los Angeles hospital at age 82. The hit sitcom "Seinfeld" aired its final episode after nine years on NBC.

Ten years ago: Mexico's President Vicente (vih-SEN'-tay) Fox telephoned President George W. Bush to express concern about what he called the possibility of a "militarized" U.S.-Mexican border, a day before Bush's planned Oval Office speech on immigration. Rene Preval (reh-NAY' preh-VAHL') was sworn in as Haiti's president for the second time in a decade. Former U.S. poet laureate Stanley Kunitz died in New York at age 100. Aras Baskauskas (AH'-rahs bush-KOW'-kis), a 24-year-old yoga instructor from Santa Monica, California, won "Survivor: Panama, Exile Island," the 12th edition of the CBS reality show.

Five years ago: At New York's John F. Kennedy International Airport, Dominique Strauss-Kahn, head of the International Monetary Fund and potential candidate for president of France, was removed from a Paris-bound plane and charged with sexually assaulting a Manhattan hotel maid, Nafissatou Diallo (na-fee-SAH'-too dee-AH'-loh). (Strauss-Kahn later resigned the charges against him were eventually dropped.)

One year ago: President Barack Obama, at a Camp David summit, assured Arab allies they were safe from the threat of an empowered Iran, pledging an "ironclad commitment" to the Sunni governments of the Persian Gulf. B.B. King, 89, the "King of the Blues," died in Las Vegas. Award-winning poet Franz Wright, 62, died in Waltham, Massachusetts.

Today's Birthdays: Opera singer Patrice Munsel is 91. Photo-realist artist Richard Estes is 84. Actress Sian Phillips is 83. Former Sen. Byron Dorgan, D-N.D., is 74. Movie producer George Lucas is 72. Actress Meg Foster is 68. Movie director Robert Zemeckis is 65. Rock singer David Byrne is 64. Actor Tim Roth is 55. Rock singer Ian Astbury (The Cult) is 54. Rock musician C.C. (aka Cecil) DeVille is 54. Actor Danny Huston is 54. Rock musician Mike Inez (Alice In Chains) is 50. Fabrice Morvan (ex-Milli Vanilli) is 50. Rhythm-and-blues singer Raphael Saadiq is 50. Actress Cate Blanchett is 47. Singer Danny Wood (New Kids on the Block) is 47. Movie writer-director Sofia Coppola (KOH'-pah-lah) is 45. Actor Gabriel Mann is 44. Singer Natalie Appleton (All Saints) is 43. Singer Shanice is 43. Actress Carla Jimenez is 42. Rock musician Henry Garza (Los Lonely Boys) is 38. Alt-country musician-singer Ketch Secor is 38. Rock singer-musician Dan Auerbach is 37. Rock musician Mike Retondo (Plain White T's) is 35. Actress Lina Esco is 34. Actress Amber Tamblyn is 33. Facebook co-founder Mark Zuckerberg is 32. Actress Miranda Cosgrove is 23.

Thought for Bugun: "Silence cannot hide anything -- which is more than you can say for words." -- From the play "The Ghost Sonata" by Swedish author-playwright August Strindberg (born 1849, died this date in 1912).


Jewish Homeland: Conflict

•Later during World War I in 1917, the Zionists convinced the British to issue the Balfour Declaration that would facilitate Britain to establish a ‘Jewish Homeland’ in Palestine. After succeeding in getting the endorsement of declaration from the League of Nations, the British got the mandate of Palestine.

•The local Arabs however, resented a Jewish state. With the fall of the Ottomans, Arabs saw this as an opportunity to revive the old Arab empire. The British government failed to bring the Zionists and Arabs on the same page and thus began the Arab Revolt of 1936-39.

•In 1920, the Haganah came into being as a branch of the Jewish Agency, the organization that played a huge role in bringing Jews to Israel.

•The 1930s witnessed the Great Depression and the Jews fleeing Nazi-dominated Europe during World War II. The British government, therefore, proposed the partition of Palestine into Jewish and Arab states, which was rejected by the Arabs. Hence, the British in 1939 restricted the movement of Jewish to gain the support of Arab against Italy and Germany.

•In Britain, the then Prime Minister Clement Attlee in lieu of the growing violence between Jews and Arabs in Palestine decided to terminate the British Mandate over Palestine. But with the termination came the pressure by the Zionists and significantly from then-President Harry Truman in the US.

•Truman asked Attlee to allow the remnant of Jews in Germany to come to Palestine while the Arabs opposed the immigration. Amidst the growing tension, the British turned towards the newly formed United Nations (UN).


Creation of the State of Israel

Following the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in World War I, the British assumed control of Palestine. In November 1917, the British government issued the Balfour Declaration, announcing its intention to facilitate the "establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people." In 1922, the League of Nations granted Britain a mandate over Palestine which included, among other things, provisions calling for the establishment of a Jewish homeland, facilitating Jewish immigration and encouraging Jewish settlement on the land.

The Arabs were opposed to Jewish immigration to Palestine and stepped up their attacks against the Jews. Following an increase in Arab attacks, the British appointed a royal commission in 1936 to investigate the Palestine situation. The Peel Commission recommended the partition of the country between Arabs and Jews. The Arabs rejected the idea while the Jews accepted the principle of partition.

At the end of World War II, the British persisted in their immigration restrictions and Jewish survivors of the Holocaust were violently turned away from the shores of Palestine. The Jewish Agency and the Haganah continued to smuggle Jews into Palestine. Underground cells of Jews, most notably the Irgun and Lehi, engaged in open warfare against the British and their installations.

The British concluded that they could no longer manage Palestine and handed the issue over to the United Nations. On November 29, 1947, after much debate and discussion, the UN recommended the partition of Palestine into two states ­ one Jewish and one Arab. The Jews accepted the UN resolution while the Arabs rejected it.

Meanwhile, since the time of the British Mandate, the Jewish community in Palestine had been forming political, social and economic institutions that governed daily life in Palestine and served as a pre-state infrastructure. Zionist leader David Ben-Gurion (1886-1973) served as head of the pre-state government.

The British mandate over Palestine officially terminated at midnight, May 14, 1948. Earlier in the day, at 4:00 p.m., David Ben-Gurion proclaimed the creation of the State of Israel and became its first prime minister. Longtime advocate of Zionism in Britain Chaim Weizmann (1874-1952) became Israel's first president. On May 15, the United States recognized the State of Israel and the Soviet Union soon followed suit.

The fledgling State of Israel was faced with many challenges. While fighting a war of survival with the Arab states who immediately invaded the new nation, Israel had to also absorb the shiploads of immigrants coming in daily to the Jewish homeland. Many were penniless refugees from Europe broken in body and in spirit. They needed immediate health and social services in addition to acculturation to their new home.


On This Day in History: State of Israel Proclaimed

On May 14, 1948, in Tel Aviv, Jewish Agency Chairman David Ben-Gurion proclaimed the State of Israel, establishing the first Jewish state in 2,000 years.

In an afternoon ceremony at the Tel Aviv Art Museum, Ben-Gurion pronounced the words “We hereby proclaim the establishment of the Jewish state in Palestine, to be called Israel,” prompting applause and tears from the crowd gathered at the museum. Ben-Gurion became Israel’s first premier.

In the distance, the rumble of guns could be heard from fighting that broke out between Jews and Arabs immediately following the British army withdrawal earlier that day. Egypt launched an air assault against Israel that evening.

The next day, forces from Egypt, Transjordan, Syria, Lebanon, and Iraq invaded.

The Israelis, though less well equipped, managed to fight off the Arabs and then seize key territory, such as Galilee, the Palestinian coast, and a strip of territory connecting the coastal region to the western section of Jerusalem. In 1949, U.N.-brokered cease-fires left the State of Israel in permanent control of this conquered territory.

During the third Arab-Israeli conflict–the Six-Day War of 1967–Israel again greatly increased its borders, capturing from Jordan, Egypt, and Syria the Old City of Jerusalem, the Sinai Peninsula, the Gaza Strip, the West Bank, and the Golan Heights.

In 1979, Israel and Egypt signed an historic peace agreement in which Israel returned the Sinai in exchange for Egyptian recognition and peace. Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) signed a major peace accord in 1993, which envisioned the gradual implementation of Palestinian self-government in the West Bank and Gaza Strip.


'IT WAS IRAN': Israel Says TEHRAN Behind Gaza Mortar Barrage

Israeli officials publicly blamed Iran for the recent mortar attack on southern Israel Wednesday, saying Tehran was the “culprit” behind the barrage that included 180 Iranian-manufactured shells.

According to the Jerusalem Post, IDF Spokesperson Ronen Manelis confirmed the mortar shells were produced inside the Islamic Republic and smuggled into the region by Hamas and Islamic Jihad.

“Despite Israel’s intelligence superiority over terror groups, as well a blockade imposed both by the IDF and Egypt, Hamas and other terror groups in the Strip have restocked their supply of weapons in the four years since the last round of fighting between Israel and Hamas,” writes the Post.

“The mass-produced Iranian mortar shells used in Tuesday’s salvos were also used by Islamic Jihad in an attack in January and in a barrage 12 mortar shells fired toward an army outpost in November,” adds the author.

The revelation raises new questions over Iran’s influence in the region as the United States urges western allies and other nations to help clampdown on Tehran’s nuclear program.


May 14, 1948 | Israel Declares Independence

Rudi Weissenstein/Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs David Ben-Gurion, the first Prime Minister of Israel, pronounces the Declaration of the State of Israel at the Tel Aviv Museum of Art on May 14, 1948. Above him is a portrait of Theodor Herzl, the father of modern political Zionism.
Historic Headlines

Learn about key events in history and their connections to today.

On May 14, 1948, the independent state of Israel was proclaimed as British rule in Palestine came to an end.

The May 15 New York Times reported, “The declaration of the new state by David Ben-Gurion, chairman of the National Council and the first Premier of reborn Israel, was delivered during a simple and solemn ceremony at 4 p.m., and new life was instilled into his people, but from without there was the rumbling of guns, a flashback to other declarations of independence that had not been easily achieved.”

After World War II and the Holocaust, in which six million European Jews were killed, the United Nations moved to partition Palestine into Arab and Jewish sections. The United Nations adopted the partition plan in November 1947. This plan outraged Arabs, and sparked a civil war in Palestine. The Palestinian Arabs had greater numbers, but the Israelis were better armed and organized, and were able to overcome the Arabs. During this time, hundreds of thousands of Palestinian Arabs chose to or were forced to evacuate their homes.

The violence caused the United States to withdraw its support for partition. However, when Israel declared its independence, the United States immediately recognized the new state. The Times wrote, “In one of the most hopeful periods of their troubled history the Jewish people here gave a sigh of relief and took a new hold on life when they learned that the greatest national power had accepted them into the international fraternity.”

The armies of Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria invaded almost immediately after the May 14 declaration of nationhood and the withdrawal of British troops, sparking the Arab-Israeli War. Israeli forces defeated the coalition by the end of the year and, via 1949 armistice agreements, Israel expanded its borders beyond those established by the original United Nations partition plan. In 1967, after the Six-Day War, the country took effective control of the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula from Egypt, the West Bank and East Jerusalem from Jordan, and the Golan Heights from Syria.

The political borders of Israel have continued to change over the course of its statehood due to military and diplomatic developments. Today, the country borders Lebanon in the north, Syria in the northeast, Jordan and the West Bank in the east, the Gaza Strip and Egypt in the southwest.

Connect to Today:

In a report on Israel’s 64th independence celebration in April 2012, Ethan Bronner wrote in The Times: “The paradox that is Israel — wealthy, dynamic and safe, yet mistrusted, condemned and nervous — was on full display … Commentators on the left and the right stuck to their scripts, with the left asserting that the country’s treatment of the Palestinians and its regional saber rattling have made it isolated and stagnant, and the right glorifying Israel’s accomplishments: high-tech innovations, long life expectancies and democracy.”

In an interview, President Shimon Peres praised the strength of the military for the nation’s creation and survival, but also “warned about Israel’s direction, saying that without peace with the Palestinians, its economic prowess and future would be imperiled.”

President Peres’s remarks may have been a reference to the government’s decision to retroactively legalize settlements in the West Bank, a move that drew international condemnation as the country began its Independence Day celebrations.

What do you think it will take to achieve lasting peace in Israel? Nima uchun? In general, what recourse or resolutions do you think there should be for countries in which different “nations,” or groups of people who share a common identity, are unable to agree on the terms of the “state,” or defined political territory?


Soils

The coastal plain is covered mainly by alluvial soils. Parts of the arid northern Negev, where soil development would not be expected, have windblown loess soils because of proximity to the coastal plain. The soils of Galilee change from calcareous rock in the coastal plain, to Cenomanian and Turonian limestone (deposited from about 99 to 89 million years ago) in Upper Galilee, and to Eocene formations (those dating from about 55 to 35 million years ago) in the lower part of the region. Rock salt and gypsum are abundant in the Great Rift Valley. The southern Negev is mainly sandstone rock with veins of granite.


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